Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-75dct Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-26T03:58:22.944Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Separating the effects of acoustic and phonetic factors in linguistic processing with impoverished signals by adults and children

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 October 2012

SUSAN NITTROUER*
Affiliation:
Ohio State University
JOANNA H. LOWENSTEIN
Affiliation:
Ohio State University
*
ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE Susan Nittrouer, Eye and Ear Institute, Ohio State University, 915 Olentangy River Road, Room 4022, Columbus, OH 43212. E-mail: nittrouer.1@osu.edu

Abstract

Cochlear implants allow many individuals with profound hearing loss to understand spoken language, even though the impoverished signals provided by these devices poorly preserve acoustic attributes long believed to support recovery of phonetic structure. Consequently, questions may be raised regarding whether traditional psycholinguistic theories rely too heavily on phonetic segments to explain linguistic processing while ignoring potential roles of other forms of acoustic structure. This study tested that possibility. Adults and children (8 years old) performed two tasks: one involving explicit segmentation, phonemic awareness, and one involving a linguistic task thought to operate more efficiently with well-defined phonetic segments, short-term memory. Stimuli were unprocessed (UP) signals, amplitude envelopes (AE) analogous to implant signals, and unprocessed signals in noise (NOI) that provided a degraded signal for comparison. Adults’ results for short-term recall were similar for UP and NOI, but worse for AE stimuli. The phonemic awareness task revealed the opposite pattern across AE and NOI. Children's results for short-term recall showed similar decrements in performance for AE and NOI compared to UP, even though only NOI stimuli showed diminished results for segmentation. Conclusions were that perhaps traditional accounts are too focused on phonetic segments, something implant designers and clinicians need to consider.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Baddeley, A. (1966). Short-term memory for word sequences as a function of acoustic, semantic and formal similarity. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 362365.Google Scholar
Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417423.Google Scholar
Baddeley, A., & Hitch, G. J. (1974). Working Memory. In Bower, G. (Ed.), Advances in research and theory (pp. 4789). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Baddeley, A., Thomson, N., & Buchanan, M. (1975). Word length and the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 575589.Google Scholar
Boothroyd, A., & Nittrouer, S. (1988). Mathematical treatment of context effects in phoneme and word recognition. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 84, 101114.Google Scholar
Boysson-Bardies, B. de, Sagart, L., Halle, P., & Durand, C. (1986). Acoustic investigations of cross-linguistic variability in babbling. In Lindblom, B. & Zetterstrom, R. (Eds.), Precursors of early speech (pp. 113126). New York: Stockton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, R., & Dodd, B. (1980). Hearing by eye. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 32, 8599.Google Scholar
Chomsky, N., & Halle, M. (1968). The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
Colin, S., Magnan, A., Ecalle, J., & Leybaert, J. (2007). Relation between deaf children's phonological skills in kindergarten and word recognition performance in first grade. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 139146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conrad, R., & Hull, A. J. (1964). Information, acoustic confusion and memory span. British Journal of Psychology, 55, 429432.Google Scholar
Conway, C. M., Pisoni, D. B., & Kronenberger, W. G. (2009). The importance of sound for cognitive sequencing abilities: The auditory scaffolding hypothesis. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 275279.Google Scholar
Cooper, F. S., Liberman, A. M., Harris, K. S., & Grubb, P. M. (1958). Some input–output relations observed in experiments on the perception of speech. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Cybernetics, Namur.Google Scholar
Cooper-Martin, E. (1994). Measures of cognitive effort. Marketing Letters, 5, 4356.Google Scholar
Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Progress in Brain Research, 169, 323338.Google Scholar
Davis, B. L., & MacNeilage, P. F. (1990). Acquisition of correct vowel production: A quantitative case study. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 1627.Google Scholar
Dillon, C. M., & Pisoni, D. B. (2004). Nonword repetition and reading in deaf children with cochlear implants. International Congress Series, 1273, 304307.Google Scholar
Dunn, L., & Dunn, D. (1997). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (3rd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, L. S., Shannon, R. V., Schaefer Martinez, A., Wygonski, J., & Boothroyd, A. (2000). Speech recognition with reduced spectral cues as a function of age. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107, 27042710.Google Scholar
Firszt, J. B., Holden, L. K., Skinner, M. W., Tobey, E. A., Peterson, A., Gaggl, W., Runge-Samuelson, C.L., & Wackym, P.A. (2004). Recognition of speech presented at soft to loud levels by adult cochlear implant recipients of three cochlear implant systems. Ear and Hearing, 25, 375387.Google Scholar
Fry, A. F., & Hale, S. (1996). Processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence: Evidence for a developmental cascade. Psychological Science, 7, 237241.Google Scholar
Ganong, W. F. III. (1980). Phonetic categorization in auditory word perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 6, 110125.Google Scholar
Goldinger, S. D. (1996). Words and voices: Episodic traces in spoken word identification and recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 11661183.Google Scholar
Goldman, R., & Fristoe, M. (2000). Goldman Fristoe 2: Test of Articulation. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
Greene, L. R., & Samuel, A. G. (1986). Recency and suffix effects in serial recall of musical stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 517524.Google ScholarPubMed
Greenlee, M. (1980). Learning the phonetic cues to the voiced-voiceless distinction: A comparison of child and adult speech perception. Journal of Child Language, 7, 459468.Google Scholar
Kail, R. (1991). Developmental change in speed of processing during childhood and adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 490501.Google Scholar
Kong, Y. Y., Cruz, R., Jones, J. A., & Zeng, F. G. (2004). Music perception with temporal cues in acoustic and electric hearing. Ear and Hearing, 25, 173185.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kronenberger, W. G., Pisoni, D. B., Henning, S. C., Colson, B. G., & Hazzard, L. M. (2011). Working memory training for children with cochlear implants: A pilot study. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 54, 11821196.Google Scholar
Liberman, A. M., Delattre, P., Gerstman, L., & Cooper, F. (1968). Perception of the speech code. Psychological Review, 74, 431461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D. P., Fischer, F. W., & Carter, B. (1974). Explicit syllable and phoneme segmentation in the young child. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, 201212.Google Scholar
Loizou, P. C., Dorman, M., & Tu, Z. (1999). On the number of channels needed to understand speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 106, 20972103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lorenzi, C., Gilbert, G., Carn, H., Garnier, S., & Moore, B. C. J. (2006). Speech perception problems of the hearing impaired reflect inability to use temporal fine structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 1886618869.Google Scholar
Luce, P. A., & Pisoni, D. B. (1998). Recognizing spoken words: The neighborhood activation model. Ear and Hearing, 19, 136.Google Scholar
Mann, V. A., & Liberman, I. Y. (1984). Phonological awareness and verbal short–term memory. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 592599.Google Scholar
Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Welsh, A. (1978). Processing interactions and lexical access during word recognition and continuous speech. Cognitive Psychology, 10, 2963.Google Scholar
Mattys, S. L., Brooks, J., & Cooke, M. (2009). Recognizing speech under a processing load: Dissociating energetic from informational factors. Cognitive Psychology, 59, 203243.Google Scholar
McClelland, J. L., & Elman, J. L. (1986). The TRACE model of speech perception. Cognitive Psychology, 18, 186.Google Scholar
Menn, L. (1978). Phonological units in beginning speech. In Bell, A. & Hooper, J. B. (Eds.), Syllables and segments (pp. 157172). Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing.Google Scholar
Morton, J. (1969). Interaction of information in word recognition. Psychological Review, 76, 165178.Google Scholar
Mullennix, J. W., & Pisoni, D. B. (1990). Stimulus variability and processing dependencies in speech perception. Perception & Psychophysics, 47, 379390.Google Scholar
Nittrouer, S. (1992). Age-related differences in perceptual effects of formant transitions within syllables and across syllable boundaries. Journal of Phonetics, 20, 351382.Google Scholar
Nittrouer, S. (1999). Do temporal processing deficits cause phonological processing problems? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 42, 925942.Google Scholar
Nittrouer, S. (2002). Learning to perceive speech: How fricative perception changes, and how it stays the same. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 112, 711719.Google Scholar
Nittrouer, S., & Boothroyd, A. (1990). Context effects in phoneme and word recognition by young children and older adults. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 87, 27052715.Google Scholar
Nittrouer, S., & Lowenstein, J. H. (2010). Learning to perceptually organize speech signals in native fashion. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127, 16241635.Google Scholar
Nittrouer, S., Lowenstein, J. H., & Packer, R. (2009). Children discover the spectral skeletons in their native language before the amplitude envelopes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 12451253.Google Scholar
Nittrouer, S., & Miller, M. E. (1997a). Developmental weighting shifts for noise components of fricative-vowel syllables. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 102, 572580.Google Scholar
Nittrouer, S., & Miller, M. E. (1997b). Predicting developmental shifts in perceptual weighting schemes. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101, 22532266.Google Scholar
Nittrouer, S., & Miller, M. E. (1999). The development of phonemic coding strategies for serial recall. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 563588.Google Scholar
Nittrouer, S., Shune, S., & Lowenstein, J. H. (2011). What is the deficit in phonological processing deficits: Auditory sensitivity, masking, or category formation? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 108, 762785.Google Scholar
Nittrouer, S., & Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1987). The role of coarticulatory effects in the perception of fricatives by children and adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 30, 319329.Google Scholar
Palmeri, T. J., Goldinger, S. D., & Pisoni, D. B. (1993). Episodic encoding of voice attributes and recognition memory for spoken words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 309328.Google Scholar
Parnell, M. M., & Amerman, J. D. (1978). Maturational influences on perception of coarticulatory effects. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 21, 682701.Google Scholar
Piolat, A., Olive, T., & Kellogg, R. T. (2005). Cognitive effort during note taking. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 291312.Google Scholar
Port, R. (2007). How are words stored in memory? Beyond phones and phonemes. New Ideas in Psychology, 25, 143170.Google Scholar
Raphael, L. J. (2008). Acoustic cues to the perception of segmental phonemes. In Pisoni, D. B. & Remez, R. E. (Eds.), The handbook of speech perception (pp. 182206). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Rowe, E. J., & Rowe, W. G. (1976). Stimulus suffix effects with speech and nonspeech sounds. Memory and Cognition, 4, 128131.Google Scholar
Salame, P., & Baddeley, A. (1986). Phonological factors in STM: Similarity and the unattended speech effect. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 24, 263265.Google Scholar
Shankweiler, D., Liberman, I. Y., Mark, L. S., Fowler, C. A., & Fischer, F. W. (1979). The speech code and learning to read. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 5, 531545.Google Scholar
Shannon, R. V., Zeng, F. G., Kamath, V., Wygonski, J., & Ekelid, M. (1995). Speech recognition with primarily temporal cues. Science, 270, 303304.Google Scholar
Smith, Z. M., Delgutte, B., & Oxenham, A. J. (2002). Chimaeric sounds reveal dichotomies in auditory perception. Nature, 416, 8790.Google Scholar
Spoehr, K. T., & Corin, W. J. (1978). The stimulus suffix effect as a memory coding phenomenon. Memory and Cognition, 6, 583589.Google Scholar
Spring, C., & Perry, L. (1983). Naming speed and serial recall in poor and adequate readers. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 141145.Google Scholar
Stevens, K. N. (1972). The quantal nature of speech: Evidence from articulatory–acoustic data. In David, E. E. & Denes, P. B. (Eds.), Human communication: A unified view (pp. 5166). New York: McGraw–Hill.Google Scholar
Stevens, K. N. (1980). Acoustic correlates of some phonetic categories. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 68, 836842.Google Scholar
Wardrip-Fruin, C., & Peach, S. (1984). Developmental aspects of the perception of acoustic cues in determining the voicing feature of final stop consonants. Language and Speech, 27, 367379.Google Scholar
Waterson, N. (1971). Child phonology: A prosodic view. Journal of Linguistics, 7, 179211.Google Scholar
Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). The Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) (4th ed.). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
Xu, L., & Pfingst, B. E. (2003). Relative importance of temporal envelope and fine structure in lexical-tone perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 114, 30243027.Google Scholar