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TRAVELLING WITH THE POTTER'S WHEEL IN THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 August 2020

Maria Choleva
Affiliation:
Fitch Laboratory, British School at Athens
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

By adopting the chaîne opératoire approach as a dynamic theoretical and methodological framework for studying ancient technologies, this paper investigates the modalities behind the appearance of the potter's wheel in the Aegean during the Early Bronze Age II (c. 2550–2200 bc). Based on the comparative examination of ceramic assemblages from different Aegean sites, an extended technological study has been carried out in order to track the earliest wheel-made pottery and reconstruct the craft behaviours perpetrated by the use of the potter's wheel across the Aegean. The paper presents the results of this multi-site study and aims to (a) trace out the wheel-based technological traditions, (b) explore the contexts of the learning and transmission of the new tool, (c) shed light on the connectivity among Aegean and western Anatolian communities that enabled the transfer of the new craft knowledge, and, finally, (d) bring into view the mechanisms behind its emergence and appropriation. By considering technologies as representing an entire social system of knowing, perceiving and acting on the material world, it will be argued that the spread of the potter's wheel in the Aegean does not reflect a moment of linear diffusion of a technological innovation, adopted thanks to certain techno-functional advantages. Instead, it discloses the resilience of social identities and values embedded through the practical engagement of individuals in the production of their material culture. The potter's wheel, in fact, emerges as a socially and culturally mediated practice, specific to small groups of potters trained within a technological tradition of Anatolian origin, performing their craft in the Aegean socio-cultural milieus. Furthermore, its transfer reveals a multidirectional and dynamic crossing of material cultures that designated a navigable world where traditions, objects and people travelled, mixed and merged in unpredictable ways.

Ταξιδεύοντας με τον κεραμικό τροχό στο Αιγαίο της Πρώιμης Εποχής του Χαλκού

Υιοθετώντας την εγχειρηματική αλυσίδα ως ένα δυναμικό θεωρητικό και μεθοδολογικό πλαίσιο μελέτης των αρχαίων τεχνολογιών, το παρόν άρθρο διερευνά τους όρους εμφάνισης του κεραμικού τροχού στο Αιγαίο κατά την Πρώιμη Εποχή του Χαλκού 2 (2550–2200 π.Χ.). Στη βάση μιας συγκριτικής εξέτασης κεραμικών συνόλων από διαφορετικές αιγαιακές θέσεις, μια εκτεταμένη τεχνολογική μελέτη πραγματοποιήθηκε με σκοπό να εντοπισθούν τα πρωιμότερα τροχοποίητα αγγεία στο Αιγαίο και να ανασυσταθούν οι υποκείμενες τεχνικές συμπεριφορές. Το άρθρο παρουσιάζει τα αποτελέσματα αυτής της μελέτης και στοχεύει (α) στην ιχνηλάτηση εκείνων των τεχνολογικών παραδόσεων που εδραιώνονται στη χρήση του κεραμικού τροχού, (β) στη διερεύνηση των πλαισίων εκμάθησης και μεταβίβασης του νέου εργαλείου, (γ) στην κατανόηση της συνδεσιμότητας μεταξύ αιγαιακών και ανατολικών κοινοτήτων, η οποία κι επέτρεψε τη μετάδοση της νέας τεχνικής γνώσης και τέλος (δ) στην ανάδειξη των μηχανισμών πίσω από την ανάδυση και την ιδιοποίησή της. Κατανοώντας τις τεχνολογίες ως κοινωνικά συστήματα γνώσης, πρόσληψης και δράσης στον υλικό κόσμο, θα υποστηριχθεί ότι η διάδοση του κεραμικού τροχού στο Αιγαίο δεν αντανακλά μια στιγμή γραμμικής διάχυσης μιας τεχνολογικής καινοτομίας, η οποία υιοθετείται λόγω ορισμένων τεχνικών και λειτουργικών πλεονεκτημάτων. Φανερώνει, αντιθέτως, την ανθεκτικότητα των κοινωνικών ταυτοτήτων και αξιών που εμπεδώνονται κατά την πρακτική εμπλοκή των ατόμων στην παραγωγή του υλικού τους πολιτισμού. Ο κεραμικός τροχός αναδύεται, πράγματι, ως μια κοινωνικά και πολιτισμικά διαμεσολαβημένη πρακτική, ειδοποιός μικρών ομάδων κεραμέων που έχουν εκπαιδευτεί σε μια τεχνολογική παράδοση της δυτικής Ανατολίας και επιτελούν την τέχνη τους στα κοινωνικο-πολιτισμικά περιβάλλοντα του Αιγαίου. Επιπλέον, η μετάδοσή του αποκαλύπτει μια δυναμική, πολλών κατευθύνσεων, διασταύρωση υλικών πολιτισμών, σκιαγραφώντας έναν πλωτό κόσμο, όπου παραδόσεις, αντικείμενα και άνθρωποι ταξιδεύουν, αναμειγνύονται και διαπλέκονται με απρόβλεπτους τρόπους.

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Copyright © The Council, British School at Athens, 2020

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