Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-xvx2z Total loading time: 0.312 Render date: 2021-08-02T02:39:35.807Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Non-infectious and iatrogenic diseases of salmon in commercial aquaculture

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 February 2007

David J. Speare
Affiliation:
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3, Canada
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Based on current commercial aquaculture production practices, the production cycle for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) extends over a 36-month period during which time the fish are first exposed to intensive freshwater rearing conditions followed by transportation to marine netpen sites for ongrowing. It is predictable that, because of the duration of the production cycle and the variety of water conditions, deleterious environmental conditions have many opportunities to affect salmon health directly and indirectly. Furthermore, diseases which are iatrogenic arise from current methods used to prevent or treat infectious diseases. Specific, more frequently encountered examples are explored, with reference to the possible roles which these diseases may have in favouring the onset of infectious diseases.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © CAB International 2003

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abel, PD and Skidmore, JF (1975) Toxic effects of an anionic detergent on the gills of rainbow trout. Water Research 9, 759765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alderman, DJ (1985) Malachite green: a review. Journal of Fish Diseases 8, 289298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnesen, AM, Johnson, HK, Mörtensen, A & Jobling, M (1998) Acclimation of Atlantic salmon smolts to cold sea water following direct transfer from fresh water. Aquaculture 168, 351369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, GR (1961) Penetration of spines from a marine diatom into the gill tissue of lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus). Nature 192, 279280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bettencourt, SU and Anderson, JL (1990). Pen-reared Salmonid Industry in the Northeastern United States. Kingston (RI): Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center: University of Rhode Island.Google Scholar
Bjerkas, E, Bjørnstad, E, Breck, O and Waagbø, R (2001) Water temperature regimes affect cataract development in smolting Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 24, 281291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Black, EA, Whyte, JNC, Bagshaw, JW and Ginther, NG (1991) The effects of Heterosigma akashiwo on juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and its implications for fish culture. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 7, 168175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bodensteiner, LR, Sheehan, RJ, Lewis, WH, Wills, PS and Herman, RL (1993) Effects of repetitive formalin treatments on channel catfish juveniles. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 5, 5963.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouck, GR (1980) Etiology of gas bubble disease. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 109, 703707.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouck, GR and Johnson, DA (1979) Medication affects tolerance to seawater in coho salmon smolts. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 108, 6366.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouck, GR and Smith, SD (1979) Mortality of experimentally descaled smolts of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in fresh and salt water. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 108, 6769.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bullock, AM (1989) The effect of ultraviolet-B radiation upon the skin of the plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L., infected with the bodonid ectoparasite Ichthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1883). Journal of Fish Diseases 8, 457550.Google Scholar
Bullock, AM and Roberts, RJ (1992) The influence of ultraviolet-B radiation on the mechanism of wound repair in the skin of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 15, 143152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bullock, AM, Marks, R and Roberts, RJ (1978) The cell kinetics of teleost fish epidermis. Epidermal mitotic activity in relation to wound healing at varying temperatures in plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Journal of Zoology (London) 185, 197204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byrne, P, Speare, DJ and Ferguson, HW (1989) Effects of a cationic detergent on the gills and blood chemistry of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 6, 185196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carss, DN (1993) Grey heron, Ardea cinera L., predation at cage fish farms in Argyll, western Scotland. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 24, 2945.Google Scholar
Chowdhury, MBR and Wakabayashi, H (1989) Effects of competitive bacteria on the survival and infectivity of Flexibacter columnaris. Fish Pathology 24, 915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, ER, Harman, JP and Forster, JRM (1985) Production of metabolic and waste products by intensively farmed rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Journal of Fish Biology 27, 381393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colquhoun, DJ, Skjerve, E and Poppe, TT (1998) Pseudomonas fluorescens, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, and environmental stress as potential factors in the development of vaccine related adhesions in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 21, 355365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cusack, R and Johnson, G (1990) A study of dichlorvos (Nuvan: 2, 2 dichloroethenyl dimethyl phosphate), a therapeutic agent for the treatment of salmonids infected with sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Aquaculture 90, 101112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
D'Aoust, BG and Smith, LS (1974) Bends in fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 49, 311321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daoust, PY and Ferguson, HW (1984) The pathology of chronic ammonia toxicity in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Journal of Fish Diseases 7, 199205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daskalov, H, Robertson, PAW and Austin, B (2000) Influence of oxidized lipids in diets on the development of rainbow trout fry syndrome. Journal of Fish Diseases 23, 714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dey, DB and Damkaer, DM (1990) Effects of spectral irradiance on the early development of chinook salmon. Progressive Fish-Culturist 53, 141154.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, AE and Wooten, R (1978) Costiasis of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts in seawater. Journal of Fish Diseases 1, 389397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferguson, HW, Roberts, RJ, Richards, RH, Collins, RO and Rice, DA (1986) Severe degenerative cardiomyopathy associated with pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 20, 9598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferguson, HW, Rice, DA and Lynas, JK (1986) Clinical pathology of myodegeneration (pancreas disease) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Veterinary Record 119, 297299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferguson, HW, Poppe, T and Speare, DJ (1990) Cardiomyopathy in farmed Norwegian salmon. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 8, 225231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fletcher, GL, Kao, MH and Dempson, JB (1988) Lethal freezing temperatures of arctic char and other salmonids in the presence of ice. Aquaculture 71, 369378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fowler, LG and Banks, JL (1990) Iodophor toxicity to eggs and fry of fall chinook salmon. Progressive Fish-Culturist 52, 176178.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
From, J (1980) Chloramine-T for control of bacterial gill disease. Progressive Fish-Culturist 42, 8586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Furevik, DM, Bjordal, Å, Huse, I and Fernö, A (1993) Surface activity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in net pens. Aquaculture 110, 119128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaines, G and Taylor, FJR (1986). A Mariculturist's Guide to Potentially Harmful Marine Phytoplankton of the Pacific Coast of North America. Victoria, British Columbia: Province of British Columbia.Google Scholar
Gerundo, N, Alderman, DJ, Clifton-Hadley, RS and Feist, SW (1991) Pathological effects of repeated doses of malachite green: a preliminary study. Journal of Fish Diseases 14, 521532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grave, K, Engelstad, M, Soli, NE and Håstein, T (1990) Utilization of antibacterial drugs in salmonid farming in Norway during 1980–1988. Aquaculture 86, 347358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanke, AR, Backman, S, Speare, DJ and Friars, GW (1991) An uncommon presentation of fungal infection in Atlantic salmon fry. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 3, 192197.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanson, LA and Grizzle, JM (1985) Nitrite-induced predisposition of channel catfish to bacterial diseases. Progressive Fish-Culturist 47, 98101.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrison, JG and Richards, RH (1979) The pathology and histopathology of nephrocalcinosis in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson in freshwater. Journal of Fish Diseases 2, 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herwig, N. (1979). Handbook of Drugs and Chemicals Used in the Treatment of Fish Diseases. Springfield (IL): Bannerstone House.Google Scholar
Hoskins, GE and Dalziel, FC (1984) Survival of chinook fry (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) following exposure to benzalkonium chloride in soft water. Progressive Fish-Culturist 46, 98101.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Høy, T, Horsberg, TE and Wichstrøm, R (1991) Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in rainbow trout following dichlorvos treatment at different water oxygen levels. Aquaculture 95, 3340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iwama, GK (1991) Interactions between aquaculture and the environment. Critical Reviews in Environmental Control 21, 177216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jobling, M, Andreassen, B, Larsen, AV and Olson, RL (2002) Fat dynamics of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. smolt during early seawater growth. Aquaculture Research 33: 739745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keenleyside, MHA and Yamamoto, FT (1962) Territorial behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Behaviour 19: 139169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kent, ML (1990) Netpen liver disease (NLD) of salmonid fishes reared in sea water: species susceptibility, recovery, and probable cause. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 8: 2128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kent, ML (1992) Diseases of Seawater Netpen-Reared Salmonid Fishes in the Pacific Northwest. Canadian Special Publication, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 116.Google Scholar
Kent, ML, Myers, MS, Hinton, DE, Eaton, WD and Elston, RA (1988) Suspected toxicopathic hepatic necrosis and megalocytosis in pen-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 4: 91100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knezovich, JP, Lawton, MP and Inouye, LS (1989) Bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of a quaternary ammonium surfactant in three aquatic species. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 42: 8793.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knights, B (1989) Effects of ammonia accumulation on metabolic rates and growth of European eel, Anguilla anguilla L., in relation to warmwater aquaculture. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 20: 111117.Google Scholar
Knoph, MB (1992) Acute toxicity of ammonia to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 101C: 275282.Google Scholar
Koss, DR and Bromage, NR (1990) Influence of the timing of initial feeding on the survival and growth of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 89: 149164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lang, T, Peters, G, Hoffmann, R and Meyer, E (1987) Experimental investigations on the toxicity of ammonia effects on ventilation frequency, growth, epidermal mucous cells, and gill structure of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 3: 159165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lauren, DJ and McDonald, DG (1986) Influence of water hardness, pH and alkalinity on the mechanisms of copper toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43: 14881496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laurent, P and Perry, SF (1991) Environmental effects on fish gill morphology. Physiological Zoology 64: 425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lemon, CA and Hendrix, MA (1981) Growth and survival of Atlantic salmon fed various starter diets. Progressive Fish-Culturist 43: 195199.Google Scholar
Leon, KA and Bonney, WA (1979) Atlantic salmon embryos and fry: effects of various incubation and rearing methods on hatchery survival and growth. Progressive Fish-Culturist 41: 2025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, WM and Morris, DP (1986) Toxicity of nitrite to fish: a review. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 15: 183195.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lucchetti, GL and Gray, GA (1988) Water reuse systems: a review of principal components. Progressive Fish-Culturist 50: 16.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lumsden, JS, Clark, P, Hawthorn, S, Minamikawa, M, Fenwick, SG, Haycock, M and Wybourne, B. (2002) Gastric dilation and air sacculitis in farmed chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases 25: 155163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McArdle, J and Bullock, AM (1987) Solar ultraviolet radiation as a causal factor of 'summer syndrome' in cage-reared Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.: a clinical and histopathological study. Journal of Fish Diseases 10: 255263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McVicar, AH (1987) Pancreas disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in Scotland: epidemiology and early pathology. Aquaculture 67: 7178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meade, JW, Ramsey, JS and Williams, JC (1985) Effects of cumulative loading levels, as fish weight per unit flow, on water quality and growth of lake trout. Journal of the World Mariculture Society 16: 4051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, FP and Jorgenson, TA (1983) Teratological and other effects of malachite green on development of rainbow trout and rabbits. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 112: 818824.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moccia, RD, Hung, SSO, Slinger, SJ and Ferguson, HW (1984) Effect of oxidized fish oil, vitamin E and ethoxyquin on the histopathology and haematology of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Journal of Fish Diseases 7: 269282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moring, JR (1989) Documentation of unaccounted for losses of chinook salmon from saltwater cages. Progressive Fish-Culturist 51: 173176.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Munro, ALS (1990) Salmon farming. Fisheries Research 10: 151161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, CB and Beacham, TD (1986) Effect of incubation density and substrate on development of chum salmon eggs and alevins. Progressive Fish-Culturist 48: 242249.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, CB, Evelyn, TPT, Beacham, TD, Barner, LW, Ketcheson, JE and Prosperi-Porta, L (1992) Experimental induction of bacterial kidney disease in chinook salmon by immersion and cohabitation challenges. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 12: 9196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newbound, GC, Speare, DJ, Hammell, KL, Kent, ML, Ostland, VE and Traxler, GS (1993) Chehalis River disease: a unique gill disease of salmonids. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50: 10921100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nilsson, J (1992) Genetic variation in resistance of arctic char to fungal infection. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 4: 126128.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nunez, O, Hendricks, JD and Duimstra, JR (1991) Ultrastructure of hepatocellular neoplasms in aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-initiated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Toxicological Pathology 19: 1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peterson, RH and Martin-Robichaud, DJ (1989) First feeding of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) as influenced by temperature regime. Aquaculture 78: 3553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peterson, RH and Sreedhoran, A (1992) Water content of Atlantic salmon fry at first feeding in southern New Brunswick hatcheries. Progressive Fish-Culturist 54: 181183.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pisam, M, Prunet, G, Boeuf, G and Rambourg, A (1988) Ultrastructural features of chloride cells in the gill epithelium of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, during smoltification. American Journal of Anatomy 183: 235244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poppe, TT and Breck, O (1997) Pathology of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar intraperitoneally immunized with oil-adjuvanted vaccine. A case report. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 29: 219226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poppe, TT, Håstein, T, Froslie, A, Koppang, N and Norheim, G (1986) Nutritional aspects of haemorrhagic syndrome ('Hitra disease') in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 1: 155162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powell, MD, Wright, GM and Speare, DJ (1995) Morphological changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill epithelia following repeated intermittent exposure to chloramine-T. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73: 154165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powell, MD, Speare, DJ, Fulton, AE and Friars, GW (1996) Effects of intermittent formalin treatment of Atlantic salmon juveniles on growth, condition factor, plasma electrolytes, and hematocrit in freshwater and after transfer to seawater. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 8: 6469.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raynard, RS, McVicar, AH, Bell, JG, Youngson, A, Knox, D and Fraser, CO (1991) Nutritional aspects of pancreas disease of Atlantic salmon: the effects of dietary vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 98C: 125131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roald, S, Armstrong, D and Landsverk, T (1981) Histochemical, fluorescent and electron microscopical appearance of hepatocellular ceroidosis in the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, L. Journal of Fish Diseases 4: 114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, RJ, Richards, RH and Bullock, AM (1979) Pansteatitis in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson: a clinical and histopathological study. Journal of Fish Diseases 2: 8592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, RJ, Hardy, RW and Sugiura, SH (2001) Screamer disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Chile. Journal of Fish Diseases 24: 543550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodger, HD (1991) Summer lesion syndrome in salmon: a retrospective study. Veterinary Record 129: 237239.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodger, HD, Murphy, TM, Drinnan, EM and Rice, DA (1991) Acute skeletal myopathy in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 12: 1723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rorvik,, KA, Skjervold, PO, Fjaera, SO and Steien, SH (2000) Distended water-filled stomach in seawater farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), provoked experimentally by osmoregulatory stress. Journal of Fish Diseases 23: 1518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, LG, Ward, KMH and Ross, B (1985) The effects of formalin, malachite green, and suspended solids on the respiratory activity of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 16: 129138.Google Scholar
Salte, R, Syvertsen, C, Kjonnoy, M and Fonnum, F (1987) Fatal acetylcholinesterase in salmonids subjected to a routine organophosphate treatment. Aquaculture 61: 173179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saraiva, A, Eiras, JC and Bucke, D (1986) Lipoid liver degeneration and pseudobranch pathology in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, in Portugal. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 6: 115118.Google Scholar
Smart, G (1976) The effect of ammonia exposure on gill structure of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29: 328329.Google Scholar
Smith, CE and Piper, RG (1975) Lesions associated with chronic exposure to ammonia. In: Ribelin, WE and Migaki, G (editors). The Pathology of Fishes. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 497517.Google Scholar
Smith, RP (1980) Toxic responses of the blood. In: Doull, J, Klassen, CD and Amdur, MO (editors). Toxicology—The Basic Science of Poisons. Toronto: MacMillanpp, pp. 319321.Google Scholar
Smith, SD, Gould, RW, Zaugg, WS, Harrell, LW and Mahnken, CVW (1987) Safe pre-release disease treatment with formalin for fall chinook salmon smolts. Progressive Fish-Culturist 49: 9699.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soderberg, RW, Meade, JW and Redell, LA (1993) Fin condition of Atlantic salmon reared at high densities in heated water. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 5: 7779.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Speare, DJ and Backman, S (1988) Ammonia and nitrite waterborne toxicity of commercial rainbow trout. Canadian Veterinary Journal 29: 666.Google ScholarPubMed
