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We give a necessary and sufficient condition on $\beta $ of the natural extension of a $\beta $-shift, so that any equilibrium measure for a function of bounded total oscillations is a weak Gibbs measure.
Let $t:{\mathbb F_p} \to C$ be a complex valued function on ${\mathbb F_p}$. A classical problem in analytic number theory is bounding the maximum
$$M(t): = \mathop {\max }\limits_{0 \le H < p} \left| {{1 \over {\sqrt p }}\sum\limits_{0 \le n < H} {t(n)} } \right|$$
of the absolute value of the incomplete sums $(1/\sqrt p )\sum\nolimits_{0 \le n < H} {t(n)} $. In this very general context one of the most important results is the Pólya–Vinogradov bound
where $\hat t:{\mathbb F_p} \to \mathbb C$ is the normalized Fourier transform of t. In this paper we provide a lower bound for certain incomplete Kloosterman sums, namely we prove that for any $\varepsilon > 0$ there exists a large subset of $a \in \mathbb F_p^ \times $ such that for $${\rm{k}}{1_{a,1,p}}:x \mapsto e((ax + \bar x)/p)$$ we have
This is the first of a series of two papers dealing with local limit theorems in relatively hyperbolic groups. In this first paper, we prove rough estimates for the Green function. Along the way, we introduce the notion of relative automaticity which will be useful in both papers and we show that relatively hyperbolic groups are relatively automatic. We also define the notion of spectral positive recurrence for random walks on relatively hyperbolic groups. We then use our estimates for the Green function to prove that $p_n\asymp R^{-n}n^{-3/2}$ for spectrally positive-recurrent random walks, where $p_n$ is the probability of going back to the origin at time n and where R is the inverse of the spectral radius of the random walk.
Explicit bounds are given for the Kolmogorov and Wasserstein distances between a mixture of normal distributions, by which we mean that the conditional distribution given some
$\sigma$
-algebra is normal, and a normal distribution with properly chosen parameter values. The bounds depend only on the first two moments of the first two conditional moments given the
$\sigma$
-algebra. The proof is based on Stein’s method. As an application, we consider the Yule–Ornstein–Uhlenbeck model, used in the field of phylogenetic comparative methods. We obtain bounds for both distances between the distribution of the average value of a phenotypic trait over n related species, and a normal distribution. The bounds imply and extend earlier limit theorems by Bartoszek and Sagitov.
We study ergodic properties of a class of Markov-modulated general birth–death processes under fast regime switching. The first set of results concerns the ergodic properties of the properly scaled joint Markov process with a parameter that is taken to be large. Under very weak hypotheses, we show that if the averaged process is exponentially ergodic for large values of the parameter, then the same applies to the original joint Markov process. The second set of results concerns steady-state diffusion approximations, under the assumption that the ‘averaged’ fluid limit exists. Here, we establish convergence rates for the moments of the approximating diffusion process to those of the Markov-modulated birth–death process. This is accomplished by comparing the generator of the approximating diffusion and that of the joint Markov process. We also provide several examples which demonstrate how the theory can be applied.
This study presents functional limit theorems for the Euler characteristic of Vietoris–Rips complexes. The points are drawn from a nonhomogeneous Poisson process on
$\mathbb{R}^d$
, and the connectivity radius governing the formation of simplices is taken as a function of the time parameter t, which allows us to treat the Euler characteristic as a stochastic process. The setting in which this takes place is that of the critical regime, in which the simplicial complexes are highly connected and have nontrivial topology. We establish two ‘functional-level’ limit theorems, a strong law of large numbers and a central limit theorem, for the appropriately normalized Euler characteristic process.
We establish a pathwise large deviation principle for affine stochastic volatility models introduced by Keller-Ressel (2011), and present an application to variance reduction for Monte Carlo computation of prices of path-dependent options in these models, extending the method developed by Genin and Tankov (2020) for exponential Lévy models. To this end, we apply an exponentially affine change of measure and use Varadhan’s lemma, in the fashion of Guasoni and Robertson (2008) and Robertson (2010), to approximate the problem of finding the measure that minimizes the variance of the Monte Carlo estimator. We test the method on the Heston model with and without jumps to demonstrate its numerical efficiency.
This paper investigates a financial market where stock returns depend on an unobservable Gaussian mean reverting drift process. Information on the drift is obtained from returns and randomly arriving discrete-time expert opinions. Drift estimates are based on Kalman filter techniques. We study the asymptotic behavior of the filter for high-frequency experts with variances that grow linearly with the arrival intensity. The derived limit theorems state that the information provided by discrete-time expert opinions is asymptotically the same as that from observing a certain diffusion process. These diffusion approximations are extremely helpful for deriving simplified approximate solutions of utility maximization problems.
We study the tail behaviour of the distribution of the area under the positive excursion of a random walk which has negative drift and heavy-tailed increments. We determine the asymptotics for tail probabilities for the area.
Motivated by mathematical tissue growth modelling, we consider the problem of approximating the dynamics of multicolor Pólya urn processes that start with large numbers of balls of different colors and run for a long time. Using strong approximation theorems for empirical and quantile processes, we establish Gaussian process approximations for the Pólya urn processes. The approximating processes are sums of a multivariate Brownian motion process and an independent linear drift with a random Gaussian coefficient. The dominating term between the two depends on the ratio of the number of time steps n to the initial number of balls N in the urn. We also establish an upper bound of the form $c(n^{-1/2}+N^{-1/2})$ for the maximum deviation over the class of convex Borel sets of the step-n urn composition distribution from the approximating normal law.
A general multi-type population model is considered, where individuals live and reproduce according to their age and type, but also under the influence of the size and composition of the entire population. We describe the dynamics of the population as a measure-valued process and obtain its asymptotics as the population grows with the environmental carrying capacity. Thus, a deterministic approximation is given, in the form of a law of large numbers, as well as a central limit theorem. This general framework is then adapted to model sexual reproduction, with a special section on serial monogamic mating systems.
It is well-known that in a small Pólya urn, i.e., an urn where the second largest real part of an eigenvalue is at most half the largest eigenvalue, the distribution of the numbers of balls of different colours in the urn is asymptotically normal under weak additional conditions. We consider the balanced case, and then give asymptotics of the mean and the covariance matrix, showing that after appropriate normalization, the mean and covariance matrix converge to the mean and covariance matrix of the limiting normal distribution.
An important problem in modeling networks is how to generate a randomly sampled graph with given degrees. A popular model is the configuration model, a network with assigned degrees and random connections. The erased configuration model is obtained when self-loops and multiple edges in the configuration model are removed. We prove an upper bound for the number of such erased edges for regularly-varying degree distributions with infinite variance, and use this result to prove central limit theorems for Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the clustering coefficient in the erased configuration model. Our results explain the structural correlations in the erased configuration model and show that removing edges leads to different scaling of the clustering coefficient. We prove that for the rank-1 inhomogeneous random graph, another null model that creates scale-free simple networks, the results for Pearson’s correlation coefficient as well as for the clustering coefficient are similar to the results for the erased configuration model.
Consider a Pólya urn with balls of several colours, where balls are drawn sequentially and each drawn ball is immediately replaced together with a fixed number of balls of the same colour. It is well known that the proportions of balls of the different colours converge in distribution to a Dirichlet distribution. We show that the rate of convergence is
$\Theta(1/n)$
in the minimal
$L_p$
metric for any
$p\in[1,\infty]$
, extending a result by Goldstein and Reinert; we further show the same rate for the Lévy distance, while the rate for the Kolmogorov distance depends on the parameters, i.e. on the initial composition of the urn. The method used here differs from the one used by Goldstein and Reinert, and uses direct calculations based on the known exact distributions.
In this paper, we show that the numbers of t-stack sortable n-permutations with k − 1 descents satisfy central and local limit theorems for t = 1, 2, n − 1 and n − 2. This result, in particular, gives an affirmative answer to Shapiro's question about the asymptotic normality of the Narayana numbers.
We consider autocorrelation functions for supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems (consisting of a fermion and a boson) confined in trigonometric Pöschl–Teller partner potentials. We study the limit of rescaled autocorrelation functions (at random time) as the localization of the initial state goes to infinity. The limiting distribution can be described using pairs of Jacobi theta functions on a suitably defined homogeneous space, as a corollary of the work of Cellarosi and Marklof. A construction by Contreras-Astorga and Fernández provides large classes of Pöschl-Teller partner potentials to which our analysis applies.
Let
$a_1$
,
$a_2$
, and
$a_3$
be distinct reduced residues modulo q satisfying the congruences
$a_1^2 \equiv a_2^2 \equiv a_3^2 \ (\mathrm{mod}\ q)$
. We conditionally derive an asymptotic formula, with an error term that has a power savings in q, for the logarithmic density of the set of real numbers x for which
$\pi (x;q,a_1)> \pi (x;q,a_2) > \pi (x;q,a_3)$
. The relationship among the
$a_i$
allows us to normalize the error terms for the
$\pi (x;q,a_i)$
in an atypical way that creates mutual independence among their distributions, and also allows for a proof technique that uses only elementary tools from probability.
We obtain large and moderate deviation estimates for both sequential and random compositions of intermittent maps. We also address the question of whether or not centering is necessary for the quenched central limit theorems obtained by Nicol, Török and Vaienti [Central limit theorems for sequential and random intermittent dynamical systems. Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys.38(3) (2018), 1127–1153] for random dynamical systems comprising intermittent maps. Using recent work of Abdelkader and Aimino [On the quenched central limit theorem for random dynamical systems. J. Phys. A 49(24) (2016), 244002] and Hella and Stenlund [Quenched normal approximation for random sequences of transformations. J. Stat. Phys.178(1) (2020), 1–37] we extend the results of Nicol, Török and Vaienti on quenched central limit theorems for centered observables over random compositions of intermittent maps: first by enlarging the parameter range over which the quenched central limit theorem holds; and second by showing that the variance in the quenched central limit theorem is almost surely constant (and the same as the variance of the annealed central limit theorem) and that centering is needed to obtain this quenched central limit theorem.
We prove an almost sure central limit theorem on the Poisson space, which is perfectly tailored for stabilizing functionals arising in stochastic geometry. As a consequence, we provide almost sure central limit theorems for (i) the total edge length of the k-nearest neighbors random graph, (ii) the clique count in random geometric graphs, and (iii) the volume of the set approximation via the Poisson–Voronoi tessellation.