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The Puritan-Nonconformist Tradition in England, 1560–1700: Historiographical Reflections

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 July 2014

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Review Essay
Copyright © North American Conference on British Studies 1985

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1 Solt, Leo F., “Puritanism, Capitalism, Democracy, and the New Science,” American Historical Review 73 (1967): 1829CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Solt's own study of the chaplains of the New Model Army stresses the extent of authoritarianism in their thought: Saints in Arms: Puritanism and Democracy in Cromwell's Army (Stanford, 1959)Google Scholar. See also Lawrence, E. Anne, “Parliamentary Army Chaplains, 1642-51” (D. Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1982).Google Scholar

2 Limitations of space make it impossible to cite more than a representative selection of modern work. In general, the focus has been on the research of the last fifteen years, with attention to earlier works as appropriate. The following abbreviations are used in the notes: BIHR (Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research); BQ (Baptist Quarterly); CH (Church History); HJ (Historical Journal); JBS (Journal of British Studies); JEH (Journal of Ecclesiastical History); JFHS (Journal of the Friends Historical Society); JRH (Journal of Religious History); PP (Past and Present); QH (Quaker History); SCH (Studies in Church History); SCJ (Sixteenth Century Journal). I am indebted to Paul Seaver, Dewey Wallace, and Robert Zaller for their constructive criticisms of this article.

3 Feltham, Owen, Resolves (London, 1661), p. 6; cf. pp. 68.Google Scholar

4 Parker, Henry, A Discovrse Concerning Puritans (London, 1641), p. 55.Google Scholar

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6 Hill, Christopher, Society and Puritanism in Pre-Revolutionary England, 2nd ed. (New York, 1967), chap. 1.Google Scholar

7 C. H., and George, Katherine, The Protestant Mind of the English Reformation, 1570-1640 (Princeton, 1961), pp. 117–73.Google Scholar

8 George, C. H., “Puritanism as History and Historiography,” PP 41 (1968): 9899.Google Scholar

9 Little, David, Religion, Order, and Law: A Study in Pre-Revolutionary England (New York, 1969).Google Scholar

10 Knappen, M. M., Tudor Puritanism: A Chapter in the History of Idealism (Chicago, 1939).Google Scholar

11 Woodhouse, A. S. P., ed., Puritanism and Liberty, 2nd ed. (Chicago, 1951)Google Scholar, “Introduction”; Haller, William, The Rise of Purtianism (New York, 1938).Google Scholar

12 Finlayson, Michael G., “Puritanism and Puritans: Labels or Libels?Canadian Journal of History 8 (1973): 203–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

13 C. H., and George, K., The Protestant Mind, p. 398.Google Scholar

14 George, , “Puritanism as History,” p. 78.Google Scholar

15 Christianson, Paul, “Reformers and the Church of England Under Elizabeth I and the Early Stuarts,” JEH 31 (1980): 463–82Google Scholar. For other discussions of the problem see Hall, Basil, “Puritanism: The Problem of Definition,” SCH 2, ed. Cuming, G. J. (1965): 283–96Google Scholar; Porter, H. C., Puritanism in Tudor England (London, 1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Breward, Ian, “The Abolition of Puritanism,” JRH 7 (1972): 2034CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Seaver, Paul, “Le puritanisme: communaute et continuite dans l'Angleterre pre-revolutionnaire, Revue du Nord 59 (1977): 299316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

16 Collinson, Patrick, “A Comment: Concerning the Name Puritan,” JEH 31 (1980): 485Google Scholar. Cf. Collinson, , The Religion of Protestants: The Church in English Society 1559-1625 (Oxford, 1982), p. 134Google Scholar. See also Collinson, , English Puritanism (London, 1983)Google Scholar. Collinson's concept of a “Puritan movement” is specifically rejected by C. H. George. Collinson, , The Elizabethan Puritan Movement (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1967)Google Scholar; George, , “Puritanism as History,” p. 78Google Scholar. Cf. the cautionary words of Richardson, R. C., Puritanism in North-west England: A Regional Study of the Diocese of Chester to 1642 (Manchester, 1972), p. 180.Google Scholar

17 Lake, Peter, Moderate Puritans and the Elizabethan Church (Cambridge, 1982), p. 10CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Lake, , “Puritan Identities,” JEH 35 (1984): 119Google Scholar. For Perkins see Breward, Ian, “The Life and Theology of William Perkins, 1558-1602” (Ph.D. thesis, Manchester Univ., 1963)Google Scholar; Merrill, T. F., William Perkins (Nieuwkoop, 1966)Google Scholar; Priebe, Victor Lewis, “The Covenant Theology of William Perkins” (Ph.D. diss., Drew Univ., 1967)Google Scholar; The Works of William Perkins, ed. Breward, (Appleford, Abingdon, Berks., 1970)Google Scholar; Munson, Robert Charles, “William Perkins: Theologian of Transition” (Ph.D. diss., Case Western Reserve Univ., 1971)Google Scholar; Stuart, Robert Orkney, “The Breaking of the Elizabethan Settlement of Religion” (Ph.D. diss., Yale Univ. 1976)Google Scholar; Muller, Richard A., “Perkins' A Golden Chaine: Predestinarian System or Schematized Ordo Salutis?SCJ 9 (1978): 6981Google Scholar; Herbert, James C., “William Perkins's A Reformed Catholic: A Psycho-Cultural Analysis,” CH 51 (1982): 723Google Scholar. Brewer and Muller are particularly sensitive to the problems of typing Perkins.

18 Collinson, , The Religion of Protestants, p. 108.Google Scholar

19 Davis, J. C., “Radicalism in a Traditional Society: The Evaluation of Radical Thought in the English Commonwealth 1649-1660,” History of Political Thought 3 (1982): 203.Google Scholar

20 Grindal's relations with the Puritans is recounted by Collinson, in Archbishop Grindal 1519-1583: The Struggle for a Reformed Church (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1979)Google Scholar; and The Downfall of Archbishop Grindal and Its Place in Elizabethan Political and Ecclesiastical History,” in The English Commonwealth 1547-1640, ed. Clark, Peter, Smith, Alan G. R., and Tyacke, Nicholas (Leicester, 1979), pp. 3957Google Scholar. See also Lehmberg, Stanford E., “Archbishop Grindal and the Prophesyings,” HMPEC 34 (1965): 87145.Google Scholar

21 Finlayson, , “Puritanism and Puritans,” pp. 207–9Google Scholar; Greaves, Richard L., Society and Religion in Elizabethan England (Minneapolis, 1981), p. 10Google Scholar. See also Finlayson, , “Independency in Old and New England, 1630-1660: An Historiographical and Historical Study” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Toronto, 1968).Google Scholar

22 Paul Seaver to Richard Greaves, 24 April 1985.

23 Collinson, , Elizabethan Puritan Movement, p. 13.Google Scholar

24 Cf., e.g., Trinterud, Leonard, ed., Elizabethan Puritanism (New York, 1971).Google Scholar

25 Knappen, Tudor Puritanism, chap. 17; Haller, , The Rise of Puritanism, passim (quoted on p. 9)Google Scholar. Cf. Morgan, Irvonwy, The Godly Preachers of the Elizabethan Church (London, 1965).Google Scholar

26 Haller, p. 8; Knappen, p. 367.

27 C. H. and K. George, The Protestant Mind.

28 New, John F. H., Anglican and Puritan: The Basis of Their Opposition, 1558-1640 (Stanford, 1964).Google Scholar

29 Ibid., p. 110. New defended his thesis in The Whitgift-Cartwright Controversy,” Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 59 (1968): 203–11.Google Scholar

30 Miller, Perry, Orthodoxy in Massachusetts 1630-1650 (Boston, 1959)Google Scholar; Tyacke, Nicholas, “Puritanism, Arminianism and Counter-Revolution,” in The Origins of the Civil War, ed. Russell, Conrad (London, 1973), pp. 119–43Google Scholar. See also Tyacke, , “Arminianism in England, in Religion and Politics, 1604-1640” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1968).Google Scholar

31 Collinson, The Religion of Protestants.

32 Changing interpretations of the Conference can be followed in Curtis, Mark H., “The Hampton Court Conference and Its Aftermath,” History 46 (1961): 116CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Shriver, Frederick, “Hampton Court Re-Visited: James I and the Puritans,” JEH 33 (1982): 4871Google Scholar, which argues that the king was not sympathetic to the Puritans, and that the Conference was not a Puritan success; Collinson, , “The Jacobean Religious Settlement: The Hampton Court Conference,” in Before the English Civil War: Essays in Early Stuart Politics and Government, ed. Tomlinson, Howard (London, 1983), pp. 2751CrossRefGoogle Scholar. For the repression of the Puritans in the early Stuart period see Marchant, Ronald A., The Church Under the Law: Justice, Administration and Discipline in the Diocese of York 1560-1640 (Cambridge, 1969)Google Scholar; Kalu, Ogbu Uke, “The Jacobean Church and Essex Puritans” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Toronto, 1972)Google Scholar; Curtis, Mark H., “Trials of a Puritan in Jacobean Lancashire,” in The Dissenting Tradition: Essays for Leland H. Carlson, ed. Cole, C. Robert and Moody, Michael E. (Athens, Ohio, 1975), pp. 7899Google Scholar; Kalu, , “Bishops and Puritans in Early Jacobean England: A Perspective on Methodology,” CH 45 (1976) 469–81Google Scholar; Nuttall, Geoffrey F., “Peterborough Ordinations 1612-1630 and Early Nonconformity,” JEH 30 (1979): 231–42Google Scholar; Quintrell, B. W., “The Royal Hunt and the Puritans, 1604-1605,” JEH 31 (1980): 4158Google Scholar. For the Puritan response to persecution see Rose, Elliot, Cases of Conscience: Alternatives Open to Recusants and Puritans Under Elizabeth I and James I (Cambridge, 1975)Google Scholar. See also Condick, F. M., “The Self-Revelation of a Puritan: Dr. Alexander Leighton in the Sixteen-twenties,” BIHR 55 (1982); 196203.Google Scholar

33 Kendall, R. T., Calvin and English Calvinism to 1649 (Oxford, 1979)Google Scholar. See also Jensen, P. F., “The Life of Faith in the Teaching of Elizabethan Protestantism” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1979).Google Scholar

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35 Molen, Ronald J. Vander, “Anglican Against Puritan: Ideological Origins During the Marian Exile,” CH 42 (1973): 4557Google Scholar. For other interpretations of Puritan origins see Trinterud, Leonard, “The Origins of Puritanism,” CH 20 (1951): 3757Google Scholar; Porter, H. C., Reformation and Reaction in Tudor Cambridge (Cambridge, 1958)Google Scholar; Bauckham, Richard, “Marian Exiles and Cambridge Puritanism: James Pilkington's ‘Haifa Score’,” JEH 26 (1975): 137–48.Google Scholar

36 Wallace, , “Puritan and Anglican: The Interpretation of Christ's Descent into Hell in Elizabethan Theology,” Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 69 (1978): 248–87Google Scholar. For the sacraments see Mayor, Stephen, The Lord's Supper in Early English Dissent (London, 1972)Google Scholar; Holifield, E. Brooks, The Covenant Sealed: The Development of Puritan Sacramental Theology in Old and New England, 1570-1720 (New Haven, Conn., 1974)Google Scholar. Comprehensive studies of the doctrines of the church and the sacraments in English Protestant thought are needed.

37 McGiffert, Michael, “Grace and Works: The Rise and Division of Covenant Divinity in Elizabethan Puritanism,” Harvard Theological Review 75 (1982): 463502Google Scholar (pp. 465 and 500 quoted); McGiffert, , “Covenant, Crown, and Commons in Elizabethan PuritanismJBS 20 (1981): 3252CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See also Trinterud, , “The Origins of Puritanism,” CH 20 (1951) 3757Google Scholar; Møller, Jens G., “The Beginnings of Puritan Covenant Theology,” JEH 14 (1963): 4667Google Scholar: Greaves, , “John Bunyan and Covenant Thought in the Seventeenth Century,” CH 36 (1967): 151–69Google Scholar; Greaves, , “The Origins and Early Development of English Covenant Thought,” The Historian 31 (1968): 2135CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Stoever, William, “The Covenant of Works in Puritan Theology” (Ph.D. diss., Yale Univ., 1972)Google Scholar; Veninga, James F., “Covenant Theology and Ethics in the Thought of John Calvin and John Preston” (Ph.D diss., Rice Univ., 1973)Google Scholar: Selement, George, “The Covenant Theology of English Separatism and the Separation of Church and State,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 41 (1973): 6674CrossRefGoogle Scholar; McGiffert, , “The Problem of the Covenant in Puritan Thought: Peter Bulkeley's Gospel-Covenant,” The New England Historical and Genealogical Register 130 (1976): 107–29Google Scholar; Stoever, William K. B., “A Faire and Easie Way to Heaven”: Covenant Theology and Antinomianism in Early Massachusetts (Middletown, CT, 1978)Google Scholar: McGiffert, , “William Tyndale's Conception of Covenant,” JEH 32 (1981): 167–84Google Scholar; Hajzyk, H., “Household divinity and Covenant Theology in Lincolnshire, c. 1595-c. 1640,” Lincolnshire History and Archaeology 17 (1982): 4549Google Scholar; McGiffert, , “God's Controversy with Jacobean England,” American Historical Review 88 (1983): 1151–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar (and his revision in ibid. 89: 1217-18); Zaret, David, The Heavenly Contract (1985).Google Scholar

38 Coolidge, John S., The Pauline Renaissance in England: Puritanism and the Bible (Oxford, 1970), quoted on pp. 2, 11, 27, 68Google Scholar. For the origins of the dispute concerning adiaphora see Verkamp, Bernard J., The Indifferent Mean: Adiaphorism in the English Reformation to 1554 (Athens, Ohio, and Detroit, 1977)Google Scholar. See also Primus, J. H., The Vestments Controversy (Kampen, 1960)Google Scholar. For Puritan hermeneutics see Polizzotto, Carolyn M., “Types and Typology: A Study in Puritan Hermeneutics” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of London, 1975)Google Scholar; Fienberg, S. P., “Thomas Goodwin's Scriptural Hermeneutics and the Dissolution of Puritan Unity,” JRH 10 (1978): 3249CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Knott, John R. Jr., The Sword of the Spirit: Puritan Responses to the Bible (Chicago, 1980)Google Scholar; Paul, Robert S., “Social Justice and the Puritan ‘Dual Ethic’,” in Intergerini Parietis Septum (Pittsburgh, 1981), ed. Hadidian, D. Y., pp. 251–84Google Scholar. For biblical marginalia see Mullett, Charles F., “That All May Understand: The Early English Bibles as Archives of History,” HMPEC 44 (1975): 353–64Google Scholar; Greaves, , “Traditionalism and the Seeds of Revolution in the Social Principles of the Geneva Bible,” SCJ 7 (1976): 94109Google Scholar; Greaves, , “The Nature and Intellectual Milieu of the Political Principles in the Geneva Bible Marginalia,” Journal of Church and State 22 (1980): 233–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Greaves, Society and Religion; Danner, Dan G., “The Contributions of the Geneva Bible of 1560 to the English Protestant Tradition,” SCJ 12 (1981): 518Google Scholar; Betteridge, Maurice, “The Bitter Notes: The Geneva Bible and Its Annotations,” SCJ 14 (1983): 4162.Google Scholar

39 The ties between the Church of England and the Reformed tradition are explored in the essays edited by Baker, Derek in Reform and Reformation: England and the Continent c1500-c1750, SCH 2 Subsidia (1979)Google Scholar. An essay by Basil Hall in this volume deals with Lutheranism in England to 1600. The extent of Luther's influence in the seventeenth century has not been fully determined, but a promising start has been made in Wallace, , “The Anglican Appeal to Lutheran Sources: Philip Melanchthon's Reputation in Seventeenth-Century England,” HMPEC 52 (1983): 355–67Google Scholar; and Baker, J. Wayne, “Sola Fide Sola Gratia: The Battle for Luther in Seventeenth-Century England,” SCJ 16 (1985): 115–33Google Scholar. See also Keep, D. J., “Henry Bullinger and the Elizabethan Church” (Ph.D. thesis, Sheffield Univ., 1970)Google Scholar; Schaaf, Mark E. Vander, “Archbishop Parker's Efforts Toward a Bucerian Discipline in the Church of England,” SCJ 8 (1977): 85103.Google Scholar

40 Christianson, Paul, Reformers and Babylon: English Apocalyptic Visions from the Reformation to the Eve of the Civil War (Toronto, 1978), p. 100CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See also Wilson, John F., “Studies in Puritan Millenarianism Under the Early Stuarts” (Th.D. diss., Union Theological Seminary, N.Y., 1962)Google Scholar; Clouse, Robert G., “The Influence of John Henry Alsted on English Millenarian Thought in the Seventeenth Century” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Iowa, 1963)Google Scholar; Toon, Peter, ed., Puritans, the Millennium and the Future of Israel: Puritan Eschatology 1600 to 1660 (Cambridge and London, 1970)Google Scholar; Capp, Bernard S., “Godly Rule and English Millenarianism,” PP 52 (1971): 106–17Google Scholar; Capp, , “The Millennium and Eschatology in England,” PP 57 (1972): 156–62Google Scholar; Christianson, , “From Expectation to Militance: Reformers and Babylon in the First Two Years of the Long Parliament,” JEH 24 (1973): 225–44Google Scholar; Clouse, , “John Napier and Apocalyptic Thought,” SCJ 5 (1974): 101–14Google Scholar; Ball, Brian W., A Great Expectation: Eschatological Thought in English Protestantism to 1660 (Leiden, 1975)Google Scholar; Laydon, J. P., “The Kingdom of Christ and the Powers of the Earth: The Political Uses of Apocalyptic and Millenarian Ideas in England, 1648-53” (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge Univ., 1977)Google Scholar; Bauckham, R. J., Tudor Apocalypse (Abingdon, Berks., 1978)Google Scholar; Firth, Katharine R., The Apocalyptic Tradition in Reformation Britain 1530-1645 (Oxford, 1979).Google Scholar

41 Lamont, William M., Godly Rule: Politics and Religion, 1603-60 (London and New York, 1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

42 On the related matter of Puritan and sectarian views toward the Jews see Toon, , “The Question of Jewish Immigration,” in Puritans, the Millennium and the Future of Israel, pp. 115–25Google Scholar; Healey, Robert M., “The Jew in Seventeenth-Century Protestant Thought,” CH 46 (1977): 6379Google Scholar; Higgins, Lesley Hall, “Radical Puritans and Jews in England, 1648-1672” (Ph.D. diss., Yale Univ., 1979)Google Scholar; Popkin, Richard H., “Jewish Messianism and Christian Millenarianism,” in Culture and Politics from Puritanism to the Enlightenment, ed. Zagorin, Perez (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1980), pp. 6790Google Scholar; Katz, David S., Philo-semitism and the Readmission of the Jews to England, 1603-1655 (Oxford, 1982).Google Scholar

43 Wallace, , Puritans and Predestination, p. xiGoogle Scholar. Cf. Petit, Norman, The Heart Prepared: Grace and Conversion in Puritan Spiritual Life (New Haven, Conn., 1966)Google Scholar; Morgan, Irvonwy, Puritan Spirituality Illustrated from the Life and Times of the Rev. Dr. John Preston (London, 1973)Google Scholar. For the effects of this experience on preaching see Poe, Harry Lee, “Evangelistic Fervency Among the Puritans in Stuart England, 1603-1688” (Ph.D. diss., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1982)Google Scholar, which concentrates on Richard Sibbes, Thomas Goodwin, and John Bunyan. Margarita Patricia Hutchison has demonstrated that Edward Dering developed a new form of catechism in the early 1570s, and that this household type became dominant among Puritans beginning in the 1580s. Social and Religious Change: The Case of the English Catechism, 1560-1640” (Ph.D. diss., Stanford Univ., 1984).Google Scholar

44 Greaves, , Society and Religion, p. 7Google Scholar; Greaves, , “The Nature of the Puritan Tradition,” in Reformation, Conformity and Dissent: Essays in Honour of Geoffrey Nuttall, ed. Knox, R. Buick (London, 1977), pp. 257–59.Google Scholar

45 Nuttall, Geoffrey F., The Holy Spirit in Puritan Faith and Experience (Oxford, 1976)Google Scholar. Cf. Nuttall, , The Puritan Spirit: Essays and Addresses (London, 1967), chap. 10Google Scholar; Weisiger, Cary Nelson, “The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit in the Preaching of Richard Sibbes” (Ph.D diss., Fuller Theological Seminary, 1984).Google Scholar

46 Knappen, M. M., ed., Two Elizabethan Puritan Diaries (Chicago, 1933)Google Scholar. See also Brink, A. W., ed., The Life of the Reverend Mr. George Trosse (Montreal, 1974)Google Scholar; Wallace, , “The Image of Saintliness in Puritan Hagiography, 1650-1700,” in The Divine Drama in History and Liturgy: Essays Presented to Horton Davies on His Retirement from Princeton University, ed. Booty, John E. (Allison Park, 1984), pp. 2343.Google Scholar

47 Watkins, Owen C., The Puritan Experience: Studies in Spiritual Autobiography (New York, 1972), pp. 32–33, 99, and chap. 13.Google Scholar

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77 Vann, Richard T., The Social Development of English Quakerism, 1655-1755 (Cambridge, Mass., 1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Vann, , “Quakerism and the Social Structure in the Interregnum,” PP 43 (1969): 7191Google Scholar; Hurwich, Judith Jones, “The Social Origins of the Early Quakers,” PP 48 (1970): 156–61Google Scholar (and Vann's response, ibid., pp. 162-64); Anderson, Alan, “The Social Origins of the Early Quakers,” QH 68 (1979): 3340Google Scholar; Reay, , “The Social Origins of Early Quakerism,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 11 (1980): 5572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

78 Bauman, Richard, Let Your Words Be Few: Symbolism of Speaking and Silence Among Seventeenth-Century Quakers (Cambridge, 1983).Google Scholar

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80 Hill, , The World Turned Upside Down; Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic (New York, 1971)Google Scholar. See also Trout, Paul Arno, “Magic and the Millennium: A Study of the Millenary Motifs in the Occult Milieu of Puritan England, 1640-1660” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of British Columbia, 1975)Google Scholar; Cross, Claire, “Popular Piety and the Records of the Unestablished Churches, 1640-1660,” SCH, ed. Baker, Derek (1975): 269–92Google Scholar; Wallace, , “George Gifford, Puritan Propaganda and Popular Religion In Elizabethan England,” SCJ 9 (1978): 2749Google Scholar; Tyacke, , “Popular Puritan Mentality in Late Elizabethan England,” in The English Commonwealth, ed. Clark, , Smith, , and Tyacke, , pp. 7792Google Scholar; Reay, Barry and McGregor, J. F., eds., Radical Religion in the English Revolution (New York, 1984).Google Scholar

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83 Morton, A. L., The World of the Ranters: Religious Radicalism in the English Revolution (London, 1970)Google Scholar. The Winstanley literature is extensive, but the following studies will provide a beginning: Vann, R. T., “From Radicalism to Quakerism: Gerrard Winstanley and Friends,” JFHS 49 (19591961): 4146Google Scholar; Vann, , “The Later Life of Gerrard Winstanley,” Journal of the History of Ideas 26 (1965): 133–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Greaves, , “Gerrard Winstanley and Educational Reform in Puritan England,” British Journal of Educational Studies 17 (1969): 166–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Juretic, George, “The Mind of Gerrard Winstanley” (Ph.D. diss., Northern Illinois University, 1973)Google Scholar; Juretic, , “Digger no Millenarian: The Revolutionizing of Gerrard Winstanley,” Journal of the History of Ideas 36 (1975): 263–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar; George, C. H., “Gerrard Winstanley: A Critical Retrospect,” in The Dissenting Tradition, ed. Cole, and Moody, , pp. 191225Google Scholar; Lutaud, Olivier, Winstanley: Socialisme et Christianisme sous Cromwell (Paris, 1976)Google Scholar; Amoroso, K. S., “Gerrard Winstanley” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Toronto, 1976)Google Scholar; Davis, J. C., “Gerrard Winstanley and the Restoration of True Magistracy,” PP 70 (1976): 7693Google Scholar; Mulligan, Lotte, Graham, John K., and Richards, Judith, “Winstanley: A Case for the Man as He Said He Was,” JEH 28 (1977): 5775Google Scholar; Hill, C., “The Religion of Gerrard Winstanley,” PP, Supplement 5 (1978): 157Google Scholar; Alsop, J., “Gerrard Winstanley's Later Life,” PP 82 (1979): 7381Google Scholar; Hayes, T. Wilson, Winstanley the Digger: A Literary Analysis of Radical Ideas in the English Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Davis, , Utopia and the Ideal Society: A Study of English Utopian Writing, 1516-1700 (Cambridge, 1980)Google Scholar; Solt, Leo F., “Winstanley, Lilburne, and the Case of John Fielder,” Huntington Library Quarterly 45 (1982): 119–36.Google Scholar

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85 Tindall, William York, John Bunyan: Mechanick Preacher (New York, 1934)Google Scholar. Hill is writing a “social biography” of Bunyan which will be published by Clarendon Press. For Bunyan's thought see Greaves, , John Bunyan (Appleford, Abingdon, and Grand Rapids, 1969).Google Scholar

86 Parker, William Riley, Milton: A Biography, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1968).Google Scholar

87 Nuttall, , Richard Baxter (London, 1965)Google Scholar; Lamont, , Richard Baxter and the Millennium: Protestant Imperialism and the English Revolution (Totowa, N.J., 1979)Google Scholar; Keeble, N. H., Richard Baxter: Puritan Man of Letters (Oxford, 1982)Google Scholar. See also Schlatter, Richard, ed., Richard Baxter & Puritan Politics (New Brunswick, N.J., 1957)Google Scholar; Whitehorn, R. D., “Richard Baxter—‘Meer Nonconformist’,” in The Beginnings of Nonconformity: The Hibbert Lectures (London, 1964), pp. 6177Google Scholar; Lamont, , “Richard Baxter, the Apocalypse and the Mad Major,” PP 55 (1972): 6890Google Scholar; Nuttall, , “Richard Baxter and The Grotian Religion,” SCH 2 Subsidia, ed. Baker, Derek (1979), pp. 245–50Google Scholar; Mansell, Gael, “‘Simple Catholick Christianity’: The Style of Religious Debate in Richard Baxter's Nonconformist Pamphets, 1679-81” (M.A. thesis, Univ. of Warwick, 1981)Google Scholar; Keeble, , “Richard Baxter's Preaching Ministry: Its History and Texts,” JEH 35 (1984): 539–59.Google Scholar

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