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We show, from a topological viewpoint, that most numbers are not normal in a strong sense. More precisely, the set of numbers
$x \in (0,1]$
with the following property is comeager: for all integers
$b\ge 2$
and
$k\ge 1$
, the sequence of vectors made by the frequencies of all possibile strings of length k in the b-adic representation of x has a maximal subset of accumulation points, and each of them is the limit of a subsequence with an index set of nonzero asymptotic density. This extends and provides a streamlined proof of the main result given by Olsen (2004) in this Journal. We provide analogues in the context of analytic P-ideals and regular matrices.
We prove several finite product-sum identities involving the q-binomial coefficient, one of which is used to prove an amazing identity of Gauss. We then use this identity to evaluate certain quadratic Gauss sums and, together with known properties of quadratic Gauss sums, we prove the quadratic reciprocity law for the Jacobi symbol. We end our article with a new proof of Jenkins’ lemma, a lemma analogous to Gauss’ lemma. This article aims to show that Gauss’ amazing identity and the properties of quadratic Gauss sums are sufficient to establish the quadratic reciprocity law for the Jacobi symbol.
We construct a geometrico-symbolic version of the natural extension of the random
$\beta $
-transformation introduced by Dajani and Kraaikamp [Random
$\beta $
-expansions. Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys.23(2) (2003) 461–479]. This construction provides a new proof of the existence of a unique absolutely continuous invariant probability measure for the random
$\beta $
-transformation, and an expression for its density. We then prove that this natural extension is a Bernoulli automorphism, generalizing to the random case the result of Smorodinsky [
$\beta $
-automorphisms are Bernoulli shifts. Acta Math. Acad. Sci. Hungar.24 (1973), 273–278] about the greedy transformation.
Celebrated theorems of Roth and of Matoušek and Spencer together show that the discrepancy of arithmetic progressions in the first $n$ positive integers is $\Theta (n^{1/4})$. We study the analogous problem in the $\mathbb {Z}_n$ setting. We asymptotically determine the logarithm of the discrepancy of arithmetic progressions in $\mathbb {Z}_n$ for all positive integer $n$. We further determine up to a constant factor the discrepancy of arithmetic progressions in $\mathbb {Z}_n$ for many $n$. For example, if $n=p^k$ is a prime power, then the discrepancy of arithmetic progressions in $\mathbb {Z}_n$ is $\Theta (n^{1/3+r_k/(6k)})$, where $r_k \in \{0,1,2\}$ is the remainder when $k$ is divided by $3$. This solves a problem of Hebbinghaus and Srivastav.
For a fixed integer h, the standard orthogonality relations for Ramanujan sums
$c_r(n)$
give an asymptotic formula for the shifted convolution
$\sum _{n\le N} c_q(n)c_r(n+h)$
. We prove a generalised formula for affine convolutions
$\sum _{n\le N} c_q(n)c_r(kn+h)$
. This allows us to study affine convolutions
$\sum _{n\le N} f(n)g(kn+h)$
of arithmetical functions
$f,g$
admitting a suitable Ramanujan–Fourier expansion. As an application, we give a heuristic justification of the Hardy–Littlewood conjectural asymptotic formula for counting Sophie Germain primes.
We investigate the leading digit distribution of the kth largest prime factor of n (for each fixed $k=1,2,3,\dots $) as well as the sum of all prime factors of n. In each case, we find that the leading digits are distributed according to Benford’s law. Moreover, Benford behavior emerges simultaneously with equidistribution in arithmetic progressions uniformly to small moduli.
Let
$\mathcal {A}$
be the set of all integers of the form
$\gcd (n, F_n)$
, where n is a positive integer and
$F_n$
denotes the nth Fibonacci number. Leonetti and Sanna proved that
$\mathcal {A}$
has natural density equal to zero, and asked for a more precise upper bound. We prove that
for all sufficiently large x. In fact, we prove that a similar bound also holds when the sequence of Fibonacci numbers is replaced by a general nondegenerate Lucas sequence.
A modified form of Euclid’s algorithm has gained popularity among musical composers following Toussaint’s 2005 survey of so-called Euclidean rhythms in world music. We offer a method to easily calculate Euclid’s algorithm by hand as a modification of Bresenham’s line-drawing algorithm. Notably, this modified algorithm is a nonrecursive matrix construction, using only modular arithmetic and combinatorics. This construction does not outperform the traditional divide-with-remainder method; it is presented for combinatorial interest and ease of hand computation.
Given a large integer n, determining the relative size of each of its prime divisors as well as the spacings between these prime divisors has been the focus of several studies. Here, we examine the spacings between particular types of prime divisors of n, such as prime divisors in certain congruence classes of primes and various other subsets of the set of prime numbers.
We derive a q-supercongruence modulo the third power of a cyclotomic polynomial with the help of Guo and Zudilin’s method of creative microscoping [‘A q-microscope for supercongruences’, Adv. Math.346 (2019), 329–358] and the q-Dixon formula. As consequences, we give several supercongruences including
Recently, Lin and Liu [‘Congruences for the truncated Appell series
$F_3$
and
$F_4$
’, Integral Transforms Spec. Funct.31(1) (2020), 10–17] confirmed a supercongruence on the truncated Appell series
$F_3$
. Motivated by their work, we give a generalisation of this supercongruence by establishing a q-supercongruence modulo the fourth power of a cyclotomic polynomial.
When a page, represented by the interval
$[0,1]$
, is folded right over left
$n $
times, the right-hand fold contains a sequence of points. We specify these points using two different representation techniques, both involving binary signed-digit representations.
Let n and k be positive integers with
$n\ge k+1$
and let
$\{a_i\}_{i=1}^n$
be a strictly increasing sequence of positive integers. Let
$S_{n, k}:=\sum _{i=1}^{n-k} {1}/{\mathrm {lcm}(a_{i},a_{i+k})}$
. In 1978, Borwein [‘A sum of reciprocals of least common multiples’, Canad. Math. Bull.20 (1978), 117–118] confirmed a conjecture of Erdős by showing that
$S_{n,1}\le 1-{1}/{2^{n-1}}$
. Hong [‘A sharp upper bound for the sum of reciprocals of least common multiples’, Acta Math. Hungar.160 (2020), 360–375] improved Borwein’s upper bound to
$S_{n,1}\le {a_{1}}^{-1}(1-{1}/{2^{n-1}})$
and derived optimal upper bounds for
$S_{n,2}$
and
$S_{n,3}$
. In this paper, we present a sharp upper bound for
$S_{n,4}$
and characterise the sequences
$\{a_i\}_{i=1}^n$
for which the upper bound is attained.
We give a new q-analogue of the (A.2) supercongruence of Van Hamme. Our proof employs Andrews’ multiseries generalisation of Watson’s
$_{8}\phi _{7}$
transformation, Andrews’ terminating q-analogue of Watson’s
$_{3}F_{2}$
summation, a q-Watson-type summation due to Wei–Gong–Li and the creative microscoping method, developed by the author and Zudilin [‘A q-microscope for supercongruences’, Adv. Math.346 (2019), 329–358]. As a conclusion, we confirm a weaker form of Conjecture 4.5 by the author [‘Some generalizations of a supercongruence of van Hamme’, Integral Transforms Spec. Funct.28 (2017), 888–899].
Let
$a,b$
and n be positive integers and let
$S=\{x_1, \ldots , x_n\}$
be a set of n distinct positive integers. For
${x\in S}$
, define
$G_{S}(x)=\{d\in S: d<x, \,d\mid x \ \mathrm {and} \ (d\mid y\mid x, y\in S)\Rightarrow y\in \{d,x\}\}$
. Denote by
$[S^a]$
the
$n\times n$
matrix having the ath power of the least common multiple of
$x_i$
and
$x_j$
as its
$(i,j)$
-entry. We show that the bth power matrix
$[S^b]$
is divisible by the ath power matrix
$[S^a]$
if
$a\mid b$
and S is gcd closed (that is,
$\gcd (x_i, x_j)\in S$
for all integers i and j with
$1\le i, j\le n$
) and
$\max _{x\in S} \{|G_S (x)|\}=1$
. This confirms a conjecture of Shaofang Hong [‘Divisibility properties of power GCD matrices and power LCM matrices’, Linear Algebra Appl.428 (2008), 1001–1008].
Swisher [‘On the supercongruence conjectures of van Hamme’, Res. Math. Sci.2 (2015), Article no. 18] and He [‘Supercongruences on truncated hypergeometric series’, Results Math.72 (2017), 303–317] independently proved that Van Hamme’s (G.2) supercongruence holds modulo $p^4$ for any prime $p\equiv 1\pmod {4}$. Swisher also obtained an extension of Van Hamme’s (G.2) supercongruence for $p\equiv 3 \pmod 4$ and $p>3$. In this note, we give new one-parameter generalisations of Van Hamme’s (G.2) supercongruence modulo $p^3$ for any odd prime p. Our proof uses the method of ‘creative microscoping’ introduced by Guo and Zudilin [‘A q-microscope for supercongruences’, Adv. Math.346 (2019), 329–358].
In this paper, we discuss a connection between geometric measure theory and number theory. This method brings a new point of view for some number-theoretic problems concerning digit expansions. Among other results, we show that for each integer k, there is a number
$M>0$
such that if
$b_{1},\ldots ,b_{k}$
are multiplicatively independent integers greater than M, there are infinitely many integers whose base
$b_{1},b_{2},\ldots ,b_{k}$
expansions all do not have any zero digits.
Let p be a prime with
$p\equiv 1\pmod {4}$
. Gauss first proved that
$2$
is a quartic residue modulo p if and only if
$p=x^2+64y^2$
for some
$x,y\in \Bbb Z$
and various expressions for the quartic residue symbol
$(\frac {2}{p})_4$
are known. We give a new characterisation via a permutation, the sign of which is determined by
$(\frac {2}{p})_4$
. The permutation is induced by the rule
$x \mapsto y-x$
on the
$(p-1)/4$
solutions
$(x,y)$
to
$x^2+y^2\equiv 0 \pmod {p}$
satisfying
$1\leq x < y \leq (p-1)/2$
.
Following Bridgeman, we demonstrate several families of infinite dilogarithm identities associated with Fibonacci numbers, Lucas numbers, convergents of continued fractions of even periods, and terms arising from various recurrence relations.