Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-888d5979f-l84fh Total loading time: 0.258 Render date: 2021-10-26T20:57:11.029Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Testing the reminding account of the lag effect in L2 vocabulary learning

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 August 2021

Natalie G. Koval*
Affiliation:
Department of Linguistics and Languages, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA Email: kovalnat@msu.edu

Abstract

Research has produced mixed findings regarding the effects of spacing L2 study. In order to know how this potentially very powerful learning tool can be useful, it is important to understand the cognitive mechanisms that drive the effects in L2 learning and how the operation of these mechanisms may be affected by variables relevant for SLA contexts. In this study, I examine the contribution of the dual mechanism of successful effortful retrieval during study to the lag effect in foreign vocabulary learning from L2-L1 retrieval practice. I additionally investigate the effects of feedback study time on the operation of the two cognitive mechanisms under investigation. Native speakers of English studied Finnish vocabulary during L2-L1 retrieval practice in paired-associate learning while their response latencies and accuracy were recorded. Results suggest that: (a) successful effortful retrieval underlies benefits of spacing L2-L1 retrieval practice: even with immediate feedback study, the benefits of effort are conditional on retrieval success; (b) successful retrieval is more beneficial than unsuccessful retrieval, contrary to proposals where this was not directly tested; and (c) imposing longer study time externally has little benefit, unlike what has been previously found with learner-regulated longer study time. Implications for L2 learning and teaching are discussed.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Arnold, K. M., & McDermott, K. B. (2013). Test-potentiated learning: Distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39(3), 940945.Google Scholar
Baayen, R. H., Piepenbrock, R., & van Rijn, H. (1995). The CELEX Lexical Database. Release 2 [CD-ROM]. Linguistic Data Consortium, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Bahrick, H. P., Bahrick, L. E., Bahrick, A. S., & Bahrick, P. E. (1993). Maintenance of foreign language vocabulary and the spacing effect. Psychological Science, 4, 316321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bahrick, H. P., & Hall, L. K. (2005). The importance of retrieval failures to long-term retention: A metacognitive explanation of the spacing effect. Journal of Memory & Language, 52(4), 566577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barcroft, J. (2007). Effects of opportunities for word retrieval during second language vocabulary learning. Language Learning, 57, 3556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benjamin, A. S., & Ross, B. H. (2010). The causes and consequences of reminding. In Benjamin, A. S. (Ed.), Successful remembering and successful forgetting: A Festschrift in honor of Robert A. Bjork (pp. 7187). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Benjamin, A. S., & Tullis, J. (2010). What makes distributed practice effective? Cognitive Psychology, 61(3), 228247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benjamin, A.S., Bjork, R.A., & Schwartz, B.L. (1998). The mismeasure of memory: When retrieval fluency is misleading as a metamnemonic index. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 5568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bird, S. (2010). Effects of distributed practice on the acquisition of second language English syntax. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 635650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bjork, R. A. (1975). Retrieval as a memory modifier. In Solso, R. (Ed.), Information processing and cognition: The Loyola Symposium (pp. 123144). Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Bjork, R. A. (1994). Memory and metamemory considerations in the training of human beings. In Metcalfe, J. & Shimamura, A. (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about knowing (pp. 185205). MIT Press.Google Scholar
Bjork, R. A. (1999). Assessing our own competence: Heuristics and illusions. In Gopher, D. & Koriat, A. (Eds.), Attention and performance (pp. 435459). The MIT Press.Google Scholar
Bjork, R. A., & Allen, T. W. (1970). The spacing effect: Consolidation or differential encoding? Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 9(5), 567572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bloom, K.C., & Shuell, T.J. (1981). Effects of massed and distributed practice on the learning and retention of second-language vocabulary. The Journal of Educational Research, 74, 245248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brysbaert, M., Warriner, A. B., & Kuperman, V. (2014). Concreteness ratings for 40 thousand generally known English word lemmas. Behavior Research Methods, 46(3), 904911.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bui, D. C., Maddox, G. B., & Balota, D. A. (2013). The roles of working memory and intervening task difficulty in determining the benefits of repetition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(2), 341347.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carrier, M., & Pashler, H. (1992). The influence of retrieval on retention. Memory & Cognition, 20(6), 633642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cepeda, N. J., Coburn, N., Rohrer, D., Wixted, J. T., Mozer, M. C., & Pashler, H. (2009). Optimizing distributed practice: Theoretical analysis and practical implications. Experimental Psychology, 56(4), 236246.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cepeda, N. J., Pashler, H., Vul, E., Wixted, J. T., & Rohrer, D. (2006). Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 132(3), 354380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cepeda, N. J., Vul, E., Rohrer, D., Wixted, J. T., & Pashler, H. (2008). Spacing effects in learning: A temporal ridgeline of optimal retention. Psychological Science, 19(11), 10951102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Challis, B. H. (1993). Spacing effects on cued-memory tests depend on level of processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 19, 389396.Google Scholar
Chen, O., Paas, F., & Sweller, J. (2021). Spacing and interleaving effects require distinct theoretical bases: a systematic review testing the cognitive load and discriminative-contrast hypotheses. Educational Psychology Review, 124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-021-09613-w CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collins, L., Halter, R. H., Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (1999). Time and the distribution of time in L2 instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 33(4), 655680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crowder, R.G. (1976). Principles of learning and memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Cull, W.L., Shaughnessy, J.J., & Zechmeister, E.B. (1996). Expanding understanding of the expanding-pattern-of-retrieval mnemonic: Toward confidence in applicability. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2, 365378.Google Scholar
D’Agostino, P. R., & DeRemer, P. (1973). Repetition effects as a function of rehearsal and encoding variability. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 12(1), 108113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, C. J. (2005). N-Watch: A program for deriving neighborhood size and other psycholinguistic statistics. Behavior Research Methods, 37(1), 6570.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delaney, P. F., Verkoeijen, P. P., & Spirgel, A. (2010). Spacing and testing effects: A deeply critical, lengthy, and at times discursive review of the literature. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 53, 63147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dellarosa, D., & Bourne, L. E. (1985). Surface form and the spacing effect. Memory & Cognition, 13, 529537.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dempster, F.N. (1988). The spacing effect: A case study in the failure to apply the results of psychological research. American Psychologist, 43, 627634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dempster, F. N. (1989). Spacing effects and their implications for theory and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 1, 309330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donovan, J. J., & Radosevich, D. J. (1999). A meta-analytic review of the distribution of practice effect: Now you see it, now you don’t. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 795805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elgort, I., & Warren, P. (2014). L2 Vocabulary learning from reading: Explicit and tacit lexical knowledge and the role of learner and item variables. Language Learning, 64, 365414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Estes, W. K. (1955). Statistical theory of distributional phenomena in learning. Psychological Review, 62, 369377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forster, K. I., & Forster, J. (2003). DMDX: A windows display program with millisecond accuracy. Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 35, 116124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerbier, E., & Toppino, T. C. (2015). The effect of distributed practice: Neuroscience, cognition, and education. Trends in Neuroscience & Education, 4(3), 4959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glenberg, A. M. (1979). Component-levels theory of the effects of spacing of repetitions on recall and recognition. Memory & Cognition, 7, 95112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glenberg, A. M., & Smith, S. M. (1981). Spacing repetitions and solving problems are not the same. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 20(1), 110119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glover, J. A. (1989). The” testing” phenomenon: Not gone but nearly forgotten. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3), 392399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godfroid, A., Ahn, J., Choi, I., Ballard, L., Cui, Y., Johnston, S., Lee, S., Sarkar, A. & Yoon, H. J. (2018). Incidental vocabulary learning in a natural reading context: An eye-tracking study. Bilingualism: Language & Cognition, 21(3), 563584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godfroid, A., Boers, F., & Housen, A. (2013). An eye for words: Gauging the role of attention in incidental L2 vocabulary acquisition by means of eye tracking. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 483517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greene, R. L. (1989). Spacing effects in memory: Evidence for a two-process account. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 15(3), 371377.Google Scholar
Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Hays, M. J., Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). When and why a failed test potentiates the effectiveness of subsequent study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39(1), 290296.Google Scholar
Hintzman, D. L. (1974). Theoretical implications of the spacing effect. In Solso, R. L. (Ed.), Theories in cognitive psychology: The Loyola Symposium (pp. 7799). Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Hintzman, D. L. (2004). Judgment of frequency versus recognition confidence: Repetition and recursive reminding. Memory & Cognition, 32(2), 336350.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hintzman, D. L. (2010). How does repetition affect memory? Evidence from judgments of recency. Memory & Cognition, 38(1), 102115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hogan, R.M., & Kintsch, W. (1971). Differential effects of study and test trials on long-term recognition and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 10, 562567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
IBM Corp. Released 2017. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
Izawa, C. (1970). Optimal potentiating effects and forgetting-prevention effects of tests in paired-associate learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83, 340344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacoby, L. L. (1978). On interpreting the effects of repetition: Solving a problem versus remembering a solution. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 17(6), 649667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacoby, L. L., Bjork, R. A., & Kelley, C. M. (1994). Illusions of comprehension and competence. In Druckman, D. & Bjork, R. A. (Eds.), Learning, remembering, believing: Enhancing team and individual performance (pp. 5780). National Academy Press.Google Scholar
Kang, S. (2016). Spaced repetition promotes efficient and effective learning: Policy implications for instruction. Policy Insights from the Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 3(1), 1219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L. (2008). The critical importance of retrieval for learning. Science, 319, 966968.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kasprowicz, R. E., Marsden, E., & Sephton, N. (2019). Investigating distribution of practice effects for the learning of foreign language verb morphology in the young learner classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 103(3), 580606.Google Scholar
Kiliç, A., Hoyer, W. J., & Howard, M. W. (2013). Effects of spacing of item repetitions in continuous recognition memory: Does item retrieval difficulty promote item retention in older adults?. Experimental Aging Research, 39(3), 322341.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kolers, P.A., & Roediger, H.L. III. (1984). Procedures of mind. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 23, 425449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2007). The promise and perils of self-regulated study. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(2), 219224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2008). Learning concepts and categories: Is spacing the “enemy of induction”? Psychological Science, 19, 585592.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kornell, N., Hays, M. J., & Bjork, R. A. (2009). Unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance subsequent learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 35(4), 989998.Google ScholarPubMed
Koval, N.G. (2019). Testing the deficient processing account of the spacing effect in L2 vocabulary learning: Evidence from eye-tracking. Applied Psycholinguistics, 40, 11031139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Küpper-Tetzel, C. E., & Erdfelder, E. (2012). Encoding, maintenance, and retrieval processes in the lag effect: A multinomial processing tree analysis. Memory, 20, 3747.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Landauer, T. K. (1969). Reinforcement as consolidation. Psychological Review, 76(1), 8296.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laufer, B., & Hulstijn, J. H. (2001). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: The construct of task-induced involvement. Applied Linguistics, 22, 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, I. H., Maechtle, C., & Hu, C. F. (2021). Enhancing vocabulary retention in low-achieving EFL students: Massed or spaced? English Teaching & Learning, 116. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42321-020-00074-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maddox, G. B. (2016). Understanding the underlying mechanism of the spacing effect in verbal learning: A case for encoding variability and study-phase retrieval. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 28(6), 684706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maddox, G. B., & Balota, D. A. (2015). Retrieval practice and spacing effects in young and older adults: An examination of the benefits of desirable difficulty. Memory & Cognition, 43(5), 760774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maddox, G. B., Pyc, M. A., Kauffman, Z. S., Gatewood, J. D., & Schonhoff, A. M. (2018). Examining the contributions of desirable difficulty and reminding to the spacing effect. Memory & Cognition, 46(8), 13761388.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Madigan, S. A. (1969). Intraserial repetition and coding processes in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 8(6), 828835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDaniel, M. A., & Fisher, R. P. (1991). Tests and test feedback as learning sources. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 16, 192201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDaniel, M.A., Friedman, A., & Bourne, L.E. (1978). Remembering the levels of information in words. Memory & Cognition, 6, 156164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Melton, A.W. (1970). The situation with respect to the spacing of repetitions and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 9, 596606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miles, S., & Kwon, C. J. (2008). Benefits of using CALL vocabulary programs to provide systematic word recycling. English Teaching, 63(1), 199216.Google Scholar
Miles, S. W. (2014). Spaced vs. massed distribution instruction for L2 grammar learning. System, 42, 412428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakata, T. (2015). Effects of expanding and equal spacing on second language vocabulary learning does gradually increasing spacing increase vocabulary learning? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 37(4), 677711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakata, T. (2016). Effects of retrieval formats on second language vocabulary learning. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 54(3), 257289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakata, T., & Elgort, I. (2021). Effects of spacing on contextual vocabulary learning: Spacing facilitates the acquisition of explicit, but not tacit, vocabulary knowledge. Second Language Research, 37(2), 233260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakata, T., & Suzuki, Y. (2019). Effects of massing and spacing on the learning of semantically related and unrelated words. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41(2), 287311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakata, T., Tada, S., Mclean, S., & Kim, Y. A. (2021). Effects of distributed retrieval practice over a semester: Cumulative tests as a way to facilitate second language vocabulary learning. TESOL Quarterly, 55(1), 248270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakata, T., & Webb, S. (2016). Does studying vocabulary in smaller sets increase learning?: The effects of part and whole learning on second language vocabulary acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(3), 523552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pashler, H., Zarow, G., & Triplett, B. (2003). Is temporal spacing of tests helpful even when it inflates error rates? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 29(6), 10511057.Google ScholarPubMed
Pavlik, P. I. Jr, & Anderson, J. R. (2005). Practice and forgetting effects on vocabulary memory: An activation-based model of the spacing effect. Cognitive Science, 29(4), 559586.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peterson, L. R., Wampler, R., Kirkpatrick, M., & Saltzman, D. (1963). Effect of spacing presentations on retention of a paired associate over short intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66(2), 206209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plonsky, L., & Derrick, D. J. (2016). A meta-analysis of reliability coefficients in second language research. The Modern Language Journal, 100(2), 538553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). How big is “big”? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research. Language Learning, 64(4), 878912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyc, M. A., & Rawson, K. A. (2009). Testing the retrieval effort hypothesis: Does greater difficulty correctly recalling information lead to higher levels of memory? Journal of Memory & Language, 60(4), 437447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raaijmakers, J. G. (2003). Spacing and repetition effects in human memory: Application of the SAM model. Cognitive Science, 27(3), 431452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roediger, H.L. III, & Karpicke, J. D. (2006a). Test enhanced learning: Taking memory tests improves long-term retention. Psychological Science, 17, 249255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roediger, H.L. III, & Karpicke, J. D. (2006b). The power of testing memory: Basic research and implications for educational practice. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(3), 181210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rogers, J. (2015). Learning second language syntax under massed and distributed conditions. TESOL Quarterly, 49, 857866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rogers, J., & Cheung, A. (2020a). Input spacing and the learning of L2 vocabulary in a classroom context. Language Teaching Research, 24(5), 616641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rogers, J., & Cheung, A. (2020b). Does it matter when you review?: Input spacing, ecological validity, and the learning of l2 vocabulary. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 119. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263120000236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rohrer, D., & Pashler, H. (2007). Increasing retention without increasing study time. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(4), 183186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rundus, D. (1971). Analysis of rehearsal processes in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 89, 6377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Runquist, W. N. (1986). Changes in the rate of forgetting produced by recall tests. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 40, 282289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russo, R., & Mammarella, N. (2002). Spacing effects in recognition memory: When meaning matters. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 14(1), 4959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmidt, R. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1992). New conceptualizations of practice: Common principles in three paradigms suggest new concepts for training. Psychological Science, 3(4), 207218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N. (2008). Review article: Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12(3), 329363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schuetze, U. (2015). Spacing techniques in second language vocabulary acquisition: Short-term gains vs. long-term memory. Language Teaching Research, 19(1), 2842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serrano, R. (2011). The time factor in EFL classroom practice. Language Learning, 61, 117145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serrano, R., & Huang, H. Y. (2018). Learning vocabulary through assisted repeated reading: How much time should there be between repetitions of the same text? TESOL Quarterly, 52(4), 971994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serrano, R., & Huang, H. Y. (2021). Time distribution and intentional vocabulary learning through repeated reading: a partial replication and extension. Language Awareness, 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serrano, R., & Muñoz, C. (2007). Same hours, different time distribution: Any difference in EFL? System, 35, 305321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shaughnessy, J. J., Zimmerman, J., & Underwood, B. J. (1972). Further evidence on the MP-DP effect in free-recall learning. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 11(1), 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soderstrom, N. C., Kerr, T. K., & Bjork, R. A. (2016). The critical importance of retrieval—and spacing—for learning. Psychological Science, 27(2), 223230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Storm, B. C., Bjork, R. A., & Storm, J. C. (2010). Optimizing retrieval as a learning event: When and why expanding retrieval practice enhances long-term retention. Memory & Cognition, 38(2), 244253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suzuki, Y. (2017). The optimal distribution of practice for the acquisition of L2 morphology: A conceptual replication and extension. Language Learning, 67(3), 512545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suzuki, Y., & DeKeyser, R. (2017). Effects of distributed practice on the proceduralization of morphology. Language Teaching Research, 21(2), 166188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suzuki, Y., Nakata, T., & Dekeyser, R. (2019). The desirable difficulty framework as a theoretical foundation for optimizing and researching second language practice. The Modern Language Journal, 103(3), 713720.Google Scholar
Suzuki, Y., Nakata, T., & Dekeyser, R. (2020). Empirical feasibility of the desirable difficulty framework: Toward more systematic research on L2 practice for broader pedagogical implications. The Modern Language Journal, 104(1), 313319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suzuki, Y., & Sunada, M. (2020). Dynamic interplay between practice type and practice schedule in a second language: The potential and limits of skill transfer and practice schedule. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 42(1), 169197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thios, S. J., & D’Agostino, P. R. (1976). Effects of repetition as a function of study-phase retrieval. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 15(5), 529536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toppino, T. C., & Gracen, T. F. (1985). The lag effect and differential organization theory: Nine failures to replicate. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 11(1), 185191.Google Scholar
Tullis, J. G., Benjamin, A. S., & Ross, B. H. (2014). The reminding effect: Presentation of associates enhances memory for related words in a list. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143(4), 15261540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van den Broek, G. S. E., Takashima, A., Segers, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2018). Contextual richness and word learning: Context enhances comprehension but retrieval enhances retention. Language Learning, 68, 546585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verkoeijen, P., & Bouwmeester, S. (2008). Using latent class modeling to detect bimodality in spacing effect data. Journal of Memory & Language, 59, 545555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verkoeijen, P., Rikers, R., & Schmidt, H. (2004). Detrimental influence of contextual change on spacing effects in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 30(4), 796800.Google ScholarPubMed
Verkoeijen, P., Rikers, R., & Schmidt, H. (2005). Limitations to the spacing effect: Demonstration of an inverted u-shaped relationship between inter-repetition spacing and free recall. Experimental Psychology, 52(4), 257263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wegener, S., Wang, H., Beyersmann, E., Nation, K., Colenbrander, D., & Castles, A. (2021, May 19). The effects of spacing and massing on children’s orthographic learning. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/d8bmv CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wheeler, M. A., & Roediger, H. L. III. (1992). Disparate effects of repeated testing: Reconciling Ballard’s (1913) and Bartlett’s (1932) results. Psychological Science, 3, 240245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, J., & Turner, C. (2005). Comparing children’s oral ability in two ESL programs. Canadian Modern Language Review, 61(4), 491517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitten, W. B., & Bjork, R. A. (1977). Learning from tests: Effects of spacing. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 16, 465478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, J. L. (1971). Reinforcement-test intervals in paired-associate learning. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 8(1), 5881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zechmeister, E. B., & Shaughnessy, J. J. (1980). When you know that you know and when you think that you know but you don’t. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 15(1), 4144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zimmerman, J. (1975). Free recall after self-paced study: A test of the attention explanation of the spacing effect. American Journal of Psychology, 88, 277291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Testing the reminding account of the lag effect in L2 vocabulary learning
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Testing the reminding account of the lag effect in L2 vocabulary learning
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Testing the reminding account of the lag effect in L2 vocabulary learning
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *