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Functional sex differences and signal forms have coevolved with conflict

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 August 2019

D. Vaughn Becker
Human Systems Engineering Program, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212.
Shelli L. Dubbs
Department of Psychology, Benedictine University, Mesa, AZ 85201.


Evolutionary theory makes further predictions about conflict. It predicts sex differences in the proclivity to attack and defend. It further suggests complementary biases in what we expect of the sexes. Finally, it suggests that the forms of human facial expressions of anger and happiness may have coevolved with the regularity of conflict as a means of signaling, bluffing, and defusing attack.

Open Peer Commentary
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

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