Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-cjp7w Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-22T22:19:12.288Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Was Huari a State?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

William H. Isbell
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, State University of New YorkBinghamton, NY 13901
Katharina J. Schreiber
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs. CT 06268

Abstract

Pristine state government evolved among the indigenous cultures of the central Andes, but archaeologists have not demonstrated when and where. Conceptualization of the state as an integrative mechanism for gathering and processing information and for deliberating decisions provides explicit archaeological criteria for statehood. Examination of the archaeological record reveals that Middle Horizon Huari fulfills almost all of these criteria for statehood, although many data remain to be collected before the processes of prehistoric Andean state formation will be fully understood.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Society for American Archaeology 1978

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References Cited

Adams, Robert Mc. C. 1966 The evolution of urban society . Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
Arnold, Dean E. 1975 Ceramic ecology of the Ayacucho basin. Peru: implications for prehistory. Current Anthropology 16(2):183-205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benavides Calle, Mario 1976 Yacimientos arqueológicos en Ayacucho . Universidad Nacional de San Cristobal de Huamanga, Ayacucho.Google Scholar
Brewster, Christine 1976 An examination of the evidence of a stage level of organization in an Early Intermediate Period culture on the north coast of Peru. Mimeographed, Department of Anthropology , State University of New York at Binghamton.Google Scholar
Childe, V. Gordon 1950 The urban revolution. Town Planning Review 21(1):3-17.Google Scholar
Fried, Morton H. 1960 On the evolution of social stratification and the state. In Culture in history: essays in honor of Paul Radin , edited by Stanley, Diamond, pp. 713-731. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
Fried, Morton H. 1967 The evolution of political society . Random House, New York Google Scholar
Hyslop, John 1976 An archaeological investigation of the Lupaca Kingdom and its origins. Ph.D. dissertation , Columbia University.Google Scholar
Isbell, William H. 1977 The rural foundation for urbanism: economic and stylistic interaction between rural and urban communities in eighth-century Peru . University of Illinois Press, Urbana.Google Scholar
Johnson, Gregory A. 1973 Local exchange and early state development in southwestern Iran . University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Paper 51.Google Scholar
Kirchhoff, Paul 1949 The social and political organization of the Andean peoples. In Handbook of South American Indians , edited by Steward, J. H., Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143, Vol. 5:293-311.Google Scholar
Krader, Lawrence 1968 Formation of the state. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.Google Scholar
Lanning, Edward P. 1967 Peru before the Incas. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.Google Scholar
Lumbreras, Luis G. 1969 De los pueblos, las culturas y las artes del antiguo Peru . Monclos-Campodonico, Lima.Google Scholar
Lumbreras, Luis G. 1974 The peoples and cultures of ancient Peru . Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar
McCown, Theodore D. 1945 Pre-Incaic Huamachuco: survey and excavations in the region of Huamachuco and Cajabamba. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology , 39(4):223-400.Google Scholar
MacNeish, Richard S. 1969 First annual report of the Ayacucho archaeological-botanical project . Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.Google Scholar
MacNeish, Richard S., Nelken-Terner, A., Garcia Cook, A.. 1970 Second annual report of the Ayacucho archaeological-botanical project . Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.Google Scholar
MacNeish, Richard S., Thomas, C. Patterson, and David, L. Browman 1975 The central Peruvian prehistoric interaction sphere . Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.Google Scholar
Menzel, Dorothy 1959 The Inca occupation of the south coast of Peru. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 15(2):125-142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Menzel, Dorothy 1964 Style and time in the Middle Horizon. Ñawpa Pacha 2:1-106.Google Scholar
Monzon, Luis de 1881 Descripción de la tierra del repartimiento de los Rucanas Antamarcas de la corona real, jurisdiction de la ciudad de Guamanga—año de 1586. Relaciones geográficas de Indias , 1:197-215. Publícalas del Ministerio de Fomento, Peru.Google Scholar
Morris, Craig 1966 El tampu real de Tunsucancha. Cuadernos de Investigación , Anthropología 1:95-107.Google Scholar
Morris, Craig 1967 Storage in Tawantinsuyu. Ph.D. dissertation , University of Chicago.Google Scholar
Morris, Craig 1971 The identification of function in Inca architecture and ceramics. Proceedings of the 39th International Congress of Americanists 3:135-144.Google Scholar
Morris, Craig 1972a State settlements in Tawantinsuyu: a strategy of compulsory urbanism. In Contemporary Archaeology: A Guide to Theory and Contributions , edited by Leone, M. P., pp. 393-401. Southern Illinois University Press,Carbondale. 111.Google Scholar
Morris, Craig 1972b El almacenaje en dos aldeas de los Chupaychu. In Visita de la provincia de León de Huánuco en 1562, Vol. 2: Documentos para la historia y etnologia de Huanuco y la Selva Central, 2 . by Ortiz, de Zuñiga, Iñigo. Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizan, Huánuco.Google Scholar
Morris, Craig 1974 Reconstructing patterns of non-agricultural production in the Inca economy: archaeology and documents in institutional analysis. In Reconstructing Complex Societies , edited by Charlotte, B. Moore, pp. 49-66. Supplement to the Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research No. 20.Google Scholar
Morris, Craig and Donald, E. Thompson 1970 Huánuco Viejo: an Inca administrative center. American Antiquity 35:344-362.Google Scholar
Murra, John V. 1956 The economic organization of the Inca state. Ph.D. dissertation , University of Chicago.Google Scholar
Murra, John V. 1962 An archaeological restudy of an Andean ethnohistorical account. American Antiquity 28:1-4.Google Scholar
Murra, John V. 1968 An Aymara kingdom in 1567. Ethnohistory 15(2):115-151.Google Scholar
Murra, John V. 1972 El control vertical de un maximo de pisos ecologicos en la economia de las sociedades Andinas. In Visita de la provincia de León de Huánuco en 1562. Vol. 2: Documentos para la historia y ethnología de Huanuco y Ja Selva Central, 2. by Ortiz de, Zuñiga, Iñigo. Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizan, Huánuco.Google Scholar
Murra, John V. 1975 Formaciones economicas y polfticas del mundo andino . Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima.Google Scholar
Murra, John V. and Craig, Morris 1976 Dynastic oral tradition, administrative records and archaeology in the Andes. World Archaeology 7:267-279.Google Scholar
Parsons, Jeffrey R. 1968 An estimate of size and population for Middle Horizon Tiahuanaco, Bolivia. American Antiquity 33:243-245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Proulx, Donald 1976 The Early Horizon of north coastal Peru: a review of recent developments. El Dorado 1(2):1-15.Google Scholar
Ponce Sangines, Carlos 1969 La ciudad de Tiwanaku. Arte y Arqueologia 1:5-32.Google Scholar
Rowe, John H. 1946 Inca culture at the time of the Spanish conquest. In Handbook of South American Indians, Vol. 2, The Andean civilizations , edited by Julian, Steward, pp. 183-330. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
Rowe, John H. 1956 Archaeological explorations in southern Peru, 1954-1955. American Antiquity 22:135-151.Google Scholar
Rowe, John H. 1963 Urban settlements in ancient Peru, Ñawpa Pacha 1:1-28.Google Scholar
Rowe, John H. 1967 What kind of a settlement was Inca Cuzco? Ñawpa Pacha 5:59-76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanders, William T. 1973 The significance of Pikillaqta in Andian culture history. Occasional Papers in Anthropology (No. 8.) Department of Anthropology , Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
Service, Elman R. 1975 Origins of the state and civilization. W. W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
Tello, Julio C. 1942 Origen y desarrollo de las civilizaciones prehistoricas Andinas. Actas y trabajos cientificos del 27 Congreso Internacional de Americanistas 1:489-720.Google Scholar
Thatcher, John P. 1975 Early Intermediate Period and Middle Horizon lb ceramic assemblages of Huamachuco, north highlands, Peru, Ñawpa Pacha 10-12;109-128.Google Scholar
Willey, Gordon 1971 An introduction to American archaeology. Vol. 2: South America . Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.Google Scholar
Wright, Henry T. and Gregory, A. Johnson 1975 Population, exchange, and early state formation in southwestern Iran. American Anthropologist 77:267-289.Google Scholar