Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-888d5979f-jgqf9 Total loading time: 0.692 Render date: 2021-10-26T07:14:55.634Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Artifactual intelligence

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 February 2010

J. Gregor Fetterman
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Ariz. 85287
Peter R. Killeen
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Ariz. 85287

Abstract

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Open Peer Commentary
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1987

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abrams, T. W. (1985) Activity-dependent presynaptic facilitation: An associative mechanism in Aplysia. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 5:123–45. [IK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alkon, D. L. (1984) Calcium-mediated reduction of ionic currents: A biophysical memory trace. Science 226:1037–45. [IK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Allman, J. (1982) Reconstructing the evolution of the brain in primates through the use of comparative neurophysiologica! and neuroanatomical data. In: Primate brain evolutions, ed. Armstrong, E. & Falk, D.. Plenum. [PSG-R]Google Scholar
Anderson, J. R. (1985) Cognitive psychology and its implications(2nd ed.). Freeman. [IF]Google Scholar
Anderson, R. E. (1987) The influence of cognitive ethology on the study of human cognition. Paper presented at the Third International Conference on Thinking, Honolulu, Hawaii. [REA]Google Scholar
Aronson, L. R., Tobach, E, Rosenblatt, J. S. & Lehrman, D. S., eds. (1972) Selected toritings of T. C. Schneirla. W. H. Freeman. [GG]Google Scholar
Bachelder, B. L. & Denny, M. R. (1977) A theory of intelligence: I. Span and the complexity of stimulus control. Intelligence 1:127–50. [JGB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barlow, H. B. (1983) Intelligence, guesswork, language. Nature 304:207–9. [aEMM, HBB, RKT]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barlow, H. B.(1986) Cerebral cortex as model builder. In: Models of the visual cortex, ed. Rose, D. & Dobson, V.Wiley. [HBB]Google Scholar
Barlow, H. B. & Reeves, B. C. (1979) The versatility and absolute efficiency of detecting mirror symmetry in random dot displays. Vision Research 19:783–93. [HBB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bastian, J. (1967) The transmission of arbitrary environmental information between bottlenose dolphins. In: Animal sonar systems, vol. 2, ed. Busnel, R. G.. Laboratoire de Physiologie Acoustique. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Beach, F. A. (1950) The snark was a boojum. American Psychologist 5:115–24. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bickerton, D. (1987) A two-stage model of the human language faculty. In: Psylogeny, ontogeny and human development, ed. Strauss, S.Ablex. [DB]Google Scholar
Bickerton, D.(in press) Language and species. Chicago University Press. [DB]Google Scholar
Bindra, D. (1976) A theory of intelligent behavior. Wiley. [IF]Google Scholar
Bitterman, M. E. (1960) Toward a comparative psychology of learning. American Psychologist 15:702–12. [MEB, MRP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bitterman, M. E.(1965a) Phyletic differences in learning. American Psychologist 20:396410. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bitterman, M. E.(1965b) The evolution of intelligence.Scientific American 212:92100. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bitterman, M. E.(1975) The comparative analysis of learning. Science 188:699709. [arEMM, MEB, NJM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bitterman, M. E.(1976) Incentive contrast in honey bees. Science 192:699709. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bitterman, M. E.(1984a) Learning in man and other animals. In: Perspectives in psychological experimentation: Towards the year 2000, ed. Sams, V. & Parducci, A.. Erlbaum. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Bitterman, M. E.(1984b) Migration and learning in fishes. In: Mechanisms of migration in fishes, ed. McLeave, J. D., Arnold, C. P., Dodson, J. J. & Neill, W. H.. Plenum. [arEMM, MEB, NJM]Google Scholar
Boakes, R. A. (1984) From Darwin to behaviourism: Psychology and the minds of animals. Cambridge University Press. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Boakes, R. A. & Gaertner, I. (1977) The development of a simple form of discrimination. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 29:561–75. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bolles, R. & Petrinovich, L. (1956) Body weight changes and behavioral attributes. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 49:177–80. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bond, A. B., Cook, R. G. & Lamb, M. R. (1981) Spatial memory and the performance of rats and pigeons in the radial-arm maze. Animal Learning and Behavior 9:575–80. [aEMM, TDJ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borkowski, J. G. (1985) Signs of intelligence: Strategy generalization and metacognition. In: The growth of reflection in children, ed. Yussen, S.Academic Press. [JGB]Google Scholar
Borkowski, J. G. & Turner, L. (in press) Cognitive development. In: Mental retardation: Research accomplishments and new frontiers, ed. Kavanaugh, J.. University Park Press. [JGB]Google Scholar
Bowe, C. A. (1984) Spatial relations in animal learning and behavior. Psychological Record 34:181209. [JGF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braud, W. G. (1971) Effectiveness of “netural,” habituated, shock-related, and food-related stimuli as CSs for avoidance learning in goldfish. Conditional Reflex 6:153–56. [rEMM]Google Scholar
Breuning, S. E. & Wolach, A. H. (1977) Successive negative contrast effects with goldfish (Carassius auratus). Psychological Record 27:565–75. [aEMM, MEB, NJM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breuning, S. E.(1979) Successive negative contrast effects for activity-conditioned goldfish (Carassius auratus) as a function of housing conditions. Psychological Record 29:245–54. [aEMM, MEB, NJM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bullock, T. H. (1986) Suggestions for research on ethological and comparative cognition. In: Dolphin cognition and behavior: A comparative approach, ed. Schusterman, R. J., Thomas, J. A. & Wood, F. G.. Erlbaum. [aEMM, RKT]Google Scholar
Burt, C. (1966) The genetic determination of differences in intelligence: A study of monozygotic twins reared together and apart. British Journal of Psychology 57:137–53. [JDD]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byrne, J. H. (1987) Cellular analysis of associative learning. Physiological Reviews 67:329439. [IK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byrne, R. & Whiten, A., eds. (in press) Social expertise and the evolution of intellect. Oxford University Press. [AJ]Google Scholar
Carroll, L. (1871) Alice through the looking glass. Macmillan. [JDD]Google Scholar
Chen, J.-S., Gross, K. & Amsel, A. (1981) Ontogeny of successive negative contrast and its dissociation from other paradoxical reward effects in preweanling rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 95:146–59. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chomsky, N. (1972) Language and mind, enlarged ed. Brace, HarcourtJovanovich. [arEMM]Google Scholar
Chomsky, N.(1980) Rules and representation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:161. [DB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, M. & Scribner, S. (1974) Culture and thought. Wiley. [CTN]Google Scholar
Cook, D. G. & Carew, T. J. (1986) Operant conditioning of head waving in Aplysia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A. 83:1120–24. [IK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Couvillon, P. A. (1984) Performance of goldfish in patterned sequences of rewarded and nonrewarded trials. Journal of Comparative Psychology 98:333–44. [NJM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Couvillon, P. A. & Bitterman, M. E. (1985) Effect of experience with a preferred food on consummatory responding for a less preferred food in goldfish. Animal Learning and Behavior 13:433–38. [aEMM, MEB, NJM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cowles, J. T. & Nissen, H. W. (1937) Reward-expectancy in delayed responses of chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative Psychology 24:345–58. [MEB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craik, K. J. W. (1943) The nature of explanation. Cambridge University Press. [HBB, SK]Google Scholar
Crespi, L. P. (1942) Quantitative variation of incentive and performance in the white rat. American Journal of Psychology 55:467517. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
D'Amato, , Salmon, M. R., P., D. & Colombo, M. (1985) Extent and limits of the matching concept in monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 11:3551. [NJM]Google Scholar
D'Amato, M. R., Salmon, D. P., Loukas, E. & Tomie, A. (1986) Processing of identity and conditional relations in monkeys (Cebus apella) and pigeons (Columba livia). Animal Learning and Behavior 14:365–73. [NJM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Darwin, C. (1866) On the origin of species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life, 4th ed.John Murray. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Delius, J. D. (1987) Kognitionen bei Tieren. In: Bericht 35. Kongreb Deutsche Ceselkchaft fur Psychologic 1986, vol. 2, ed. Amelang, M.. Gottingen: Hogrefe. [JDD]Google Scholar
Delius, J. D. & Hollard, V. D. (1987) Orientation invariance of shape recognition in forebrain lesioned pigeons. Behavioural Brain Research 23:251–59. [JDD]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dewsbury, D. A. (1978) Comparative animal behavior. McGraw Hill. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dewsbury, D. A.(1984) Comparative psychology in the twentieth century. Hutchinson Ross. [DAD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dickinson, A. (1980) Contemporary animal learning theory. Cambridge University Press. [aEMM, HBB]Google Scholar
Domjan, M. (1983) Biological constraints on instrumental and classical conditioning: Implications for general process theory. In: The psychology of learning and motivation, vol. 17, ed. Bower, G. H.. Academic Press. [aEMM, DFS, SJS]Google Scholar
Domjan, M. & Galef, B. G. (1983) Biological constraints on instrumental and classical conditioning: Retrospect and prospect. Animal Learning O Behavior 11:151–61. [DAD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dudai, Y. & Zvi, S. (1984) Adenylate cyclase in the Drosophila memory mutant rutabaga displays an altered Ca2+ sensitivity. Neuroscience Letters 47:119–24. [IK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ellen, P., Soteres, B. J. & Wages, C. (1984) Problem-solving in the rat: Piecemeal acquisition of cognitive maps. Animal Learning and Behavior 12:232–37. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emlen, S. T. (1970) Celestial rotation: Its importance in the development of migratory orientation. Science 170:11981201. [DFS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Emlen, S. T.(1972) The ontogenetic development of orientation capabilities. In: Animal orientation and navigation, ed. Caller, S. R., Schmidt-Koenig, K., Jacobs, G. J. & Belleville, R. F.. NASA. [DAD]Google Scholar
Emmerton, J. (1986) The pigeon's discrimination of movement patterns (Lissajous figures) and contour-dependent rotational invariance. Perception 15:573–88. [JDD]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Epstein, R., Kirschnit, C. E., Lanza, R. P. & Rubin, L. C. (1984) ‘Insight’ in the pigeon: Antecedents and determinants of an intelligent performance. Nature 308:6162. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Epstein, R., Lanza, R. P. & Skinner, B. F. (1980) Symbolic communication between two pigeons (Columbia livia). Science 207:543–45. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Epstein, R.(1981) “Self-awareness” in the pigeon. Science 212:695–96. [aEMM.EWM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eysenck, H. J. (1979) The structure and measurement of intelligence. Springer. [HJE]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fagan, J. (in press) Assessment of infant well-being. In: Mental retardation: Research accomplishments and new frontiers, ed. Kavanaugh, J.. University Park Press. [JGB]Google Scholar
Fantino, E. & Abarca, N. (1985) Choice, optimal foraging, and the delayreduction hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:315–30. [EF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fantino, E. & Logan, C. (1979) The experimental analysis of behavior: A biological perspective. W. H. Freeman. [EF]Google Scholar
Feibleman, J. K. (1954) Theory of integrative levels. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 5:5966. [GG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, R. A. (1925) Statistical methods for research workers. Oliver and Boyd. [HBB]Google Scholar
Flaherty, C. F. (1982) Incentive contrast: A review of behavioral changes following shifts in reward. Animal Learning and Behavior 10:409–40. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flaherty, C. F., Riley, E. P. & Spear, N. E. (1973) Effects of sucrose concentration and goal units on runway behavior in the rat. Learning and Motivation 4:163–75. [rEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fodor, J. A. (1983) The modularity of mind. MIT Press. [HLR]Google Scholar
Fodor, J. A.(1985) Precis of The modularity of mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:124. [JGF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fragaszy, D. M. (1981) Comparative performance in discrimination learning tasks in two new world primates (Saimiri sciureus and Callicebus moloch). Animal Learning and Behavior 9:127–34. [AJ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freedman, R. & Oscar-Berman, M. (1986) (Bilateral frontal lobe disease and selective delayed-response deficits in humans. Behavioral Neuroscience 100:337–42. [PSG-R]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friesel, M. (in preparation) Ein “gleich/verschieden” Konzept bei Tauben. Ph.D. Thesis, Ruhr University, Bochum. [JDD]Google Scholar
Galef, B. G. (1984) Reciprocal heuristics: A discussion of the relationship of the study of learned behavior in laboratory and field. Learning and Motivation 15:479–93. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallistel, C. R. (1980) The organization of action. Erlbaum. [HLR]Google Scholar
Gallup, G. G. (1970) Chimpanzees: Self-recognition. Science 167:8687. [aEMM, EWM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallup, G. G.(1982) Self-awareness and the emergence of mind in primates. American Journal of Primatobgy 2:237–48. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garcia, J. & Holder, M. D. (1985) Time, space and value. Human Neurobiology 4:8189. [DAD]Google ScholarPubMed
Gardner, R. A. & Gardner, B. T. (1969) Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee. Science 165:664–72. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardner, R. A.(1978) Comparative psychology and language acquisition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 309:3776. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garnham, A. (1985) Psycholingulstics: Central topics. Methuen. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Gelman, R. & Baillargeon, R. (1983) A review of some Piagetian concepts. In: Handbook of child psychology: Cognitive development (vol. 3, 4th ed.), ed. Mussen, P. H., Flavell, J. & Markman, E.. Wiley. [RJS]Google Scholar
Gibson, J. J. (1979) The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin. [JGF]Google Scholar
Gillian, D. J. (1981) Reasoning in the chimpanzee: II. Transitive inference. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Animal Behavior Processes 7:150–64. [JDD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glass, A. L. & Holyoak, K. J. (1986) Cognition (2nd ed.). Random House. [IF]Google Scholar
Goldman, P. S. & Rosvold, H. E. (1970) Localization of the function within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the rhesus monkey. Experimental Neurology 27:291304. [PSG-R]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1987) Circuitry of the prefrontal cortex and the regulation of behavior by representational knowledge. In: Handbook of Physiology, vol. 5, ed. Plum, F. & Mountcastle, V.. American Physiological Society. [PSG-R]Google Scholar
Gollin, E. S. (1984) Developmental malfunctions: Issues and problems. In: Malformations of development: Biological and psychological sources and consequences, ed. Gollin, E. S.. Academic Press. [CTN]Google Scholar
Gonzalez, R. C, Berger, B. D. & Bitterman, M. E. (1966) A further comparison of key-pecking with an ingestive technique for the study of discriminative learning in pigeons. American Journal of Psychology 79:217–25. [rEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonzalez, R. C. & Bitterman, M. E. (1969) Spaced-trials partial reinforcement effect as a function of contrast. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 67:94103. [aEMM, MEB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonzalez, R. C, Ferry, M. & Powers, A. S. (1974) The adjustment of goldfish to reduction in magnitude of reward in massed trials. Animal Learning and Behavior 2:2326. [rEMM, MEB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonzalez, R. C, Potts, A., Pitcoff, K. & Bitterman, M. E. (1972) Runway performance of goldfish as a function of complete and incomplete reduction in amount of reward. Psychonomic Science 27:305–7. [MEB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonzalez, R. C. & Powers, A. S. (1973) Simultaneous contrast in goldfish. Animal Learning and Behavior 1:9698. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodall, J. (1986) The chimpanzees of Combe. Harvard University Press. [AJ]Google Scholar
Gottlieb, G. (1984) Evolutionary trends and evolutionary origins: Relevance to theory in comparative psychology. Psxchological Review 91:448–56. [aEMM, GG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gould, J. L. (1985) How bees remember flower shapes. Science 227:1492–94. [DRG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gould, J. L.(1986) The locale map of honey bees: Do insects have cognitive maps? Science 232:861–63. [DRC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gould, J. L.(1987) Landmark learning by honey bees. Animal Behaviour 35:2634. [DRG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenberg, G. (in press) Levels of social behavior. In: Evolution of social behavior and integrative levels, ed. Tobach, E. & Greenberg, G.. Erlbaum. [GG]Google Scholar
Gregory, R. L. (1969) On how so little information controls so much behavior. In: Towards a theoretical biology: Two sketches, ed. Waddington, D. H.. Edinburgh University Press. [SK]Google Scholar
Hasler, A. D. & Scholz, A. T. (1983) Olfactory imprinting and homing in salmon. Springer-Verlag. [DFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, R. D., W, Abrams. T.Carew, T. J. & Kandel, E. R. (1983) A cellular mechanism of classical conditioning in Aplysia: Activitydependent amplification of presynaptic facilitation. Science 219:400405. [IK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, R. D., Carew, T. J. & Kandel, E. R. (1986) Effects of interstimulus interval and contingency on classical conditioning of the Aplysia siphon withdrawal reflex. Journal of Neuroscience 6:16951701. [IK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawkins, R. D., Clark, G. & Kandel, E. R. (1987) Cell biological studies of learning in simple vertebrate and invertebrate systems. In: Handbook of physiology. Neurophysiology. Section I: The nervous system, vol. 5. Higher functions of the brain, ed. Plum, F.. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, Md. [IK]Google Scholar
Hebb, D. O. (1949) The organization of behavior. Wiley. [SK]Google Scholar
Hebb, D. O.(1980) Essay on mind. Erlbaum. [SK]Google Scholar
Hebb, D. O. & Thompson, W. R. (1968) The social significance of animal studies. In: Handbook of social psychology, ed. Lindzey, G.. Addison-Wesley. [SK]Google Scholar
Herman, L. M., Richards, D. G. & Wolz, J. P. (1984) Comprehension of sentences by bottlenosed dolphins. Cognition 16:129219. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hermann, T., Bahr, E., Bremmer, B. & Ellen, P. (1982) Problem solving in the rat: Stay versus shift solutions on the three-table task. Animal Learning and Behavior 10:3945. [HLR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrick, C. J. (1924) Neurological foundations of animal behavior. H. Holt. [HBB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hinde, R. A. (1970) Animal behaviour (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill. [GG]Google Scholar
Hodos, W. (1982) Some perspectives on the evolution of intelligence and the brain. In: Animal mind - human mind, ed. Griffin, D. R.. Springer-Verlag. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Hodos, W. & Campbell, C. B. G. (1969) Scala naturae: Why there is notheory in comparative psychology. Psychological Review 76:337–50. [aEMM, GG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hollard, V. D. & Delius, J. D. (1982) Rotational invariance in visual pattern recognition by pigeons and humans. Science 218:804–6. [JDD]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holmes, P. W. (1979) Transfer of matching performance in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 31:103–14. [NJM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horn, G. (1985) Memory, imprinting, and the brain. Clarendon Press. [DFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1945) The place of innate individual and species differences in a natural-science theory of behavior. Psychological Review 52:5560. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hulse, S. H. Jr. (1958) Amount and percentage of reinforcement and duration of goal confinement in conditioning and extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56:4857. [MEB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Humphreys, L. G. (1971) Theory of intelligence. In: Intelligence: Genetic and environmental influences, ed. Cancro, Robert. Grune and Stratton. [LGH]Google Scholar
Humphreys, L. G.(1985) General inelligence: An integration of factor, test, and simplex theory. In: Handbook of intelligence: Theories, measurement, and applications, ed. Wolman, B. B.. Wiley. [LGH]Google Scholar
Hunter, W. S. (1913) The delayed reaction in animals and children. Psychological Bulletin 10:6869. [JWK]Google Scholar
Jaeobsen, C. F. (1936) Studies of cerebral function in primates. Comparative Psychology Monographs 13:168. [PSG-R]Google Scholar
Jensen, A. R. (1981) Reaction time and intelligence. In: Intelligence and learning, ed. Friedman, M. P., Das, J. P. & O'Connor, N.. Plenum. [JGB]Google Scholar
Jensen, A. R.(in press) Intelligence as a fact of nature. Zeitschrift fur Pedagogische Psychologic [JGB]Google Scholar
Jerison, H. (1982) The evolution of biological intelligence. In: Handbook of human intelligence, ed. Sternberg, R. J.. Cambridge University Press. [EWM]Google Scholar
Johnston, T. D. (1981) Contrasting approaches to a theory of learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:125–73. [JGF, TDJ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, T. D.(1985) Introduction: Conceptual issues in the ecological study of learning. In: Issues in the ecological study of learning, ed. Johnston, T. D. and Pietrewicz, A. T.. Erlbaum. [aEMM, TDJ]Google Scholar
Johnston, T. D. & Turvey, M. T. (1980) A sketch of an ecological metatheory for theories of learning. In: The psychology of learning and motivation, vol. 14, ed. Bower, G. H.. Academic Press. [TDJ]Google Scholar
Jolly, A. (1985) The evolution of primate behavior (2nd ed.). MacMillan. [IF]Google Scholar
Kaas, J. H. (1980) A comparative survey of visual cortex organization in mammals. In: Comparative neurology of the telencephalon, ed. Ebbesson, S. O. E.. Plenum. [PSG-R]Google Scholar
Kaas, J. H.(1987) The organization of neocortex in mammals: Implications for theories of brain function. Annual Review of Psychology 38:129–51. [PSG-R]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kahn, J. V. (1975) Relationship of Piaget's sensorimotor period to language acquisition of profoundly retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 79:640–43. [JGB]Google ScholarPubMed
Kaas, J. H.(1981) Cognition and language training with profoundly retarded children. Paper presented at the Sixth Biennial Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, Toronto. [JGB]Google Scholar
Kalat, J. W. (1983) Evolutionary thinking in the history of the comparative psychology of learning. Neurosdence Biobehavioral Reviews 7:309–14. [JWK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kalat, J. W.(1985) Taste-aversion learning in ecological perspective. In: Issues in the ecological study of learning, ed. Johnston, T. D. and Pietrewicz, A. T.. Erlbaum. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Kamin, L. J. (1974) The science and politics of IQ. Erlbaum. [aEMM, JDD, NJM]Google Scholar
Kamin, L. J.(1986) Is crime in the genes? The answer may depend on who chooses what evidence. (Review of Wilson, J. Q. & Hermstein, R. J., Crime and human nature.) Scientific American 254:1619. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Kaplan, S. & Kaplan, R. (1982) Cognition and environment: Functioning in uncertain world. Praeger.[SK]Google Scholar
Killeen, P. R. (1978) Superstition: A matter of bias not detectability. Science 199:8890. [JCF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, J. A. (1970) Ecological psychology: An approach to motivation. In: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, vol. 18, ed. Arnold, W. J. & Page, M. M.. University of Nebraska Press. [DAD]Google Scholar
Koehler, W. (1925) The mentality of apes. Routledge and Kegan Paul. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Konishi, M. (1985) Birdsong: From behavior to neuron. Annual Review of Neurosdence 8:125–70. [DFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kraemer, P. J., Gilbert, M. E. & Innis, N. K. (1983) The influence of cue type and configuration upon radial-maze performance in the rat. Animal Learning and Behavior 11:373–80. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kummer, H. & Goodall, J. (1985) Conditions of innovative behavior in primates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B308:203–14. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kupfermann, I. (1974) Feeding behavior in Aplysia: A simple system for the study of motivation. Behavioral Biology 10:126. [IK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lehrman, D. S. (1970) Semantic and conceptual issues in the nature-nuture problem. In: Development and evolution of behavior, ed. Aronson, L. R., Tobach, E., Lehrman, D. S. & Rosenblatt, J. S.. Freeman. [JGF]Google Scholar
Lewontin, R. (1983) Darwin's real revolution. New York Review of Books 30(10):2127. [EWM]Google Scholar
Lindauer, M. (1955) Schwarmbienen auf Wohnungssuche. Zeitschrift fur Vergleichende Physiologic 37:263324. [RM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Livingstone, M. S., Sziber, P. P. & Quinn, W. G. (1984) Loss of calcium/calmodulin sensitivity responsiveness in adenylate cyclase of rutabaga, a Drosophila learning mutant. Cell 37:205–15. [IK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lockard, R. B. (1971) Reflections on the fall of comparative psychology: Is there a message for us all? American Psychologist 26:168–79. [aEMM, GG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lohmann, A., Delius, J. D., Hollard, V. & Friesel, M. (in press) Discrimination of shape reflections and shape orientation by pigeons. Journal of Comparative Psychology. [JDD]Google Scholar
Lombardi, C. M. (in press) Shape oddity recognition by pigeons is independent of shape orientation. Revista Mexicana de Analisis de la Conducta. [JDD]Google Scholar
Lombardi, C. M., Delius, J. D. & Hollard, V. D. (1986) Conzeptualizacion de una relacion logica en palomas. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia 18:277–97. [JDD]Google Scholar
Lombardi, C. M., Fachinelli, C. C. & Delius, J. D. (1984) Oddity of visual patterns conceptualized by pigeons. Animal Learning ir Behavior 12:26. [RKT, JDD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Longo, N. & Bitterman, M. E. (1960) The effect of partial reinforcement with spaced trials on resistance to extinction in the fish. Journal of Comparative b Physiological Psychology 53:169–72. [MEB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowes, G. & Bitterman, M. E. (1967) Reward and learning in goldfish. Science 157:455–57. [aEMM, MEB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lynch, G., Larson, J., Kelso, S., Barrionuevo, G. & Schottler, F. (1983) Intracellular injections of EGTA block induction of hippocampal longterm potentiation. Nature(London) 305:719–21. [IK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. (1971) Reward and aftereffects of reward in the learning of goldfish. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 76:225–32. [rEMM, MEB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mackintosh, N. J.(1974) The psychology of animal learning. Academic Press. [rEMM, JGF]Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J.(1975) A theory of attention: Variations in the associability of stimuli with reinforcement. Psychological Review 82:276–98. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J.(1983) Conditioning and associative learning. Oxford University Press. [HBB]Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. & Lord, J. (1973) Simultaneous and successive contrast with delay of reward. Animal Learning and Behavior 1:283–86. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J., Wilson, B. & Boakes, R. A. (1985) Differences in mechanisms of intelligence among vertebrates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B308:5365. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macphail, E. M. (1982) Brain and intelligence in vertebrates. Clarendon Press. [arEMM, HBB, JDD, PSG-R, NJM, CTN]Google Scholar
Macphail, E. M.(1985a) Vertebrate intelligence: The null hypothesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 308:3751. [DAD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macphail, E. M.(1985b) Comparative studies of animal intelligence: Is Spearman's g really Hull's D? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:234–35. [arEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macphail, E. M.(1985c) Ecology and intelligence. In: Memory systems of the brain: Animal and human cognitive processes, ed, Weinberger, N. M., McGaugh, J. L. & Lynch, G.. Guilford Press. [rEMM]Google Scholar
Maier, N. R. F. (1932) The effect of cerebral destruction on reasoning and learning in rats. Journal of Comparative Neurology 54:4575. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maier, N. R. F. & Schneirla, T. C. (1964) Principles of animal psychology. Dover. (Originally published in 1935.) [GG]Google Scholar
McFarland, D. (1985) Animal Behavior. Benjamin/Cummings. [WH]Google Scholar
McGonigle, B. O. & Chalmers, M. (1977) Are monkeys logical? Nature 267:694–96. [JDD]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Menzel, E. W. (1986) How can you tell if an animal is intelligent? In: Dolphin cognition and behavior: A comparative approach, ed. Schusterman, R. J., Thomas, J. A. & Wood, F. G.. Erlbaum. [EWM]Google Scholar
Menzel, E. W. & Juno, C. (1982) Marmosets (Saquinus fuscicollis): Are learning sets learned? Science 217:750–52. [AJ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Menzel, E. W.(1985) Social foraging in marmoset monkeys and the question of intelligence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 308:145–58. [DAD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Menzel, E. W., Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. & Lawson, J. (1985) Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) spatial problem solving with the use of mirrors and televised equivalents of mirrors. Journal of Comparative Psychology 99:211–17. [EWM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, N. E. (1963) Some reflections on the law of effect produce a new alternative to drive reduction. In: Nebraska symposium in motivation, ed. Jones, M. R.. University of Nebraska Press. [SK]Google Scholar
Milner, B., Corkin, S. & Teuber, H. L. (1968) Further analysis of the hippocampal amnesic syndrome: 14 year follow-up study of H. M. Neuropshchologia 6:215–34. [DFS]Google Scholar
Milner, B. & Taylor, L. (1972) Right-hemisphere superiority in tactile pattern-recognition after cerebral commissurotomy: Evidence for nonverbal memory. Neuropsychologia 10:115. [OG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mishkin, M. (1978) Memory in monkeys severely impaired by combined but not by separate removal of amygdala and hippocampus. Nature 273:297–98. [PSG-R]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neisser, U. (1979) The concept of intelligence. Intelligence 3:217–27. [EWM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neuringer, A. (1986) Can people behave “randomly?”: The role of feedback. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115:6275.[EF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nissen, M. J., Knopman, D. S. & Schacter, D. L. (in press) Neurochemical dissociation of memory systems. Neurology. [DFS]Google Scholar
Noble, L. M. & Thomas, R. K. (1985) Oddity and dimension-abstracted oddity (DAD) in humans. American Journal of Psychology 98:549–57. [RKT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nottebohin, F., Kasparian, S. & Pandazis, C. (1981) Brain space for a learned task. Brain Research 213:99109. [OG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Novikoff, A. B. (1945) The concept of integrative levels and biology. Science 101:209–15. [GG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nyiti, R. M. (1982) The validity of “cultural differences explanations” for cross-cultural variation in the rate of Piagetian cognitive development. In: Cultural perspectives on child development, ed. Wagner, D. A. & Stevenson, H. W.. W. H. Freeman. [CTN]Google Scholar
