Instructions for contributors can be read in full here.
- Coverage. ASE has from the outset been an interdisciplinary journal (Peter Clemoes, in ASE 5, p. ix). Disciplines covered include: OE language and literature; Insular Latin language and literature; hagiography; manuscript studies, including palaeography; liturgy; history; art history; archaeology; numismatics; onomastics.
- Process. For information on the editorial, processing and production processes, see Section 2 (‘Submission, processing and production’).
- Length of articles. The ‘normal’ length for a published article (by electronic word count in Microsoft Word) is of the order of 10,000–15,000 words, including footnotes, which when printed would occupy between 20 and 30 pages. Shorter or short contributions are also welcome. The journal is able to publish longer articles, in appropriate circumstances. Needless to say, much will depend in a given year on the number and length of other contributions, since the overall length of a volume is fixed.
- Abstracts. Each article must begin with an abstract of the argument (up to 150 words), placed between the author’s name and the opening paragraph. Examples may be found in ASE 35 (2006), onwards. Please note that the purpose of the abstract is to summarise and not to introduce the argument.
- Illustrations may be included, provided that contributors supply digital images of sufficient quality for printing, provided that they obtain appropriate rights and permissions, and provided that they cover any fees. Digital images in colour will be printed in halftone (black and white), but can appear in colour in the journal’s online publication, without charge. It may also be possible to refer to colour illustrations readily available online elsewhere. For further information, see Section 5.
- Primary sources. We welcome the opportunity to publish editions (with translations) of recently discovered texts, whether in Latin or Old English, or new editions of short texts which require and deserve such treatment. We also welcome the opportunity to publish reports on recently discovered objects, or fresh studies of particular manuscripts.
- Works of reference. ASE has a tradition of publishing checklists of particular categories of material, and addenda to standard works of reference. Neil Ker’s supplement to his Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford, 1957) appeared in ASE 5 (1976). Helmut Gneuss’s ‘Preliminary List of Manuscripts Written or Owned in Anglo-Saxon England up to 1100’ appeared in ASE 9 (1981 for 1980), published subsequently as Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts (2001); addenda and corrigenda appeared in ASE 32 (2003), and again in ASE 40 (2011); all now superseded by Gneuss and Lapidge, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: a Bibliographical Handlist (2014). Supplements to Elisabeth Okasha’s Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Non- Runic Inscriptions (Cambridge, 1971) appeared in ASE 11 (1983 for 1982), 21 (1992), and 33 (2004). There is always scope for more such works of reference.
- Review articles. Under the editorship of Peter Clemoes (vols. 1–18), a volume of ASE regularly ended with a review article on a particular aspect of Anglo-Saxon studies; for a list, see Epilogue (p. 36). We are eager to revive and continue this practice. Please contact a member of the Advisory Editorial Board if you have a suggestion. Suitable subjects would include: advances over the past 25 years in a particular discipline or form of evidence (art-history, numismatics, palaeography, diplomatic, law, etc.); developments in digital resources; particular themes in literary criticism.
- Indexes. Indexes to the papers published in ASE appeared at five-yearly intervals between vol. 5 (1976) and vol. 30 (2001); the practice had since been discontinued. The contents of all past volumes are now available electronically, and may be searched in that way.
- ISAS. Short formal reports on the biennial meetings of the International Society of Anglo-Saxonists (ISAS), in a standardised form, have been published in ASE since the first ISAS meeting, held at Brussels and Ghent in 1983. It is intended that this should continue. Many papers which originated at ISAS meetings have subsequently been submitted for publication in ASE, though it is now the practice for conference organizers to make arrangements for the publication of ISAS papers in special volumes of their own.
STYLE SHEET (1): ASPECTS OF PRESENTATION
Please read these guidelines carefully. Contributors are reminded that articles in earlier issues of ASE may be found useful as models for presentation, style of references, etc.; but they should note that certain practices have been changed, and that this style-sheet has priority. In case of doubt, please consult your designated editor, or one of the executive editors. Should you have any comments to make on this guidance, or any suggestions for its improvement, please email them to the Editorial Assistant.
Articles must be in English. They should be submitted in electronic format, in a Microsoft Word file. Every contribution should begin with the title and the author’s name (forenames in full or reduced to initials, depending on the author’s preference), followed by an abstract (maximum 150 words); for examples, see ASE 35 (2006) onwards. Acknowledgements should normally appear in the last footnote.
Special characters and special fonts. Upper- and lower-case ash (Æ, æ) are available as standard in MS Word. Upper- and lower-case eth (Ð, ð) and thorn (Þ, þ) are available from the standard Icelandic font supplied within MS Word.
Text and notes may be typed with lines single- or double-spaced. A single space between sentences is preferable to two or more spaces. Please do not justify right- hand margins. Any letters or words to be printed in italic should be formatted in italic font (not underlined for italic); similarly, any letters or words to be printed in bold typeface should be formatted in bold font. The notes, which must created electronically as an integral part of the Word file, must occur in one numerical series (Arabic numbers), and should be provided as footnotes (for ease of reading); they will be printed as footnotes.
British, rather than American, spelling should be used; articles in past volumes of ASE will provide examples of our preferred practices (e.g. medieval, judgement, artifact). A spelling with -ize should be used where the Oxford English Dictionary recommends it, e.g. organize, emphasize, recognize, realize, criticize, standardize; - ise is used in, e.g., compromise, exercise, surprise, improvise, advertise, advise. Careful attention should be given to the spelling of Old English names. We use the (standard) AS/OE spelling, except in the case of a few individuals who have well established modern forms (e.g. Alfred not Ælfred or Aelfred, Swithun not Swithhun); we use Æ and æ (not Ae and ae), but th (not þ or ð), e.g. Æthelstan, Æthelmær, Æthelweard. The indexes in ASE 5 (1976), ASE 10 (1982), ASE 15 (1986), ASE 20
(1991), ASE 25 (1997) and ASE 30 (2001) will provide examples; see also the index to F. M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, 3rd ed. (Oxford, 1971), and the entries in the Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England, 2nd ed. (Chichester, 2014).
A word or short phrase which is emphasized or used in a passage of analysis should be formatted in italic, and not enclosed in quotation marks. A more extensive quotation, which is not longer than sixty words of prose or one line of verse, should be enclosed in single quotation marks. A longer quotation should be indented, as a separate block of text, and neither quotation marks nor underlining used. Double quotation marks should be used only for quotations within quotations which are themselves already enclosed in single quotation marks. A quotation not in Modern English should be accompanied by a translation, which should be enclosed in single quotation marks and placed in a footnote.
4. Headings and sub-headings
Where appropriate, contributors are strongly encouraged to employ headings and sub- headings in the interest of clarity; see past volumes for examples. The hierarchy of headings and sub-headings within an article is as follows: (A) a main heading, which should be in capitals (and will be printed in small capitals), roman, and centred; (B) a sub-heading, which should be in lower case (with initial capital), italic (i.e. formatted for italic), and centred; and (C) a sub-sub-heading, which should be in lower case (with initial capital), italic (i.e. formatted for italic), beginning in the left hand margin. The first line of text following a main heading (A) or a sub-heading (B) is not indented; but the first line of text following a sub-sub-heading (C) is indented.
Numbers should be in words if less than 100 and if not within a specific reference, measurement, date, list or table or part of extensive statistical data, e.g.: the tenth century; mid-tenth century; a late-tenth-century manuscript; twenty-six occasions; sixty-four per cent; but 64% (if part of extensive data), and 40 ´ 95 mm. Otherwise they should be in figures. Arabic numbers, in a series, should be accordance with these examples (note the various form of contraction):
(i) 30–4 (not 30–34), 191–6 (not 191–196 or 191–96), 300–4
(ii) 210–12 and 213–15 (not 210–2 and 213–5)
(iii) 232–43 (not 232–243)
(iv) 191 and 204 (not 191, 204)
(v) 191, 204 and 310 (not 191, 204, 310 or 191, 204, and 310)
Please note. En-rules (–), as opposed to hyphens (-), should be used between numbers. In references to manuscripts or lines of poetry which specify the side of a leaf or the part of a line, the principles implicit in (i)–(iii) have to be waived: e.g. 26r– 27v (not 26r–7v) and 93b–94a (not 93b–4a).
