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In this paper we investigate the range of validity of Ruelle’s property. First, we show that every finitely generated Fuchsian group has Ruelle’s property. We also prove the existence of an infinitely generated Fuchsian group satisfying Ruelle’s property. Concerning the negative results, we first generalize Astala and Zinsmeister’s results [Mostow rigidity and Fuchsian groups. C. R. Math. Acad. Sci. Paris311 (1990), 301–306; Teichmüller spaces and BMOA. Math. Ann.289 (1991), 613–625] by proving that all convergence-type Fuchsian groups of the first kind fail to have Ruelle’s property. Finally, we give some results about second-kind Fuchsian groups.
We associate a flow $\phi $ with a solution of the vortex equations on a closed oriented Riemannian 2-manifold $(M,g)$ of negative Euler characteristic and investigate its properties. We show that $\phi $ always admits a dominated splitting and identify special cases in which $\phi $ is Anosov. In particular, starting from holomorphic differentials of fractional degree, we produce novel examples of Anosov flows on suitable roots of the unit tangent bundle of $(M,g)$.
Many authors define an isometry of a metric space to be a distance-preserving map of the space onto itself. In this note, we discuss spaces for which surjectivity is a consequence of the distance-preserving property rather than an initial assumption. These spaces include, for example, the three classical (Euclidean, spherical, and hyperbolic) geometries of constant curvature that are usually discussed independently of each other. In this partly expository paper, we explore basic ideas about the isometries of a metric space, and apply these to various familiar metric geometries.
We prove several general conditional convergence results on ergodic averages for horocycle and geodesic subgroups of any continuous
$\operatorname {SL}(2, \mathbb {R})$
-action on a locally compact space. These results are motivated by theorems of Eskin, Mirzakhani and Mohammadi on the
$\operatorname {SL}(2, \mathbb {R})$
-action on the moduli space of Abelian differentials. By our argument we can derive from these theorems an improved version of the ‘weak convergence’ of push-forwards of horocycle measures under the geodesic flow and a short proof of weaker versions of theorems of Chaika and Eskin on Birkhoff genericity and Oseledets regularity in almost all directions for the Teichmüller geodesic flow.
We prove that for $0<p<+\infty $ and $-1<\alpha <+\infty ,$ a conformal map defined on the unit disk belongs to the weighted Bergman space $A_{\alpha }^p$ if and only if a certain integral involving the hyperbolic distance converges.
The main aim of this paper is to investigate the invariant properties of uniform domains under flattening and sphericalization in nonlocally compact complete metric spaces. Moreover, we show that quasi-Möbius maps preserve uniform domains in nonlocally compact spaces as well.
Our main point of focus is the set of closed geodesics on hyperbolic surfaces. For any fixed integer k, we are interested in the set of all closed geodesics with at least k (but possibly more) self-intersections. Among these, we consider those of minimal length and investigate their self-intersection numbers. We prove that their intersection numbers are upper bounded by a universal linear function in k (which holds for any hyperbolic surface). Moreover, in the presence of cusps, we get bounds which imply that the self-intersection numbers behave asymptotically like k for growing k.
We study the geometry of the Thurston metric on the Teichmüller space of hyperbolic structures on a surface
$S$
. Some of our results on the coarse geometry of this metric apply to arbitrary surfaces
$S$
of finite type; however, we focus particular attention on the case where the surface is a once-punctured torus. In that case, our results provide a detailed picture of the infinitesimal, local, and global behavior of the geodesics of the Thurston metric, as well as an analogue of Royden’s theorem.
A meander is a topological configuration of a line and a simple closed curve in the plane (or a pair of simple closed curves on the 2-sphere) intersecting transversally. Meanders can be traced back to H. Poincaré and naturally appear in various areas of mathematics, theoretical physics and computational biology (in particular, they provide a model of polymer folding). Enumeration of meanders is an important open problem. The number of meanders with $2N$ crossings grows exponentially when $N$ grows, but the long-standing problem on the precise asymptotics is still out of reach.
We show that the situation becomes more tractable if one additionally fixes the topological type (or the total number of minimal arcs) of a meander. Then we are able to derive simple asymptotic formulas for the numbers of meanders as $N$ tends to infinity. We also compute the asymptotic probability of getting a simple closed curve on a sphere by identifying the endpoints of two arc systems (one on each of the two hemispheres) along the common equator.
The new tools we bring to bear are based on interpretation of meanders as square-tiled surfaces with one horizontal and one vertical cylinder. The proofs combine recent results on Masur–Veech volumes of moduli spaces of meromorphic quadratic differentials in genus zero with our new observation that horizontal and vertical separatrix diagrams of integer quadratic differentials are asymptotically uncorrelated. The additional combinatorial constraints we impose in this article yield explicit polynomial asymptotics.
Given integers $g,n\geqslant 0$ satisfying $2-2g-n<0$, let ${\mathcal{M}}_{g,n}$ be the moduli space of connected, oriented, complete, finite area hyperbolic surfaces of genus $g$ with $n$ cusps. We study the global behavior of the Mirzakhani function $B:{\mathcal{M}}_{g,n}\rightarrow \mathbf{R}_{{\geqslant}0}$ which assigns to $X\in {\mathcal{M}}_{g,n}$ the Thurston measure of the set of measured geodesic laminations on $X$ of hyperbolic length ${\leqslant}1$. We improve bounds of Mirzakhani describing the behavior of this function near the cusp of ${\mathcal{M}}_{g,n}$ and deduce that $B$ is square-integrable with respect to the Weil–Petersson volume form. We relate this knowledge of $B$ to statistics of counting problems for simple closed hyperbolic geodesics.
Let $D\subset \mathbb{C}$ be a domain with $0\in D$. For $R>0$, let $\widehat{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}_{D}(R)$ denote the harmonic measure of $D\cap \{|z|=R\}$ at $0$ with respect to the domain $D\cap \{|z|<R\}$ and let $\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}_{D}(R)$ denote the harmonic measure of $\unicode[STIX]{x2202}D\cap \{|z|\geqslant R\}$ at $0$ with respect to $D$. The behavior of the functions $\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}_{D}$ and $\widehat{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}_{D}$ near $\infty$ determines (in some sense) how large $D$ is. However, it is not known whether the functions $\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}_{D}$ and $\widehat{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}_{D}$ always have the same behavior when $R$ tends to $\infty$. Obviously, $\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}_{D}(R)\leqslant \widehat{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}_{D}(R)$ for every $R>0$. Thus, the arising question, first posed by Betsakos, is the following: Does there exist a positive constant $C$ such that for all simply connected domains $D$ with $0\in D$ and all $R>0$,
In general, we prove that the answer is negative by means of two different counter-examples. However, under additional assumptions involving the geometry of $D$, we prove that the answer is positive. We also find the value of the optimal constant for starlike domains.
J.-C. Yoccoz proposed a natural extension of Selberg’s eigenvalue conjecture to moduli spaces of abelian differentials. We prove an approximation to this conjecture. This gives a qualitative generalization of Selberg’s
$\frac{3}{16}$
theorem to moduli spaces of abelian differentials on surfaces of genus
${\geqslant}2$
.
Using Roelcke’s formula for the Green function, we explicitly construct a basis in the kernel of the adjoint Laplacian on a compact polyhedral surface
$X$
and compute the
$S$
-matrix of
$X$
at the zero value of the spectral parameter. We apply these results to study various self-adjoint extensions of a symmetric Laplacian on a compact polyhedral surface of genus two with a single conical point. It turns out that the behaviour of the
$S$
-matrix at the zero value of the spectral parameter is sensitive to the geometry of the polyhedron.
Assume a point $z$ lies in the open unit disk $\mathbb{D}$ of the complex plane $\mathbb{C}$ and $f$ is an analytic self-map of $\mathbb{D}$ fixing 0. Then Schwarz’s lemma gives $|f(z)|\leq |z|$, and Dieudonné’s lemma asserts that $|f^{\prime }(z)|\leq \min \{1,(1+|z|^{2})/(4|z|(1-|z|^{2}))\}$. We prove a sharp upper bound for $|f^{\prime \prime }(z)|$ depending only on $|z|$.
We generalize work by Bourgain and Kontorovich [On the local-global conjecture for integral Apollonian gaskets, Invent. Math. 196 (2014), 589–650] and Zhang [On the local-global principle for integral Apollonian 3-circle packings, J. Reine Angew. Math. 737, (2018), 71–110], proving an almost local-to-global property for the curvatures of certain circle packings, to a large class of Kleinian groups. Specifically, we associate in a natural way an infinite family of integral packings of circles to any Kleinian group
${\mathcal{A}}\leqslant \text{PSL}_{2}(K)$
satisfying certain conditions, where
$K$
is an imaginary quadratic field, and show that the curvatures of the circles in any such packing satisfy an almost local-to-global principle. A key ingredient in the proof is that
${\mathcal{A}}$
possesses a spectral gap property, which we prove for any infinite-covolume, geometrically finite, Zariski dense Kleinian group in
$\operatorname{PSL}_{2}({\mathcal{O}}_{K})$
containing a Zariski dense subgroup of
$\operatorname{PSL}_{2}(\mathbb{Z})$
.
We shall explain here an idea to generalize classical complex analytic Kleinian group theory to any odd-dimensional cases. For a certain class of discrete subgroups of $\text{PGL}_{2n+1}(\mathbf{C})$ acting on $\mathbf{P}^{2n+1}$, we can define their domains of discontinuity in a canonical manner, regarding an $n$-dimensional projective linear subspace in $\mathbf{P}^{2n+1}$ as a point, like a point in the classical one-dimensional case. Many interesting (compact) non-Kähler manifolds appear systematically as the canonical quotients of the domains. In the last section, we shall give some examples.
We study Lagrange spectra at cusps of finite area Riemann surfaces. These spectra are penetration spectra that describe the asymptotic depths of penetration of geodesics in the cusps. Their study is in particular motivated by Diophantine approximation on Fuchsian groups. In the classical case of the modular surface and classical Diophantine approximation, Hall proved in 1947 that the classical Lagrange spectrum contains a half-line, known as a Hall ray. We generalize this result to the context of Riemann surfaces with cusps and Diophantine approximation on Fuchsian groups. One can measure excursion into a cusp both with respect to a natural height function or, more generally, with respect to any proper function. We prove the existence of a Hall ray for the Lagrange spectrum of any non-cocompact, finite covolume Fuchsian group with respect to any given cusp, both when the penetration is measured by a height function induced by the imaginary part as well as by any proper function close to it with respect to the Lipschitz norm. This shows that Hall rays are stable under (Lipschitz) perturbations. As a main tool, we use the boundary expansion developed by Bowen and Series to code geodesics and produce a geometric continued fraction-like expansion and some of the ideas in Hall’s original argument. A key element in the proof of the results for proper functions is a generalization of Hall’s theorem on the sum of Cantor sets, where we consider functions which are small perturbations in the Lipschitz norm of the sum.
We find an explicit expression for the zeta-regularized determinant of (the Friedrichs extensions of) the Laplacians on a compact Riemann surface of genus one with conformal metric of curvature $1$ having a single conical singularity of angle $4\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}$.
In this paper, we study an interesting curve, the so-called Manhattan curve, associated with a pair of boundary-preserving Fuchsian representations of a (non-compact) surface; in particular, representations corresponding to Riemann surfaces with cusps. Using thermodynamic formalism (for countable state Markov shifts), we prove the analyticity of the Manhattan curve. Moreover, we derive several dynamical and geometric rigidity results, which generalize results of Burger [Intersection, the Manhattan curve, and Patterson–Sullivan theory in rank 2. Int. Math. Res. Not.1993(7) (1993), 217–225] and Sharp [The Manhattan curve and the correlation of length spectra on hyperbolic surfaces. Math. Z.228(4) (1998), 745–750] for convex cocompact Fuchsian representations.
The genus spectrum of a finite group G is the set of all g such that G acts faithfully on a compact Riemann surface of genus g. It is an open problem to find a general description of the genus spectrum of the groups in interesting classes, such as the Abelian p-groups. Motivated by earlier work of Talu for odd primes, we develop a general combinatorial method, for arbitrary primes, to obtain a structured description of the so-called reduced genus spectrum of Abelian p-groups, including the reduced minimum genus. In particular, we determine the complete genus spectrum for a large subclass, namely, those having ‘large’ defining invariants. With our method we construct infinitely many counterexamples to a conjecture of Talu, which states that an Abelian p-group is recoverable from its genus spectrum. Finally, we give a series of examples of our method, in the course of which we prove, for example, that almost all elementary Abelian p-groups are uniquely determined by their minimum genus, and that almost all Abelian p-groups of exponent p2 are uniquely determined by their minimum genus and Kulkarni invariant.