Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-5rkl9 Total loading time: 0.237 Render date: 2022-12-01T21:48:42.631Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Lack of Evidence for Glacial-Age Settlement of South America: Reply to Dillehay and Collins and to Gruhn and Bryan

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Thomas F. Lynch*
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853

Abstract

Dillehay and Collins (1991) and Gruhn and Bryan (1991) claim that my review (Lynch 1990) was impaired by errors and misrepresentations, yet they identify only one significant error–the too-early date attributed to Toca do Sitio do Meio. Inspection of the sources shows that my article contained no misrepresentations of the public record available to me at the time of writing. Selective use of sources is necessary in a review of this scale. A careful reading of the primary sources, as well as the other papers cited, will show that I have not misquoted, misconstrued, or taken statements out of context. We are dealing with differences of interpretation and emphasis. There is no such thing as an “obsolete publication,” at least until the information in it has been retracted formally. Understandably, Gruhn and Bryan have been zealots for their pre-Paleoindian cause. Hardly neutral or dispassionate, they have over-reacted to my bringing the other side forward.

Résumé

Résumé

Dillehay y Collins (1991) y Gruhn y Bryan (1991) mantienen que mi artículo (Lynch 1990) contiene errores y tergiversaciones. Sin embargo, ellos identifican solamente un error significativo: la fecha excesivamente temprana atribuída a Toca do Sitio do Meio. La inspectión de las fuentes demuestra que mi artículo no tergiversa los anales públicos disponibles al momento de su redacción. El uso selectivo de fuentes primarias, así como de los artículos citados, demonstrará que yo no he citado o interpretado éstos incorrectamente, ni que los he utilizado fuera de contexto; se trata simplemente de diferencias en interpretatión y énfasis. Una publicatión no es obsoleta en tanto la informatión incluída en ella no haya sido retractada formalmente. Es comprehensible que Gruhn y Bryan sean celosos de su causa paleoindia. Dificilmente neutrales o desapasionados, ellos han reaccionado exageradamente al presentar yo una visiín alternativa.