As a general rule, abbreviations are to be avoided in running prose, especially in the main text of the article; but there are exceptions. No stop should be used after an abbreviation which includes the last letter of the word (e.g. Dr or St). A stop should however be used after the -s of a plural if it would be used after the corresponding singular (fol., fols., etc.). An abbreviation such as OE (= Old English) or ON (= Old Norse) should be used (without fullstops) before a linguistic form (e.g. OE ea or OE fæder), but not as part of running prose (e.g. Old English poetry, the Old English language, in Old English). The abbreviations MS and MSS are not to be used in running prose for the word ‘manuscript(s)’ on its own (but may need to be used in references to specific manuscripts in certain collections). SS is used for ‘Saints’, as in SS Peter and Paul.
Standard abbreviations may be used (and italicized, or not), as follows:
e.g. i.e. cf. etc. s.v. s.a. c. ibid. et al. viz. esp. repr. rev. ed. ch. chs. fol. fols. vol. vols. col. cols. ptd
For the use of abbreviations in references to books, articles, manuscripts, etc., see below, Section 4 (Systems of Reference).
In general, British, rather than American, punctuation should be used, e.g. commas outside quotations marks, single rather than double quotation marks (except for quotations within quotations) and no comma before ‘and’ in a series, or before ‘etc.’ (There are contexts, however, when the use of the so-called ‘Oxford’ or serial comma is helpful.) Hyphenation should be kept to the unavoidable minimum; for guidance, see the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Except in special circumstances, macrons and accents are not used in the citation of Old English words.
Footnotes. A suprascript number, indicating the place in the main text to which a footnote refers, should follow adjacent punctuation, e.g. ‘his first lessons in holy writings’,2 (not ‘his first lessons in holy writings’2, or ‘his first lessons in holy writings2’,); please avoid placing a footnote number immediately adjacent to a word, or to a bracket (whether inside or outside the bracket).
It would be helpful to the copy editor if parenthetical or emphatic dashes were typed as spaced en-rules, and not as single or double hyphens, or as em-rules (spaced or unspaced).
This is an – illustrative – example of spaced en-rules. This is an — illustrative — example of spaced em-rules.
This is an--illustrative--example of unspaced double hyphens.
Dashes in date or number ranges should be unspaced en-rules, in accordance with Section 3.5 above.
Square brackets should only be used within quotations or editions, i.e. when deviating from the original text. They should not be used within round brackets in references.
8. Lower case
Lower case should be used for the initial letter of a pronoun referring to God and the initial letter of a word such as ‘church’, ‘king’, ‘bishop’, or ‘psalter’, unless the word is part of a title as in, e.g., the Vespasian Psalter or King Alfred (but Alfred, king of Wessex, not King Alfred of Wessex). However, an initial capital is preferred for ‘Bible’, ‘Continent’ and ‘Insular’.
Dates should be standardized on the models 1 September 1014, 1 September and September 1014. For an approximate date, the correct form is c. 978 (not ca. 978). BC is used in the usual way (e.g. 55 BC), but AD is not used unless required for some reason by the context. In accordance with Section 3.5 above, en-rules should be used in running numbers, e.g. 975–8. A multiplication sign (MS Word: symbol font, alt-e), not the letter x, should be used in expressions indicating a point between two outer limits, without contraction, e.g. 940 ´ 950 (not 940 x 950, or 940x50).
STYLE SHEET (2): SYSTEMS OF REFERENCE
The basic principle for contributions to ASE, as a journal (with no consolidated bibliography at the end of the volume), rather than a monograph (with a single bibliography at the end of the volume), is that an item (whether book or article) is cited in full on the first occasion, and in an abbreviated form on all subsequent occasions. The guiding principles are: scrupulous accuracy in citation of all references; and consistency in the manner of citation, and abbreviation, across all references. The ASE system is similar to the system set out in the Chicago Manual of Style, though not identical. For helpful examples, please refer to articles published in earlier volumes of ASE.
Complications arise in connection with citations of editions of primary sources, whether in Latin or in Old English; see below, Section 4.7–9, and Annexes IV–VI.
Explanation of conventions
Abbreviations such as bk(s), vol(s)., p(p)., ch(s). and col(s). should be used (with certain exceptions in references to books and articles, mentioned below); but the word ‘line(s)’ should always be in full.
2. References to books and articles
(i) Even if given in full in the publication itself, an author’s forenames are to be reduced to initials when the publication is first cited in a footnote; thereafter, only the surname is needed. Exceptions may have to be made in the case of very common names, and Icelanders. The purpose of this convention is to save space and sub- editorial time, and to make it easier to achieve consistency through the volume as a whole (since practices are so variable); it is of course permissible to give an author’s full forename(s) in the body of the text. In a first reference to a book or article written or edited by more than one person, all the authors or editors should be named; in a subsequent reference to such a work, where three or more names are concerned, only the first name need be given, followed (without a comma) by et al.
(ii) The title of a book or article must be given in full, exactly as in the publication; no word should be omitted or shortened in any way, whether in a foreign language or in English. (This rule might have to be relaxed when dealing with the very long titles often found in books published before c. 1900.) The title of a series or periodical, on the other hand, should be treated in accordance with the guidance below. In the case of a book or article with a title and a sub-title, a colon should be used to separate the two elements; the first word in a sub-title should only begin with a capital if it is a significant word (e.g. Aldhelm: the Prose Works, not Aldhelm: The Prose Works, and The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: a Revised Translation, not The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: A Revised Translation). (This is British usage, but not American usage; and it needs to be watched.)
(iii) In the case of editions of texts (or edited collections of essays), the title of the work should precede the name(s) of the editor(s): e.g. Anglo-Saxon Wills, ed. D. Whitelock (Cambridge, 1930), not D. Whitelock, ed., Anglo-Saxon Wills (Cambridge, 1930). The abbreviation(s) ‘ed.’, or ‘ed. and trans.’, should follow the formula appearing on the title-page of the book in question (and should not be introduced into the reference if the equivalent words do not occur on the title-page); when the formula on the title-page is simply ‘translated by’, ‘trans.’ is not used, and the
(iv) Every significant word in a title in English should begin with a capital; lower case is retained for small words such as articles, pronouns, prepositions and conjunctions etc. (e.g. the, their, in honour of, presented to), unless, of course, the word in question is the first in the title.
(v) The use of capitals in foreign titles should be according to contemporary usage in the language concerned; for the treatment of titles in Latin, see further below.
(vi) ‘vol(s).’ and ‘p(p).’ should be omitted from references which include both a volume number (e.g. of a two-volume work, or of an issue of a periodical, or a volume in a series) and a page number. E.g., in a reference to a particular volume of a multi-volume work: … Title of Book I, 00–00; but not Title of Book, vol. I, pp. 00–0. The formulation … ed. Name II, 00–0, is disturbing, and should be avoided; see Annex III. In a first reference to an article in a periodical: A. N. Other, ‘Full Title of Article’, ASE 7 (1978), 000–00; a subsequent reference to such an item would be to Other, ‘Short Title’, pp. 00–00.
(vii) Spaces should be left between an author’s initials, between his or her initials and his or her surname, and between the constituent elements of the reference itself (e.g.
(viii) In a first reference to an article (e.g. in a periodical, or in a collection of essays), the page numbers of the whole article must be given (followed by a more specific reference, if desired); thereafter, references may be to specific pages. For the treatment of numbers, see above, Section 3.5.
(ix) Titles of books to be printed in italics should be formatted in italic (not underlined for italic); titles of articles should be in roman, within single quotation marks; periodical titles should be formatted in italic; series titles should be in roman; titles of unpublished dissertations in roman within single quotation marks.
(x) The volume number of a book which is in more than one volume should be in roman capitals; the volume number of a periodical, and the number of a book in a series, should be arabic. A volume number (whether in roman or in arabic) should not (as a general rule) be preceded by a comma. For a periodical without volume numbers the year of publication should be cited and treated as a volume number.
(xi) Place of publication for a book published in Europe is given in the form familiar in English: thus Munich, not München, and Florence, not Firenze. Place of publication for a book published in the United States of America may need to be accompanied by the modern two-letter postal abbreviation for the state: thus Providence, RI. In the case of a book published in more than one place, the reference should give only the first (e.g. ‘London’, not ‘London and New York’).
(xii) Except in special circumstances, books should be cited in their most recent edition, e.g. in a second or subsequent edition if there has been one (in which pages might have been reset and new material added). It is not ASE practice to cite a book from the date of a reprint, if the reprint simply reproduces the original edition (e.g. by a photographic or digital process); in such cases, the date of first publication should be used. Care needs to be taken with print-on-demand reprints, if they differ in some significant respect from the work as first published, and where a date might refer merely to the date of production of the reprint.
(xiii) A first reference to a book or article etc., and subsequent references and cross references, should be modeled on the appropriate examples given in Annex III, using the systems of abbreviation set out in Annexes I and II. If an author should need other abbreviations, they should be listed at the earliest convenient point in the article. In the case of a series or periodical which is not included in the lists of abbreviations (Annex I), its title should be shortened where possible by employing the abbreviations indicated in Annex II. A title which consists of one word only (e.g. History), and words in foreign languages, should not be shortened. Small words should not be omitted from titles of series or periodicals, with the sole exception of initial ‘The’ (e.g. Proc. of the Suffolk Inst. of Archaeol., not The Proc ; but initial name(s) of the translator(s) should precede the title in the normal way used for authors of books. (e.g. P. Clemoes, ‘Ælfric’, Continuations and Beginnings: Studies in Old English Literature, ed. E. G. Stanley (London, 1966), pp. 176–209). ‘The’ is to be retained for The Historian, The Library, The London Archaeologist, etc.).
3. Style for the first reference to books and articles
For examples of the forms of citation for first (full) references, see the examples in Annex III (i)–(ix). The examples will not, of course, cover all types of reference; but other types of reference should be devised according to the principles which are implicit in them.
Contributors are reminded that for items published since 1971 there should be a reference in the approved style in the appropriate ASE annual bibliography; note, however, that in these bibliographies authors’ forenames will continue to be given as in the publication, whereas in footnotes attached to articles such names are to be reduced to initials.
4. Style for subsequent references
A subsequent reference to a work already cited should be shortened by the use of ibid. (without a following comma), if the reference is immediately consecutive. If the reference comes later, a subsequent reference should be shortened by the use of a short title, but not op. cit. For examples, see Annex III (xii).
5. Cross references
Cross references (to be kept to a minimum) should be placed in footnotes, not in the main text, and should be in the form:
See above, p. 00.
See below, p. 000, n. 0.
See above, p. 00, nn. 0–0. See below, n. 00.
6. References to manuscripts
It is acceptable, however, because helpful to those assessing the article, if contributors use a combination of generic/actual figures for page numbers (e.g. in the form 00/25), when first submitting it for consideration, and actual numbers for the footnotes. All numbers should of course be changed to the actual numbers at proof-stage, and be checked very carefully.
It is essential that any manuscript should be given its appropriate shelfmark: thus reference should be made not simply to the ‘Book of Cerne’, but to the ‘Book of Cerne’ (Cambridge, University Library, Ll. 1. 10). In the case of manuscripts written or owned in England before c. 1100, it is considered helpful that reference be made also to the entry for the manuscript in Gneuss and Lapidge (2014). Wherever possible, an indication should be given of a manuscript’s origin, date and provenance; though of course this can give rise to difficulties. For some examples, see further below.
For purposes of dating, the convention is to give dates in accordance with the following examples (with intended meaning here expressed in square brackets): s. xin. or s. x in. [early tenth century, covering the period c. 900–25]; s. x1 [first half of the tenth century]; s. xmed. or s. x med. [middle of the tenth century, covering the period c. 925–75]; s. x [tenth century, without greater precision]; s. x2 [second half of the tenth century]; s. xex. or s. x ex. [late tenth century, covering the period c. 975–1000]; s. x/xi [late tenth- or early eleventh-century, covering the period c. 975–1025].
If reference is to the recto or verso of a manuscript leaf, ‘fol.’ should be omitted and ‘r’ or ‘v’ should be specified (e.g. 26r, 27v, 26r–27v (not 26r–7v) or 35r–43v). If reference is to a leaf (or leaves) as a whole ‘fol(s).’ should be used (e.g. fol. 86, fols. 86–93 or fols. 86 and 88). References to particular lines of a leaf, or to leaves written in double columns, should be made thus: 74r12, 32ra or 45vb12 or 126va39– 126vb11.
References to H. Gneuss and M. Lapidge, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: a Bibliographical Handlist … (Toronto, 2014), whether for the contents of the manuscript, or for the list of further references, should be in the form given in the list of abbreviations printed at the beginning of each volume (e.g. vol. 44, p. 00):
<Gneuss-Lapidge 000 (pp. 00–0); or perhaps GnL, A-S Mss 000 (pp. 00–0).> Examples for first references to manuscripts are:
Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 422, pp. 27–586 (Winchester, s. xi med., provenance
Sherborne), p. 283, line 7 – p. 284, line 10;
Cambridge, Trinity College B. 11. 2 (St Augustine’s, Canterbury, s. x med.), 62r; Oxford, Bodleian Library, Hatton 20 (Worcester, s. ix ex.), 32r16–33v21;
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson C. 697 (NE France, s. ix2; later provenance Bury St Edmunds).
London, British Library, Add. 37517 (Canterbury, s. x2), fols. 13–15; London, British Library, Cotton Tiberius B. i (Abingdon, s. x1–xi2), fol. 3; London, British Library, Royal 15. C. VII (Old Minster, Winchester, s. x/xi);
London, British Library, Royal 1. B. VII (?Northumbria, s. viii1; provenance Christ Church, Canterbury), 15v;
Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale, 1650 (Abingdon, s. xi in.); Coburg, Landesbibliothek, 1 (?Metz, s. ix), 168r;
Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, lat. 4839.
(Note (a) that names of places should be given in standard English forms; (b) that there is a space between the components of a shelfmark, and after the s. abbreviation in a date; and (c) that if the word ‘Library’, or its foreign equivalent, is present, a comma is used before the shelfmark; if ‘Library’ or its foreign equivalent is not present, no comma is used in that position.)
Subsequent references to a manuscript which has already been cited in full should be shortened, e.g.:
CCCC 422; Hatton 20; BL Add. 37517; Tiberius B. i.
For further examples of forms of reference to manuscripts, see Gneuss and Lapidge,
Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: a Bibliographical Handlist (2014), or ASE 9.
7. References to the bible
References to the Bible should be made as follows:
Gen. I.1; Deut. XIX.21; Luke XIII.29–30; John X.24; II Cor. IV.12; Ps. XXII.4.
(Psalms are cited according to the numbering of the Vulgate, not of the Authorized Version.)
8. References to Latin texts in general
In the case of a work composed in Latin, it is essential to give the appropriate and accurate Latin title, not an English approximation: thus Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (not Ecclesiastical History), Gregory, Regula pastoralis (not Pastoral Care), or Pliny, Historia naturalis (not Natural History). The title should be meaningful on its own terms (e.g. Regularis concordia, not Regularis; Historiarum … Libri VII, not Historiarum; etc.). In Latin titles, the first word is capitalized, but subsequent words begin with lower case letters (except in the case of names): De natura deorum, Epistulae morales ad Lucilium; Prognosticon futuri saeculi, Ad Reginum comitem; etc. In the case of works in multiple books, chapters and sub- chapters, reference is made as follows: Isidore, Etymologiae XI.vii.7 (that is upper case roman for book, lower case roman for chapter, and arabic for sub-chapter). For citation of editions, see Annex IV.
9. References to old English texts
The titles of poems should accord with those given in Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records (ASPR); but please include The in titles such as The Dream of the Rood, and substitute British for American spelling where applicable. If, however, an article contains references to various verse or prose texts or glosses (e.g. in linguistic analysis), use should be made of the abbreviated titles set out by Bruce Mitchell et al., ‘Short Titles of Old English Texts’, ASE 4 (1975), 207–21, with supplement in ASE 8, 331–3. The word ‘line(s)’ should not be used between the title of a poem and following line number(s); nor should there be any intervening comma (e.g. The Battle of Maldon 96). A reference to a half-line on its own, or to a portion of a poem beginning with a second half-line or ending with a first half-line, should include the relevant a or b half-line designation (e.g. The Battle of Maldon 92b or 93b–94a or 94b–95 or 93–94a, as against 96 or 96–9). For citation of editions, see Annex IV.
10. Citation of electronic resources (website, etc.)
In many cases it may be sufficient to refer to a website in general terms (e.g. ‘on the website of the Toronto Dictionary of Old English’, or ‘on the Electronic Sawyer website’), without giving a full (and cumbersome) URL, since a search-engine such as Google should be able to find it without difficulty (and will accommodate changes of address). Similarly, it is not necessary to cite the date on which a website was accessed, since it can be taken for granted that it was accessed in the past, and since it is generally understood that, in the nature of websites, content is liable to change.
The accessibility of increasingly large numbers of images on the internet (e.g. the BL’s ‘Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts’, or Stanford University’s ‘Parker Library on the Web’) should mean that it is possible in many cases to indicate where images are available; but obviously not so in all cases.
As a general rule, digital images for photographic plates should be submitted as high resolution tiff files. Although digital images are generally supplied in colour, the images will be printed halftone (black-and-white). For the CUP’s guidance on the submission of digital images, see Annex VIII. Colour is possible, when absolutely essential; but since it is very expensive, authors would usually be expected to cover the additional cost.
2. Permissions and fees
It is the responsibility of the contributor to have obtained permission for the reproduction of any photograph from the authority holding the copyright, and to supply the Press with the names of any such authority so that appropriate acknowledgement can be incorporated in the preliminaries to the book. In our experience, few organizations charge a fee for publication in an academic journal; exceptions should be referred to the editor or to the CUP.
3. Figures (map, diagrams and tables)
Text figures should be separate from the body of the text itself, and be clearly identified. You are expected to supply maps and diagrams which have been drawn to a publishable standard, or which have been re-drawn professionally from your instructions. Author’s originals should not be more than twice the final size, and you should bear in mind the amount of detail that can be shown clearly in an area of (approximately) 7 ´ 4 inches; any wording incorporated in the figure itself, e.g. in a key explaining symbols, should accord in spelling, punctuation etc., with our conventions.
4. Numbering and captions
Figures are identified by arabic numerals. For a caption, Figure 1: Title of figure. For a cross-reference in the text, (Fig. 2). Numbering of plates and figures is continuous throughout the book, so your own numbering may be changed by the editor. Photographic images are no longer published in gathered pages of plates, printed on specially coated paper; the paper used throughout a volume is of sufficient quality to carry images. Separate subjects within a single figure are designated a, b, c (e.g. 3a, b and c). References to figures made in the text of an article should be in the form: fig. 3; figs. 2 and 3. Clear instructions should be provided, with the captions, to indicate where in the article the figures are to appear; the numbers of the figures should be inserted in the main text in bold font, within angle-brackets, at the intended place.
The contributor must supply fully detailed captions for each plate or figure (including any measurement or factor of reduction where applicable). Captions for plates and captions for figures should be listed in separate files. Please follow practice in earlier volumes of ASE for style and layout.
Author affiliations should represent the institution(s) at which the research presented was conducted and/or supported and/or approved. For non-research content, any affiliations should represent the institution(s) with which each author is currently affiliated.
For more information, please see our author affiliation policy and author affiliation FAQs.
Authorship and contributorship
All authors listed on any papers submitted to this journal must be in agreement that the authors listed would all be considered authors according to disciplinary norms, and that no authors who would reasonably be considered an author have been excluded. For further details on this journal’s authorship policy, please see this journal's publishing ethics policies.
All authors must include a competing interest declaration in their title page. This declaration will be subject to editorial review and may be published in the article.
Competing interests are situations that could be perceived to exert an undue influence on the content or publication of an author’s work. They may include, but are not limited to, financial, professional, contractual or personal relationships or situations.
If the manuscript has multiple authors, the author submitting must include competing interest declarations relevant to all contributing authors.
Example wording for a declaration is as follows: “Competing interests: Author 1 is employed at organisation A, Author 2 is on the Board of company B and is a member of organisation C. Author 3 has received grants from company D.” If no competing interests exist, the declaration should state “Competing interests: The author(s) declare none”.
Policy on prior publication
When authors submit manuscripts to this journal, these manuscripts should not be under consideration, accepted for publication or in press within a different journal, book or similar entity, unless explicit permission or agreement has been sought from all entities involved. However, deposition of a preprint on the author’s personal website, in an institutional repository, or in a preprint archive shall not be viewed as prior or duplicate publication. Authors should follow the Cambridge University Press Preprint Policy regarding preprint archives and maintaining the version of record.
Material that is not essential to understanding or supporting a manuscript, but which may nonetheless be relevant or interesting to readers, may be submitted as supplementary material. Supplementary material will be published online alongside your article, but will not be published in the pages of the journal. Types of supplementary material may include, but are not limited to, appendices, additional tables or figures, datasets, videos, and sound files.
Supplementary materials will not be typeset or copyedited, so should be supplied exactly as they are to appear online. Please see our general guidance on supplementary materials for further information.
Where relevant we encourage authors to publish additional qualitative or quantitative research outputs in an appropriate repository, and cite these in manuscripts.
Use of artificial intelligence (AI) tools
We acknowledge the increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) tools in the research and writing processes. To ensure transparency, we expect any such use to be declared and described fully to readers, and to comply with our plagiarism policy and best practices regarding citation and acknowledgements. We do not consider artificial intelligence (AI) tools to meet the accountability requirements of authorship, and therefore generative AI tools such as ChatGPT and similar should not be listed as an author on any submitted content.
In particular, any use of an AI tool:
- to generate images within the manuscript should be accompanied by a full description of the process used, and declared clearly in the image caption(s).
- to generate text within the manuscript should be accompanied by a full description of the process used, include appropriate and valid references and citations, and be declared in the manuscript’s Acknowledgements.
- to analyse or extract insights from data or other materials, for example through the use of text and data mining, should be accompanied by a full description of the process used, including details and appropriate citation of any dataset(s) or other material analysed in all relevant and appropriate areas of the manuscript.
- must not present ideas, words, data, or other material produced by third parties without appropriate acknowledgement or permission.
Descriptions of AI processes used should include at minimum the version of the tool/algorithm used, where it can be accessed, any proprietary information relevant to the use of the tool/algorithm, any modifications of the tool made by the researchers (such as the addition of data to a tool’s public corpus), and the date(s) it was used for the purpose(s) described. Any relevant competing interests or potential bias arising as a consequence of the tool/algorithm’s use should be transparently declared and may be discussed in the article.
Authors can use this section to acknowledge and thank colleagues, institutions, workshop organisers, family members, etc. that have helped with the research and/or writing process. It is important that that any type of funding information or financial support is listed under ‘Financial Support’ rather than Acknowledgements so that it can be recorded separately (see here).
We are aware that authors sometimes receive assistance from technical writers, language editors, artificial intelligence (AI) tools, and/or writing agencies in drafting manuscripts for publication. Such assistance must be noted in the cover letter and in the Acknowledgements section, along with a declaration that the author(s) are entirely responsible for the scientific content of the paper and that the paper adheres to the journal’s authorship policy. Failure to acknowledge assistance from technical writers, language editors, AI tools and/or writing agencies in drafting manuscripts for publication in the cover letter and in the Acknowledgements section may lead to disqualification of the paper. Examples of how to acknowledge assistance in drafting manuscripts:
- “The author(s) thank [name and qualifications] of [company, city, country] for providing [medical/technical/language] writing support/editorial support [specify and/or expand as appropriate], which was funded by [sponsor, city, country]."
- “The author(s) made use of [AI system/tool] to assist with the drafting of this article. [AI version details] was accessed/obtained from [source details] and used with/without modification [specify and/or expand as appropriate] on [date(s)].
You can find guides for many aspects of publishing with Cambridge at Author Hub, our suite of resources for Cambridge authors.