Speare, DJ (1990) Histopathology and ultrastructure of ocular lesions associated with gas bubble disease in salmonids. Journal of Comparative Pathology 103: 421432.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Speare, DJ (1991) Endothelial lesions associated with gas bubble disease in fish. Journal of Comparative Pathology 104: 327335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Speare, DJ and Ferguson, HW (1989) Clinical and pathological features of common gill diseases of cultured salmonids in Ontario. Canadian Veterinary Journal 30: 882887.Google ScholarPubMed
Speare, DJ, Brackett, J and Ferguson, HW (1989) Sequential pathology of the gills of coho salmon with a combined diatom and microsporidian gill infection. Canadian Veterinary Journal 30: 571575.Google ScholarPubMed
Speare, DJ, Ferguson, HW, Beamish, FWH and Yager, JA (1991) Pathology of bacterial gill disease: sequential development of lesions during natural outbreaks of disease. Journal of Fish Diseases 14: 2132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Speare, DJ, Ferguson, HW, Beamish, FWH and Yager, JA (1991) Pathology of bacterial gill disease: ultrastructure of branchial lesions. Journal of Fish Diseases 14: 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Speare, DJ, Arsenault, G, MacNair, N and Powell, MD (1997) Branchial lesions associated with intermittent formalin bath treatment of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases 20: 2733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Srivastava, RK, Brown, JA and Allen, J (1991) The influence of wave frequency and wave height on the behaviour of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in cages. Aquaculture 97: 143153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Staurnes, M, Andorsdottir, G and Sundby, A (1990) Distended water filled stomachs in sea-farmed rainbow trout. Aquaculture 90: 333343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stefansson, SO, Nortvedt, R, Hansen, TJ and Taranger, GL (1990) First feeding of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., under different photoperiods and light intensities. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 21: 435441.Google Scholar
Stephen, C, Kent, ML and Dawe, SC (1993) Hepatic megalocytosis in wild and farmed chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in British Columbia, Canada. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 16: 3539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sutterlin, AM, Holder, J and Benfey, T (1987) Early survival rates and subsequent morphological abnormalities in landlocked anadromous and hybrid (landlocked X anadromous) diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 64: 157164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Straus, DL (1993) Prevention of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation in channel catfish fingerlings by copper sulfate treatment. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 5: 152154.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tacon, AGF (1996) Lipid nutritional pathology in farmed fish. Archives of Animal Nutrition 49: 3339.Google ScholarPubMed
Thorburn, MA & Moccia, RD (1993) Use of chemotherapeutics on trout farms in Ontario. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 5: 8591.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thurston, RV, Russo, RC, Luedtke, RJ, Smith, CE, Meyn, EL, Chakoumakos, C, Wang, KC and Brown, CJD (1984) Chronic toxicity of ammonia to rainbow trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 113: 5673.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toften, H and Jobling, M (1996) Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline. Journal of Fish Biology 49: 668677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tucker, CS, Francis-Floyd, R and Beleau, MH (1989) Nitrite-induced anemia in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 43: 295310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Underdal, B, Skulberg, OM, Dahl, E and Aune, T (1989) Disastrous bloom of Chrysochromulina polylepis (Prymnesiophyceae) in Norwegian coastal water 1988—mortality in marine biota. Ambio 18: 265270.Google Scholar
Urawa, S (1993) Effects of Ichthyobodo necator infections on seawater survival of juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). Aquaculture 110: 101110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vägsholm, HO and Djupvik, S (1998) Risk factors for spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 21: 4753.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wakabayashi, H (1991) Effect on environmental conditions on the infectivity of Flexibacter columnaris. Journal of Fish Diseases 14: 279––290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weitkamp, DE and Katz, M (1980) A review of dissolved gas supersaturation literature. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 109: 659702.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, RR and Lightner, DV (1988) Formalin loss in seawater associated with varying levels of organic detritus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 19: 163165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winston, GW (1991) Oxidant and antioxidants in aquatic animals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 100C: 173176.Google Scholar
Yacoob, SY, Anraku, K, Archdale, MV, Matsuoka, T and Kiyohara, S (2002) Exposure of taste buds to potassium permanganate and formalin suppresses the gustatory neural response. Aquaculture Research 33: 445454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Non-infectious and iatrogenic diseases of salmon in commercial aquaculture
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Non-infectious and iatrogenic diseases of salmon in commercial aquaculture
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Non-infectious and iatrogenic diseases of salmon in commercial aquaculture
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *