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Recall that two geodesics in a negatively curved surface S are of the same type if their free homotopy classes differ by a homeomorphism of the surface. In this note we study the distribution in the unit tangent bundle of the geodesics of fixed type, proving that they are asymptotically equidistributed with respect to a certain measure
${\mathfrak {m}}^S$
on
$T^1S$
. We study a few properties of this measure, showing for example that it distinguishes between hyperbolic surfaces.
In this article, we establish an explicit correspondence between kissing reflection groups and critically fixed anti-rational maps. The correspondence, which is expressed using simple planar graphs, has several dynamical consequences. As an application of this correspondence, we give complete answers to geometric mating problems for critically fixed anti-rational maps.
Given an integer
$g>2$
, we state necessary and sufficient conditions for a finite Abelian group to act as a group of automorphisms of some compact nonorientable Riemann surface of genus g. This result provides a new method to obtain the symmetric cross-cap number of Abelian groups. We also compute the least symmetric cross-cap number of Abelian groups of a given order and solve the maximum order problem for Abelian groups acting on nonorientable Riemann surfaces.
Consider a component ${\cal Q}$ of a stratum in the moduli space of area-one abelian differentials on a surface of genus g. Call a property ${\cal P}$ for periodic orbits of the Teichmüller flow on ${\cal Q}$typical if the growth rate of orbits with property ${\cal P}$ is maximal. We show that the following property is typical. Given a continuous integrable cocycle over the Teichmüller flow with values in a vector bundle $V\to {\cal Q}$, the logarithms of the eigenvalues of the matrix defined by the cocycle and the orbit are arbitrarily close to the Lyapunov exponents of the cocycle for the Masur–Veech measure.
This paper is part of a program to understand the parameter spaces of dynamical systems generated by meromorphic functions with finitely many singular values. We give a full description of the parameter space for a specific family based on the exponential function that has precisely two finite asymptotic values and one attracting fixed point. It represents a step beyond the previous work by Goldberg and Keen [The mapping class group of a generic quadratic rational map and automorphisms of the 2-shift. Invent. Math.101(2) (1990), 335–372] on degree two rational functions with analogous constraints: two critical values and an attracting fixed point. What is interesting and promising for pushing the general program even further is that, despite the presence of the essential singularity, our new functions exhibit a dynamic structure as similar as one could hope to the rational case, and that the philosophy of the techniques used in the rational case could be adapted.
In 1955, Lehto showed that, for every measurable function $\psi $ on the unit circle $\mathbb T,$ there is a function f holomorphic in the unit disc, having $\psi $ as radial limit a.e. on $\mathbb T.$ We consider an analogous problem for solutions f of homogenous elliptic equations $Pf=0$ and, in particular, for holomorphic functions on Riemann surfaces and harmonic functions on Riemannian manifolds.
In this paper we investigate the range of validity of Ruelle’s property. First, we show that every finitely generated Fuchsian group has Ruelle’s property. We also prove the existence of an infinitely generated Fuchsian group satisfying Ruelle’s property. Concerning the negative results, we first generalize Astala and Zinsmeister’s results [Mostow rigidity and Fuchsian groups. C. R. Math. Acad. Sci. Paris311 (1990), 301–306; Teichmüller spaces and BMOA. Math. Ann.289 (1991), 613–625] by proving that all convergence-type Fuchsian groups of the first kind fail to have Ruelle’s property. Finally, we give some results about second-kind Fuchsian groups. [-3.2pc]
We associate a flow
$\phi $
with a solution of the vortex equations on a closed oriented Riemannian 2-manifold
$(M,g)$
of negative Euler characteristic and investigate its properties. We show that
$\phi $
always admits a dominated splitting and identify special cases in which
$\phi $
is Anosov. In particular, starting from holomorphic differentials of fractional degree, we produce novel examples of Anosov flows on suitable roots of the unit tangent bundle of
$(M,g)$
.
Many authors define an isometry of a metric space to be a distance-preserving map of the space onto itself. In this note, we discuss spaces for which surjectivity is a consequence of the distance-preserving property rather than an initial assumption. These spaces include, for example, the three classical (Euclidean, spherical, and hyperbolic) geometries of constant curvature that are usually discussed independently of each other. In this partly expository paper, we explore basic ideas about the isometries of a metric space, and apply these to various familiar metric geometries.
We prove several general conditional convergence results on ergodic averages for horocycle and geodesic subgroups of any continuous
$\operatorname {SL}(2, \mathbb {R})$
-action on a locally compact space. These results are motivated by theorems of Eskin, Mirzakhani and Mohammadi on the
$\operatorname {SL}(2, \mathbb {R})$
-action on the moduli space of Abelian differentials. By our argument we can derive from these theorems an improved version of the ‘weak convergence’ of push-forwards of horocycle measures under the geodesic flow and a short proof of weaker versions of theorems of Chaika and Eskin on Birkhoff genericity and Oseledets regularity in almost all directions for the Teichmüller geodesic flow.
We prove that for $0<p<+\infty $ and $-1<\alpha <+\infty ,$ a conformal map defined on the unit disk belongs to the weighted Bergman space $A_{\alpha }^p$ if and only if a certain integral involving the hyperbolic distance converges.
The main aim of this paper is to investigate the invariant properties of uniform domains under flattening and sphericalization in nonlocally compact complete metric spaces. Moreover, we show that quasi-Möbius maps preserve uniform domains in nonlocally compact spaces as well.
Our main point of focus is the set of closed geodesics on hyperbolic surfaces. For any fixed integer k, we are interested in the set of all closed geodesics with at least k (but possibly more) self-intersections. Among these, we consider those of minimal length and investigate their self-intersection numbers. We prove that their intersection numbers are upper bounded by a universal linear function in k (which holds for any hyperbolic surface). Moreover, in the presence of cusps, we get bounds which imply that the self-intersection numbers behave asymptotically like k for growing k.
We study the geometry of the Thurston metric on the Teichmüller space of hyperbolic structures on a surface $S$. Some of our results on the coarse geometry of this metric apply to arbitrary surfaces $S$ of finite type; however, we focus particular attention on the case where the surface is a once-punctured torus. In that case, our results provide a detailed picture of the infinitesimal, local, and global behavior of the geodesics of the Thurston metric, as well as an analogue of Royden’s theorem.
A meander is a topological configuration of a line and a simple closed curve in the plane (or a pair of simple closed curves on the 2-sphere) intersecting transversally. Meanders can be traced back to H. Poincaré and naturally appear in various areas of mathematics, theoretical physics and computational biology (in particular, they provide a model of polymer folding). Enumeration of meanders is an important open problem. The number of meanders with $2N$ crossings grows exponentially when $N$ grows, but the long-standing problem on the precise asymptotics is still out of reach.
We show that the situation becomes more tractable if one additionally fixes the topological type (or the total number of minimal arcs) of a meander. Then we are able to derive simple asymptotic formulas for the numbers of meanders as $N$ tends to infinity. We also compute the asymptotic probability of getting a simple closed curve on a sphere by identifying the endpoints of two arc systems (one on each of the two hemispheres) along the common equator.
The new tools we bring to bear are based on interpretation of meanders as square-tiled surfaces with one horizontal and one vertical cylinder. The proofs combine recent results on Masur–Veech volumes of moduli spaces of meromorphic quadratic differentials in genus zero with our new observation that horizontal and vertical separatrix diagrams of integer quadratic differentials are asymptotically uncorrelated. The additional combinatorial constraints we impose in this article yield explicit polynomial asymptotics.
Given integers $g,n\geqslant 0$ satisfying $2-2g-n<0$, let ${\mathcal{M}}_{g,n}$ be the moduli space of connected, oriented, complete, finite area hyperbolic surfaces of genus $g$ with $n$ cusps. We study the global behavior of the Mirzakhani function $B:{\mathcal{M}}_{g,n}\rightarrow \mathbf{R}_{{\geqslant}0}$ which assigns to $X\in {\mathcal{M}}_{g,n}$ the Thurston measure of the set of measured geodesic laminations on $X$ of hyperbolic length ${\leqslant}1$. We improve bounds of Mirzakhani describing the behavior of this function near the cusp of ${\mathcal{M}}_{g,n}$ and deduce that $B$ is square-integrable with respect to the Weil–Petersson volume form. We relate this knowledge of $B$ to statistics of counting problems for simple closed hyperbolic geodesics.
Let $D\subset \mathbb{C}$ be a domain with $0\in D$. For $R>0$, let $\widehat{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}_{D}(R)$ denote the harmonic measure of $D\cap \{|z|=R\}$ at $0$ with respect to the domain $D\cap \{|z|<R\}$ and let $\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}_{D}(R)$ denote the harmonic measure of $\unicode[STIX]{x2202}D\cap \{|z|\geqslant R\}$ at $0$ with respect to $D$. The behavior of the functions $\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}_{D}$ and $\widehat{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}_{D}$ near $\infty$ determines (in some sense) how large $D$ is. However, it is not known whether the functions $\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}_{D}$ and $\widehat{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}_{D}$ always have the same behavior when $R$ tends to $\infty$. Obviously, $\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}_{D}(R)\leqslant \widehat{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}_{D}(R)$ for every $R>0$. Thus, the arising question, first posed by Betsakos, is the following: Does there exist a positive constant $C$ such that for all simply connected domains $D$ with $0\in D$ and all $R>0$,
In general, we prove that the answer is negative by means of two different counter-examples. However, under additional assumptions involving the geometry of $D$, we prove that the answer is positive. We also find the value of the optimal constant for starlike domains.
J.-C. Yoccoz proposed a natural extension of Selberg’s eigenvalue conjecture to moduli spaces of abelian differentials. We prove an approximation to this conjecture. This gives a qualitative generalization of Selberg’s $\frac{3}{16}$ theorem to moduli spaces of abelian differentials on surfaces of genus ${\geqslant}2$.
Using Roelcke’s formula for the Green function, we explicitly construct a basis in the kernel of the adjoint Laplacian on a compact polyhedral surface $X$ and compute the $S$-matrix of $X$ at the zero value of the spectral parameter. We apply these results to study various self-adjoint extensions of a symmetric Laplacian on a compact polyhedral surface of genus two with a single conical point. It turns out that the behaviour of the $S$-matrix at the zero value of the spectral parameter is sensitive to the geometry of the polyhedron.
Assume a point $z$ lies in the open unit disk $\mathbb{D}$ of the complex plane $\mathbb{C}$ and $f$ is an analytic self-map of $\mathbb{D}$ fixing 0. Then Schwarz’s lemma gives $|f(z)|\leq |z|$, and Dieudonné’s lemma asserts that $|f^{\prime }(z)|\leq \min \{1,(1+|z|^{2})/(4|z|(1-|z|^{2}))\}$. We prove a sharp upper bound for $|f^{\prime \prime }(z)|$ depending only on $|z|$.