At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the international community is globalizing, integrating, and fragmenting, all at the same time. States continue to be central, but many other actors have also become important: international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, corporations, ad hoc transnational groups both legitimate and illicit, and individuals. For the year 2000, the Yearbook of International Organizations reports that there were 922 international intergovernmental organizations and 9988 international nongovernmental organizations. If organizations associated with multilateral treaty agreements, bilateral government organizations, other international bodies (including religious and secular institutes) , and internationally oriented national organizations are included, the number of international organizations reaches nearly thirty thousand. Another twenty-four thousand are listed as inactive or unconfirmed. Corporations that produce globally are similarly numerous. As of September 27, 2002, an estimated 6,252,829,827 individuals lived on our planet. Some of these individuals and groups have made claims against states for breaching their obligations, particularly for human rights violations. In short, international law inhabits a much more complicated world than the one that existed fifty or even thirty years ago.