Ocorr, K. A., Walters, E. T. & Byrne, J. H. (1985) Associative conditioning analog selectively increases cAMP levels of tail sensory neurons in Aplysia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 82:2548–52. [IK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olson, D. J. & Maid, W. S. (1983) Characteristics of spatial memory in pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 9:266–80. [aEMM]Google ScholarPubMed
Olton, D. S. & Schlosberg, P. (1978) Food searching strategies in young rats: Win-shift predominates over win-stay. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 92:609–18. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palameta, B. & Lefebvre, L. (1985) The social transmission of a foodfinding technique in pigeons: What is learned? Animal Behaviour 33:892–96. [SJS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Papini, M. R., Mustaca, A. E. & Bitterman, M. E. (in press) Successive negative contrast in the consummatory responding of didetphid marsupials. Animal Learning and Behavior. [MEB]Google Scholar
Patterson, F. G. (1978) The gestures of a gorilla: Language acquisition in another pongid. Brain and Language 5:7297. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearce, J. M. & Hall, G. (1980) A model for Pavlovian learning: Variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not of unconditioned stimuli. Psychological Review 87:532–52. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pepperberg, I. M. (1981) Functional vocalization by an African Grey parrot (Psittams erithacus). Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 55:139–60. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pepperberg, I. M.(1983) Cognition in the African Grey parrot: Preliminary evidence for auditory/vocal comprehension of the class concept. Animal Learning and Behavior 11:179–85. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pert, A. & Bitterman, M. E. (1970) Reward and learning in the turtle. Learning and Motivation 1:121–28. [MEB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pert, A. & Gonzalez, R. C. (1974) Behavior of the turtle (Chrysemys picta picta) in simultaneous, successive, and behavioral contrast situations. Journal of Comparative 6- Physiological Psychology 87:526–38. [MEB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petrinovich, L. & Bolles, R. (1954) Deprivation states and behavioral attributes. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 47:450–53. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phillips, C. G., Zeki, S. & Barlow, H. B. (1984) Localisation of function in the cerebral cortex: Past, present and future. Brain 107:327–61. [HBB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pico, R. M. & Davis, J. L. (1984) The radial maze performance of mice: Assessing the dimensional requirements for serial order memory in animals. Behavioral and Neural Biology 40:526. [rEMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pisaereta, R., Lefave, P., Lesneski, T. & Potter, C. (1985) Transfer of oddity learning in the pigeon. Animal Learning and Behavior 13:403–14. [NJM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powell, T. (1981) Certain aspects of the intrinsic organisation of the cerebral cortex. In: Brain mechanisms and perceptual awareness, ed. Pompeiano, O. & Marsan, C. Ajmone. Raven Press. [OG]Google Scholar
Premack, D(1971) Language in chimpanzees? Science 172:808–22. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Premack, D(1976) Intelligence in ape and man. Erlbaum. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Premack, D(1985) “Gavagai!” or the future history of the animal language controversy. Cognition 19:207–96. [aEMM, REA, HLR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rescorla, R. A. & Wagner, A. R. (1972) A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In: Classical conditioning 2: Current research and theory, ed. Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F.. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [aEMM, MRP]Google Scholar
Restle, F. (1958) Toward a quantitative description of learning set data. Psychological Review 65:7791. [arEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Revusky, S. (1985) The general process approach to animal learning. In: Issues in the ecological study of learning, ed. Johnston, T. D. & Pietrewicz, A. T.. Erlbaum. [aEMM, JGF]Google Scholar
Rilling, M. E. & Neiworth, J. ]. (1986) Comparative cognition: A general processes approach. In: Theories of animal memory, ed. Kendrick, D. F., Rilling, M. E. & Denny, M. R.. Erlbaum. [GG]Google Scholar
Ristau, C. A. (1983) Symbols and indication in apes and other species? (Comment on Savage-Rumbaugh et al.) Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 112:498507. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, W. A., Bullock, D. H. & Bitterman, M. E. (1963) Resistance to extinction in the pigeon after partially reinforced instrumental training under discrete-trials conditions. American Journal of Psychology 76:353–65. [MEB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, W. A. & Van Veldhuizen, N. (1985) Spatial memory in pigeonson the radial maze. Journal of Experimental Psychology 11:241–60. [arEMM, TDJ]Google Scholar
Rockel, A. J., Hioms, R. W. & Powell, T. P. S. (1980) The basic uniformity in structure of the neocortex. Brain 103:221–44. [OC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roitblat, H. L. (1982) Decision making, evolution, and cognition. In: Evolution and the determination of animal and human behavior, ed. Schmidt, H. D. & Tembrock, G.. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. [HLR]Google Scholar
Roitblat, H. L.(1987) Introduction to comparative cognition. W. H. Freeman. [HLR]Google Scholar
Roitblat, H. L. & Harley, H. E. (in press) Rat spatial delayed matching-tosample performance: Acquisition and retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes. [HLR]Google Scholar
Roper, T. J. (1983) Learning as a biological phenomenon. In: Genes, development and learning, ed. Halliday, T. R. & Slater, P. J. B.. Blackwell. [DFS]Google Scholar
Rozin, P. (1976) The evolution of intelligence and access to the cognitive unconscious. Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Phychology 6:245–80. [REA, DFS]Google Scholar
Rozin, P.(1976a) The evolution of intelligence and access to the cognitive unconscious. In: Progress in psychobiology and physiological psychology, ed. Sprague, J. A. & Epstein, A. N.. Academic Press. [JGF]Google Scholar
Rozin, P. & Kalat, J. W. (1971) Specific hungers and poison avoidance as adaptive specialization of learning. Psychological Review 78:459–86. [DFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rumbaugh, D. M., ed. (1977) Language learning in a chimpanzee: The Lana project. Academic Press. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Rumbaugh, D. M. & Pate, J. L. (1984) The evolution of cognition in primates: A comparative perspective. In: Animal cognition, ed. Roitblat, H. L., Bever, T. G. & Terrace, H. S.. Erlbaum. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Sahley, C, Rudy, J. W. & Gelperin, A. (1981) An analysis of associative learning in a terrestrial mollusc. 1. Higher-order conditioning, blocking, and a transient US pre-exposure effect. Journal of Comparative Psychology 144:18. [IK]Google Scholar
Samuel, A. L. (1963) Some studies of machine learning using the game of checkers. In: Computers and thought, ed. Feigenbaum, E. A. & Feldman, J.. McGraw-Hill. [SK]Google Scholar
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. (1984) Verbal behavior at a procedural level in the chimpanzee. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 41:223–50. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.(1985) Ape language: From conditioned response to symbol. Columbia University Press. [rEMM, DB]Google Scholar
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., Pate, J. L., Lawson, J., Smith, S. T. & Rosenbaum, S. (1983) Can a chimpanzee make a statement? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 112:457–92. [aEMM, EF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., Rumbaugh, D. M. & Boysen, S. (1978) Symbolic communication between two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Science 201:64–44. [aEMM]Google ScholarPubMed
Schacter, D. L. (1983) Amnesia observed: Remembering and forgetting in a natural environment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 92:236–42. [DFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmajuk, N. A., Sequra, E. T. & Ruidiaz, A. C. (1981) Reward downshift in the toad. Behavioral and Neural Biology 33:519–23. [MEB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schusterman, R. & Krieger, K. (1984) California sea lions are capable of semantic comprehension. Psychological Record 34:323. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schutz, S. L. & Bitterman, M. E. (1969) Spaced-trials partial reinforcement and resistance to extinction in the goldfish. Journal of Comparative O Physiological Psychology 68:126–28. [MEB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz, B. (1974) On going back to nature: A review of Seligman and Hager's Biological boundaries of learning. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 21:183–93. [JGF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Searle, L. V. (1949) The organization of hereditary maze-brightness and mazedullness. Genetic Psychology Monographs 39:279325. [arEMM, JDD, LGH, TDJ]Google Scholar
Seeley, T. D. (1982) How honeybees find a home. Scientific American 247(4): 158–66. [RM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shepard, R. N. (1981) Psychophysical complementarity. In: Perceptual organization, ed. Pomerantz, J. R.. Erlbaum. [JGF]Google Scholar
Shepard, R. N.(1984) Ecological constraints on internal representation: Resonant kinematics of perceiving, imagining, thinking, and dreaming. Psychological Review 91:417–47. [JGF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shepard, R. N.(1986) Psychophysical resonance. Paper prepared for Conference on Biological Computation, Tuscon, Arizona. [JGF]Google Scholar
Shepard, R. N. & Cooper, L. A. (1982) Mental images and their transformations. MIT Press. [JDD]Google Scholar
Sherry, D. F. & Schacter, D. (1987) The evolution of multiple memory systems. Psychological Review 94. [SJS]Google Scholar
Shettleworth, S. J. (1984a) Natural history and evolution of learning in nonhuman mammals. In: The biology of learning, ed. Marler, P. & Terrace, H. S.. Springer-Verlag. [SJS]Google Scholar
Shettleworth, S. J.(1984b) Learning and behavioral ecology. In: Behavioral ecology (2nd ed.), ed. ]. Krebs, R. & Davies, N. B.. Blackwell. [SJS]Google Scholar
Shettleworth, S. J.(1985) Food storing by birds: Implications for comparative studies of memory. In: Memory systems of the brain: Animal and human cognitive processes, ed. Weinberger, N. M., McGaugh, J. L. & Lynch, G.. Guildford Press. [rEMM]Google Scholar
Shettleworth, S. J. & Krebs, J. R. (1982) How marsh tits find their hoards: The roles of site preference and spatial memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 8:354–75. [DAD]Google ScholarPubMed
Shishimi, A. (1985) Latent inhibition experiments with goldfish (Carassius auratus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 99:316–27. [arEMM, MRP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1938) The behavior of organisms. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Slater, P. J. B. (1983) Bird song learning: Theme and variations. In: Perspectives in ornithology, ed. Brush, A. H. & Clark, G. A.. Cambridge University Press. [DFS]Google Scholar
Slotnick, B. M. & Katz, H. M. (1974) Olfactory leaming-set formation in rats. Science 185:796–98. [DAD]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spetch, M. L. & Edwards, C. A. (1986) Spatial memory in pigeons (Columba livia) in an open-field feeding environment. Journal of Comparative Psychology 100:266–78. [rEMM, TDJ]Google Scholar
Squire, L. R. (1982) The neuropsychology of human memory. Annual Review of Ncuroscience 5:241–73. [DFS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stanton, M., Lobaugh, N. & Amsel, A. (1984) Age of first appearance of simultaneous and successive negative contrast in infant rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 10:376–89. [aEMM, MRP]Google ScholarPubMed
Stephan, H. (1972) Evolution of primate brains: A comparative anatomical investigation. In: The functional and evolutionary biology of primates, ed. Tuttle, R., Adline. [OG]Google Scholar
Stephan, H., Frahm, H. & Baron, G. (1981) New and revised data on volumes of brain structures in insectivores and primates. Folia pimatologica 35:129. [OG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steinberg, R. J. (1979) The nature of mental abilities. American Psychologist 34:214–30. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steinberg, R. J.(1980) Sketch of a componential subtheory of human intelligence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:573–84. [RJS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steinberg, R. J.(1985) Cognitive approaches to intelligence. In: Handbook of intelligence, ed. Wolman, B.. Wiley. [WH]Google Scholar
Steinberg, R. J.(1986) Intelligence applied. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. [JGF]Google Scholar
Steinberg, R. J. & Detterman, D. K., eds. (1986) What is intelligence? Contemporary viewpoints on its nature and definition.Ablex. [REA]Google Scholar
Sternberg, R. J. & Suben, J. (1986) The socialization of intelligence. In: Perspectives on intellectual development, (vol. 19): Minnesota symposia on child psychology, ed. Perlmutter, M.. Erlbaum. [RJS]Google Scholar
Sugarman, S. (1983) Why talk? (Comment on Savage-Rumbaugh et al.) Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 112:493–97. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Susswein, A. J. & Schwarz, M. (1983) A learned change of response to inedible food in Aplysia. Behavioral and Neural Biology 39:16. [IK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sutherland, N. S. & Mackintosh, N. J. (1971) Mechanisms of animal discrimination learning. Academic Press. [aEMM]Google Scholar
Tanner, W. P. & Birdsall, T. G. (1958) Definitions of d' and n as psychophysical measures. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America 30:922–28. [HBB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tennant, W. A. & Bitterman, M. E. (1975) Blocking and overshadowing in two species of fish. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 1:2229. [MRP]Google ScholarPubMed
Terborgh, J. (1983) Five new world primates: A study in comparative ecology. Princeton University Press. [AJ]Google Scholar
Terrace, H. S., Pettito, L. A., Sanders, R. J. & Bever, T. G. (1971) Can an ape create a sentence? Science 206:891902. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Testa, T. J. (1974) Causal relationships and the acquisition of avoidance responses. Psychological Review 81:491505. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, R. K. (1980) Evolution of intelligence: An approach to its assessment. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 17:454–72. [arEMM, RKT]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thomas, R. K.(unpublished manuscript) Visual and olfactory oddity learning in rats: What evidence is necessary to show conceptual behavior? Available from author. [RKT]Google Scholar
Thomas, R. K. & Frost, G. T. (1983) Oddity and dimension-abstrated oddity (DAD) in squirrel monkeys. American Journal of Psychology 96:5164. [RKT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tierney, A. J. (1986) The evolution of learned and innate behavior: Contributions from genetics and neurobiology to a theory of behavioral evolution. Animal Learning ir Behavior 14:339–48. [DFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tinklepaugh, O. L. (1928) An experimental study of representative factors in monkeys. Journal of Comparative Psychology 8:197236. [MEB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tobach, E. & Schneirla, T. C. (1968) The biopsychology of social behavior of animals. In: The biologic basis of pediatric practice, ed. Cooke, R. E.. McGraw-Hill. [rEMM, GG]Google Scholar
Tolman, E. C. (1932) Purposive behavior in animals and men. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [HBB]Google Scholar
Trapold, M. A. & Overmier, J. B. (1972) The second learning process in instrumental learning. In: Classical conditioning. II: Current theory and research, ed. Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F.. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [MRP]Google Scholar
Tryon, R. C. (1940) Genetic differences in maze learning in rats. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education 39:111–19. [aEMM, JDD, TDJ, CTN]Google Scholar
Tulving, E. (1983) Elements of episodic memory. Clarendon Press. [DFS]Google Scholar
Vogel, F. & Motulsky, A. G. (1986) Human genetics (2nd ed.). Springer. [JDD]Google Scholar
de Waal, F. (1982) Chimpanzee politics. Harper & Row. [AJ]Google Scholar
Wagner, A. R. (1961) Effects of amount and percentage of reinforcement and number of acquisition trials on conditioning and extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62:234–42. [MEP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wagner, A. R.(1981) SOP: A model of automatic memory processing in animal behavior. In: Information processing in animals: Memory mechanisms, ed. Spear, N. E. & Miller, R. R.. Erlbaum. [rEMM]Google Scholar
Wahlsten, D. (1978) Behavioral genetics and animal learning. In: Psychopharmacology of aversively motivated behavior, ed. Anisman, H. & Bignami, G.. Plenum. [aEMM, LGH, TDJ]Google Scholar
Walter, W. G. (1953) The living brain. Duckworth. [EWM]Google Scholar
Walters, E. & Byrne, J. H. (1983) Associative conditioning of single sensory neurons suggests a cellular mechanism for learning. Science 219:405–8. [IK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warren, J. M. (1965) Comparative psychology of learning. Annual Review of Psychology 16:95118. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weinstein, L. (1970a) Negative incentive contrast with sucrose. Psychonomic Science 19:1314. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weinstein, L.(1970b) Negative incentive contrast effects with saccharin versus sucrose and partial reinforcement. Psychonomic Science 21:276–78. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whiten, A. & Byrne, R. W. (in press) Tactical deception in primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (forthcoming). [AJ]Google Scholar
Wilkie, D. M., Spetch, M. L. & Chew, L. (1981) The ring dove's short-term memory capacity for spatial information. Animal Behaviour 29:639–41. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, B. J., Mackintosh, N. J. & Boakes, R. A. (1985) Transfer of relational rules in matching and oddity learning by pigeons and corvids. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 37B:313–32. [arEMM, NJM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiltschko, W. & Wiltschko, R. (1976) Interrelation of magnetic compass and star orientation in night-migrating birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology 109:9199. [DFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winfield, D. A., Gatter, K. C. & Powell, T. (1980) An electron microscopic study of the types and proportions of neurons in the cortex of the motor and visual areas of the cat and rat. Brain 103:245–58. [OG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolman, B., ed. (1985) Handbook of intelligence. Wiley. [WH]Google Scholar
Wright, A. A., Santiago, H. C, Urcuioli, P. J. & Sands, S. F. (1983) Monkey and pigeon acquisition of same/different concept using pictorial stimuli. In: Quantitative Analyses of Behavior, vol. 4: Discrimination processes, ed. Commons, M. L., Hermstein, R. J. & Wagner, A. R.. Ballinger. [NJM]Google Scholar
Yarczower, M. & Hazlett, L. (1977) Evolutionary scales and anagenesis. Psychological Bulletin 84:1088–97. [aEMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yerkes, R. M. (1905) Animal psychology and the criteria of the psychic. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 2: 141–49. [JWK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zentall, T. R., Edwards, C. A. & Hogan, D. E. (1983) Pigeons' use of identity. Quantitative analyses of behavior vol. 4: Discrimination processes, ed. Commons, M. L., Herrnstein, R. J. & Wagner, A. R.. Ballinger. [NJM]Google Scholar
Zola-Morgan, S. & Squire, L. R. (1984) Preserved learning in monkeys with medial temporal lesions: Sparing of motor and cognitive skills. Journal of Neuroscience 4:1072–85. [PSG-R]Google Scholar
Zola-Morgan, S.(1985) Memory impairment in monkeys following lesions limited to the hippocampus. Behavioral Neuroscience 100:155–60. [PSG-R]CrossRefGoogle Scholar