Type
Comments
Copyright
Copyright © The Society for American Archaeology 1991

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References Cited

Bednarik, R. G. 1989 On the Pleistocene Settlement of South America. Antiquity 63 : 101111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bryan, A. L., Casamiquela, R. M., Cruxent, J. M., Gruhn, R., and Ochsenius, C. 1978 An El Jobo Mastodon Kill at Taima-Taima, Venezuela. Science 200 : 12751277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Butzer, K. W. 1988 A “Marginality” Model to Explain Major Spatial and Temporal Gaps in the Old and New World Pleistocene Settlement Records. Geoarchaeology 3 : 193203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cardich, A. 1977 Las cultures pleistocenicas y post-pleistocenicas de Los Toldos y un bosqueo de la prehistoria de Sudamerica. In Obra del Centenario del Museo de La Plata, vol. 2, pp. 149172. La Plata, Argentina.Google Scholar
Cardich, A. 1978 Recent Excavations at Lauricocha (Central Andes) and Los Toldos (Patagonia). In Early Man in America from a Circum-Pacific Perspective, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 296300. Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta, Edmonton.Google Scholar
Cardich, A. 1984 Paleoambientes y la mas antigua presencia del hombre. In Las culturas de America en la Epoca del Descubrimiento : Seminario sobre la situacion de la investigacion de las culturas indigenas de la Patagonia, pp. 1335. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid.Google Scholar
Cardich, A., and Flegenheimer, N. 1978 Description y tipologia de las industrias liticas mas antiguas de Los Toldos. Relaciones de la Sociedad Argentina de Antropologia 12 : 225242.Google Scholar
Cardich, A., Cardich, L. A., and Hajduk, A. 1973 Secuencia arqueologica de la Cueva 3 de Los Toldos (Santa Cruz, Argentina). Relaciones de la Sociedad Argentina de Antropologia 7 : 85123.Google Scholar
Cardich, A, Miotti, L. L., and Castro, A. S. 1987 Paleoindians in the Patagonian Region : Los Toldos Archaeological Locality, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Current Research in the Pleistocene 4 : 145147.Google Scholar
Correal Urrego, G. 1981 Evidencias culturales y megafauna pleistocenica en Colombia. Publication No. 12. Fundacion de Investigaciones Arqueologicas National, Banco de la Republica, Bogota.Google Scholar
Correal Urrego, G. 1986 Apuntes sobre el medio ambiente pleistocenico y el hombre prehistorico en Colombia. In New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 115131. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Orono, Maine.Google Scholar
Dillehay, T. D. 1988 Early Rainforest Archaeology in Southwestern South America : Research Context, Design, and Data at Monte Verde. In Wet Site Archaeology, edited by Purdy, B., pp. 177206. Telford Press, Caldwell, New Jersey. Google Scholar
Dillehay, T. D. 1989a Letter to the Editors, 29 September. Science 245 : 1436.Google Scholar
Dillehay, T. D. 1989b Palaeoenvironment and Site Context. Monte Verde : A Late Pleistocene Settlement in Chile, vol. I. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C. Google Scholar
Dillehay, T. D., and Collins, M. B. 1991 Monte Verde, Chile : A Reply to Lynch. American Antiquity 56 : 333341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilford-Gonzalez, D. P., Damrosch, D. B., Damrosch, D. R., Pryor, J., and Thunen, R. 1985 The Third Dimension in Site Structure : An Experiment in Trampling and Vertical Dispersal. American Antiquity 50 : 803818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gruhn, R. 1979 Description of the 1976 Excavations in Taima-Taima. In Taima-Taima : A Late Pleistocene Paleo-Indian Kill Site in Northernmost South America-Final Reports of the 1976 Excavations, edited by Ochsenius, C. and Gruhn, R., pp. 3133. South American Quaternary Documentation Program, Federal Republic of Germany.Google Scholar
Gruhn, R., and Bryan, A. L. 1991 A Review of Lynch's Descriptions of South American Pleistocene Sites. American Antiquity 56 : 342348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guidon, N. 1984 L' Aire archeologique du sud-est du Piaui (Bresil), vol. 1. Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations, Synthese No. 16, Paris.Google Scholar
Guidon, N. 1985 Early Man in Piaui, Brazil. Paper presented at the 50th Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Denver.Google Scholar
Guidon, N. 1986 Las unidades culturales de Sao Raimundo Nonato-sudeste del Estado de Piaui-Brasil. In New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 157171. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Orono, Maine.Google Scholar
Lynch, T. F. 1980 Guitarrero Cave : Early Man in the Andes. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
Lynch, T. F. 1983 The Paleo-Indians. In Ancient South Americans, edited by Jennings, J. D., pp. 87137. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Lynch, T. F. 1988 La identification de paleoindios en el oeste de Sudamerica. Estudios Atacamehos 9 : 710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynch, T. F. 1990 Glacial-Age Man in South America? A Critical Review. American Antiquity 55 : 1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Menghin, O. F. A. 1952 Fundamentos cronologicos de la prehistoria de Patagonia. Runa 5 : 2343.Google Scholar
Nunez, L., and Santoro, C. 1990 Primeros poblamientos en el cono sur de America (XII-IX milenio A. P.). Revista de Arqueologia Americana 1 : 91139.Google Scholar
Ochsenius, C, and Gruhn, R. (editors) 1979 Taima-Taima : A Late Pleistocene Paleo-Indian Kill Site in Northernmost South America-Final Reports of the 1976 Excavations. Programa CIPICS, South American Quaternary Documentation Program, Federal Republic of Germany.Google Scholar
Pino Quivira, M., and Dillehay, T. D. 1988 Monte Verde, South-Central Chile : Stratigraphy, Climate Change, and Human Settlement. Geoarchaeology 3 : 177191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prous, A. 1986 L' Archeologie au Bresil : 300 siecles d'occupation humaine. L' Anthropologic 90 : 257306.Google Scholar
Schmitz, P. I. 1987 Prehistoric Hunters and Gatherers of Brazil. Journal of World Prehistory 1 : 53126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamers, M. A. 1972 Radiocarbon Dating of Kill Sites. Archaeometry 14 : 2126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Villa, P., and Courtin, J. 1983 The Interpretation of Stratified Sites : A View From Underground. Journal of Archaeological Science 10 : 267281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wormington, H. M. 1957 Ancient Man in North America. 4th rev. ed. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. Google Scholar
15
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Lack of Evidence for Glacial-Age Settlement of South America: Reply to Dillehay and Collins and to Gruhn and Bryan
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Lack of Evidence for Glacial-Age Settlement of South America: Reply to Dillehay and Collins and to Gruhn and Bryan
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Lack of Evidence for Glacial-Age Settlement of South America: Reply to Dillehay and Collins and to Gruhn and Bryan
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *