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The Puritan-Nonconformist Tradition in England, 1560–1700: Historiographical Reflections

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 July 2014

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Review Essay
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Copyright © North American Conference on British Studies 1985

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References

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2 Limitations of space make it impossible to cite more than a representative selection of modern work. In general, the focus has been on the research of the last fifteen years, with attention to earlier works as appropriate. The following abbreviations are used in the notes: BIHR (Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research); BQ (Baptist Quarterly); CH (Church History); HJ (Historical Journal); JBS (Journal of British Studies); JEH (Journal of Ecclesiastical History); JFHS (Journal of the Friends Historical Society); JRH (Journal of Religious History); PP (Past and Present); QH (Quaker History); SCH (Studies in Church History); SCJ (Sixteenth Century Journal). I am indebted to Paul Seaver, Dewey Wallace, and Robert Zaller for their constructive criticisms of this article.

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37 McGiffert, Michael, “Grace and Works: The Rise and Division of Covenant Divinity in Elizabethan Puritanism,” Harvard Theological Review 75 (1982): 463502Google Scholar (pp. 465 and 500 quoted); McGiffert, , “Covenant, Crown, and Commons in Elizabethan PuritanismJBS 20 (1981): 3252CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See also Trinterud, , “The Origins of Puritanism,” CH 20 (1951) 3757Google Scholar; Møller, Jens G., “The Beginnings of Puritan Covenant Theology,” JEH 14 (1963): 4667Google Scholar: Greaves, , “John Bunyan and Covenant Thought in the Seventeenth Century,” CH 36 (1967): 151–69Google Scholar; Greaves, , “The Origins and Early Development of English Covenant Thought,” The Historian 31 (1968): 2135CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Stoever, William, “The Covenant of Works in Puritan Theology” (Ph.D. diss., Yale Univ., 1972)Google Scholar; Veninga, James F., “Covenant Theology and Ethics in the Thought of John Calvin and John Preston” (Ph.D diss., Rice Univ., 1973)Google Scholar: Selement, George, “The Covenant Theology of English Separatism and the Separation of Church and State,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 41 (1973): 6674CrossRefGoogle Scholar; McGiffert, , “The Problem of the Covenant in Puritan Thought: Peter Bulkeley's Gospel-Covenant,” The New England Historical and Genealogical Register 130 (1976): 107–29Google Scholar; Stoever, William K. B., “A Faire and Easie Way to Heaven”: Covenant Theology and Antinomianism in Early Massachusetts (Middletown, CT, 1978)Google Scholar: McGiffert, , “William Tyndale's Conception of Covenant,” JEH 32 (1981): 167–84Google Scholar; Hajzyk, H., “Household divinity and Covenant Theology in Lincolnshire, c. 1595-c. 1640,” Lincolnshire History and Archaeology 17 (1982): 4549Google Scholar; McGiffert, , “God's Controversy with Jacobean England,” American Historical Review 88 (1983): 1151–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar (and his revision in ibid. 89: 1217-18); Zaret, David, The Heavenly Contract (1985).Google Scholar

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39 The ties between the Church of England and the Reformed tradition are explored in the essays edited by Baker, Derek in Reform and Reformation: England and the Continent c1500-c1750, SCH 2 Subsidia (1979)Google Scholar. An essay by Basil Hall in this volume deals with Lutheranism in England to 1600. The extent of Luther's influence in the seventeenth century has not been fully determined, but a promising start has been made in Wallace, , “The Anglican Appeal to Lutheran Sources: Philip Melanchthon's Reputation in Seventeenth-Century England,” HMPEC 52 (1983): 355–67Google Scholar; and Baker, J. Wayne, “Sola Fide Sola Gratia: The Battle for Luther in Seventeenth-Century England,” SCJ 16 (1985): 115–33Google Scholar. See also Keep, D. J., “Henry Bullinger and the Elizabethan Church” (Ph.D. thesis, Sheffield Univ., 1970)Google Scholar; Schaaf, Mark E. Vander, “Archbishop Parker's Efforts Toward a Bucerian Discipline in the Church of England,” SCJ 8 (1977): 85103.Google Scholar

40 Christianson, Paul, Reformers and Babylon: English Apocalyptic Visions from the Reformation to the Eve of the Civil War (Toronto, 1978), p. 100CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See also Wilson, John F., “Studies in Puritan Millenarianism Under the Early Stuarts” (Th.D. diss., Union Theological Seminary, N.Y., 1962)Google Scholar; Clouse, Robert G., “The Influence of John Henry Alsted on English Millenarian Thought in the Seventeenth Century” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Iowa, 1963)Google Scholar; Toon, Peter, ed., Puritans, the Millennium and the Future of Israel: Puritan Eschatology 1600 to 1660 (Cambridge and London, 1970)Google Scholar; Capp, Bernard S., “Godly Rule and English Millenarianism,” PP 52 (1971): 106–17Google Scholar; Capp, , “The Millennium and Eschatology in England,” PP 57 (1972): 156–62Google Scholar; Christianson, , “From Expectation to Militance: Reformers and Babylon in the First Two Years of the Long Parliament,” JEH 24 (1973): 225–44Google Scholar; Clouse, , “John Napier and Apocalyptic Thought,” SCJ 5 (1974): 101–14Google Scholar; Ball, Brian W., A Great Expectation: Eschatological Thought in English Protestantism to 1660 (Leiden, 1975)Google Scholar; Laydon, J. P., “The Kingdom of Christ and the Powers of the Earth: The Political Uses of Apocalyptic and Millenarian Ideas in England, 1648-53” (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge Univ., 1977)Google Scholar; Bauckham, R. J., Tudor Apocalypse (Abingdon, Berks., 1978)Google Scholar; Firth, Katharine R., The Apocalyptic Tradition in Reformation Britain 1530-1645 (Oxford, 1979).Google Scholar

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42 On the related matter of Puritan and sectarian views toward the Jews see Toon, , “The Question of Jewish Immigration,” in Puritans, the Millennium and the Future of Israel, pp. 115–25Google Scholar; Healey, Robert M., “The Jew in Seventeenth-Century Protestant Thought,” CH 46 (1977): 6379Google Scholar; Higgins, Lesley Hall, “Radical Puritans and Jews in England, 1648-1672” (Ph.D. diss., Yale Univ., 1979)Google Scholar; Popkin, Richard H., “Jewish Messianism and Christian Millenarianism,” in Culture and Politics from Puritanism to the Enlightenment, ed. Zagorin, Perez (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1980), pp. 6790Google Scholar; Katz, David S., Philo-semitism and the Readmission of the Jews to England, 1603-1655 (Oxford, 1982).Google Scholar

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47 Watkins, Owen C., The Puritan Experience: Studies in Spiritual Autobiography (New York, 1972), pp. 32–33, 99, and chap. 13.Google Scholar

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77 Vann, Richard T., The Social Development of English Quakerism, 1655-1755 (Cambridge, Mass., 1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Vann, , “Quakerism and the Social Structure in the Interregnum,” PP 43 (1969): 7191Google Scholar; Hurwich, Judith Jones, “The Social Origins of the Early Quakers,” PP 48 (1970): 156–61Google Scholar (and Vann's response, ibid., pp. 162-64); Anderson, Alan, “The Social Origins of the Early Quakers,” QH 68 (1979): 3340Google Scholar; Reay, , “The Social Origins of Early Quakerism,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 11 (1980): 5572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

78 Bauman, Richard, Let Your Words Be Few: Symbolism of Speaking and Silence Among Seventeenth-Century Quakers (Cambridge, 1983).Google Scholar

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80 Hill, , The World Turned Upside Down; Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic (New York, 1971)Google Scholar. See also Trout, Paul Arno, “Magic and the Millennium: A Study of the Millenary Motifs in the Occult Milieu of Puritan England, 1640-1660” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of British Columbia, 1975)Google Scholar; Cross, Claire, “Popular Piety and the Records of the Unestablished Churches, 1640-1660,” SCH, ed. Baker, Derek (1975): 269–92Google Scholar; Wallace, , “George Gifford, Puritan Propaganda and Popular Religion In Elizabethan England,” SCJ 9 (1978): 2749Google Scholar; Tyacke, , “Popular Puritan Mentality in Late Elizabethan England,” in The English Commonwealth, ed. Clark, , Smith, , and Tyacke, , pp. 7792Google Scholar; Reay, Barry and McGregor, J. F., eds., Radical Religion in the English Revolution (New York, 1984).Google Scholar

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83 Morton, A. L., The World of the Ranters: Religious Radicalism in the English Revolution (London, 1970)Google Scholar. The Winstanley literature is extensive, but the following studies will provide a beginning: Vann, R. T., “From Radicalism to Quakerism: Gerrard Winstanley and Friends,” JFHS 49 (19591961): 4146Google Scholar; Vann, , “The Later Life of Gerrard Winstanley,” Journal of the History of Ideas 26 (1965): 133–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Greaves, , “Gerrard Winstanley and Educational Reform in Puritan England,” British Journal of Educational Studies 17 (1969): 166–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Juretic, George, “The Mind of Gerrard Winstanley” (Ph.D. diss., Northern Illinois University, 1973)Google Scholar; Juretic, , “Digger no Millenarian: The Revolutionizing of Gerrard Winstanley,” Journal of the History of Ideas 36 (1975): 263–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar; George, C. H., “Gerrard Winstanley: A Critical Retrospect,” in The Dissenting Tradition, ed. Cole, and Moody, , pp. 191225Google Scholar; Lutaud, Olivier, Winstanley: Socialisme et Christianisme sous Cromwell (Paris, 1976)Google Scholar; Amoroso, K. S., “Gerrard Winstanley” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Toronto, 1976)Google Scholar; Davis, J. C., “Gerrard Winstanley and the Restoration of True Magistracy,” PP 70 (1976): 7693Google Scholar; Mulligan, Lotte, Graham, John K., and Richards, Judith, “Winstanley: A Case for the Man as He Said He Was,” JEH 28 (1977): 5775Google Scholar; Hill, C., “The Religion of Gerrard Winstanley,” PP, Supplement 5 (1978): 157Google Scholar; Alsop, J., “Gerrard Winstanley's Later Life,” PP 82 (1979): 7381Google Scholar; Hayes, T. Wilson, Winstanley the Digger: A Literary Analysis of Radical Ideas in the English Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Davis, , Utopia and the Ideal Society: A Study of English Utopian Writing, 1516-1700 (Cambridge, 1980)Google Scholar; Solt, Leo F., “Winstanley, Lilburne, and the Case of John Fielder,” Huntington Library Quarterly 45 (1982): 119–36.Google Scholar

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85 Tindall, William York, John Bunyan: Mechanick Preacher (New York, 1934)Google Scholar. Hill is writing a “social biography” of Bunyan which will be published by Clarendon Press. For Bunyan's thought see Greaves, , John Bunyan (Appleford, Abingdon, and Grand Rapids, 1969).Google Scholar

86 Parker, William Riley, Milton: A Biography, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1968).Google Scholar

87 Nuttall, , Richard Baxter (London, 1965)Google Scholar; Lamont, , Richard Baxter and the Millennium: Protestant Imperialism and the English Revolution (Totowa, N.J., 1979)Google Scholar; Keeble, N. H., Richard Baxter: Puritan Man of Letters (Oxford, 1982)Google Scholar. See also Schlatter, Richard, ed., Richard Baxter & Puritan Politics (New Brunswick, N.J., 1957)Google Scholar; Whitehorn, R. D., “Richard Baxter—‘Meer Nonconformist’,” in The Beginnings of Nonconformity: The Hibbert Lectures (London, 1964), pp. 6177Google Scholar; Lamont, , “Richard Baxter, the Apocalypse and the Mad Major,” PP 55 (1972): 6890Google Scholar; Nuttall, , “Richard Baxter and The Grotian Religion,” SCH 2 Subsidia, ed. Baker, Derek (1979), pp. 245–50Google Scholar; Mansell, Gael, “‘Simple Catholick Christianity’: The Style of Religious Debate in Richard Baxter's Nonconformist Pamphets, 1679-81” (M.A. thesis, Univ. of Warwick, 1981)Google Scholar; Keeble, , “Richard Baxter's Preaching Ministry: Its History and Texts,” JEH 35 (1984): 539–59.Google Scholar

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