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Index

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 February 2024

Congyan Cai
Affiliation:
Fudan University, Shanghai
Larissa van den Herik
Affiliation:
Universiteit Leiden
Tiyanjana Maluwa
Affiliation:
Pennsylvania State University
Anne Peters
Affiliation:
Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and Public International Law, Heidelberg
Christian Marxsen
Affiliation:
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Summary

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2024
Creative Commons
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Index

References such as ‘178–9’ indicate (not necessarily continuous) discussion of a topic across a range of pages. Wherever possible, in the case of topics with many references, either these have been divided into subtopics or only the most significant discussions of the topic are listed. Because the entire work is about the UN ‘Security Council’, the use of this term (and certain others that occur constantly throughout the book) as an entry point has been restricted. Information will be found under the corresponding detailed topics.

2005 World Summit Outcome, 8, 90, 132, 224
abstentions, 4, 49, 77, 7980, 123, 128, 153, 189, 220, 260
China, 7677
Russia, 295
abuses, 8, 22, 27, 31, 34, 40, 44, 50, 289, 295
accountability, 11, 13, 34, 41, 133, 138, 253, 256, 287, 288
Accountability, Coherence and Transparency (ACT) Group, 11, 100, 118, 256, 265267, 290
Code of Conduct, 267, 290
accusations, 39, 67, 78, 9495, 139141, 238
cyber, 139140
ACSRT (African Centre for the Study and Research on Terrorism), 243
acts of aggression, 9, 4647, 69, 289
ad hoc committee, 214215
affirmative votes, 9, 7577, 107, 208, 217, 226
Afghanistan, 146, 162164
Africa, 104105, 187188, 196198, 232246, 252258, 260263, 269275
actors, 237, 285
and Russian invasion of Ukraine, 258264
and the West, 20
common position, 202, 257258
Horn of Africa, 273, 275
leaders, 129, 212, 216
non-permanent Security Council members, 187, 206, 217, 238, 256, 260, 272, 275
North Africa, 40, 130
peacekeeping in, 231, 234235
permanent seats on Security Council, 254258
region, 254, 268
Russia’s rising presence in, 238241
West Africa, 175, 271
See also individual countries
African Centre for the Study and Research on Terrorism (ACSRT), 243
African Group, 177, 255, 257, 269
African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), 222, 233, 273
APSA Roadmap, 270271
African Standby Force, 105, 233
African Union (AU), 12, 1415, 17, 125, 186, 196197, 200201, 243244, 292
and United Nations (UN), 204, 219, 254, 275
Article 4(h) AU Constitutive Act and Security Council, 197203
AU response to Libya intervention, 213223
collaboration on international terrorism, 204, 219, 242254, 275
AU Constitutive Act, 197, 203, 207, 210, 214, 219, 234, 237, 250, 251, 267
Article 4(h), 197203
Article 4(j), 197, 198, 214, 251
Article 9(1)(g), 201
AU Mission to SomaliaSee AMISOM
AU Roadmap, 214215
AU Transition Mission in SomaliaSee ATMIS
collaboration with United Nations, 242254
Executive Council, 202, 216
partnership peace operations, practice in, 196254
Peace and Security Council (PSC), 197, 200, 201, 210, 211, 213, 214, 219, 220, 243, 245, 250, 251, 270, 271, 273
members, 213223
Peace and Security Protocol, 200, 201, 222, 243, 273
perceptions of UN Security Council, 258264
response to UN Security Council’s decision and action on Libya, 213223
aggression, 6, 34, 52, 55, 120, 156, 283, 289290, 294
acts of, 9, 4647, 69, 289
Russian, 57, 156, 169, 283284
AIDS, 6264, 269
Albania, 120, 278
Allain, Jean, 201202
Al-Shabaab, 250252
AMISOM (African Union Mission to Somalia), 82, 244, 250254
annexation, 545, 263, 288
anticipatory self-defence, 137138, 142
APSASee African Peace and Security Architecture
Arab League, 79, 125126, 129
armed attacks, 9, 47, 68, 89, 135, 137, 141, 284, 292
armed conflict, 132133, 166, 175, 240
armed force, 9, 37, 47
armed intervention, 90, 226
armed opposition groups, 54, 250251
arms, 147, 221, 239240
embargoes, 124, 145, 221
Arria formula, 114
meetings, 11, 122, 136, 153, 177178, 180, 265, 273
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), 95
Assad government, 45, 131
assistance
humanitarian, 121, 169, 172, 214, 250, 275
logistical, 233
military, 55, 105, 148, 156
ATMIS (African Union Transition Mission in Somalia), 252
atrocity-crimes, 119120
attribution, 139141, 143, 184
Australia, 111112, 116
Austria, 116, 138, 151152
authorised use of force, 123, 128, 147, 286
authorisations, 89, 132133, 283
authoritarianism, domestic, 6
authority, 14, 2021, 86, 104, 108, 192, 194, 198200, 213
of external actors, 1213
Belgium, 116, 167
Berlin, 161, 275
Bosco, David, 21, 23, 60
Brazil, 9193, 102, 116, 120, 123126, 132134, 208209, 217, 226228, 255
BRICS countries, 91, 124, 206, 222224, 226, 229230
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) post-Libya intervention, 223238
Burkina Faso, 248
Cambodia, 4547
Central African Republic (CAR), 145, 232, 240241, 271
centralism, 186, 189, 191
and regionalism, 186277
future trajectories and need for reforms, 254274
centre and periphery, 284, 291295
Chad, 248See also Lake Chad
Charter (UN), 810, 1314, 6162, 6871, 8689, 113115, 147151, 156159, 191192, 195198
amendments, 8, 266, 295296
Article 51 reporting, 134136
provisions, 33, 38, 4041, 51, 86, 202
Charter-centred international order, 50, 88
China, 47, 4649, 5659, 6798, 105107, 205, 224226, 228239
abstentions, 7677
ascension to Security Council, 7298
behaviour, 23, 75, 77, 83, 85
contributions to peace operations, 78, 83, 232
Five Points, 5859
Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, 83
international legal policies, 75, 82, 189
more powerful, 19, 2224, 7374, 81, 108
new power constellation, 7982
normative role in Security Council, 2324, 8798, 108
voting affinity with United States, 7677
Xinjiang, 67, 9596, 98, 173
China Institute for International Studies (CIIS), 133
Chinese diplomats, 7576
civil society, 20, 172
civil wars, 4, 95, 129, 242
civilians, 7980, 123, 126127, 130, 142143, 157, 203204, 207209, 217218
protection of, 72, 126, 132, 204, 216217, 245
climate crisis, 176180, 190, 268274, 276
effects of, 178, 263, 270271
unconventional global threats, 268274
coalition interests, 189
‘coalition of the willing’, 4
codes of conduct, 11, 100, 118, 256, 266267, 288, 296
coercive measures, 78, 156, 226, 229
Cold War, 23, 1624, 4245, 4749, 53, 104, 108, 188189, 196198
‘new Cold War’, 5, 20, 5360, 110, 189, 261, 289
collective security, 111, 189190, 202, 213, 227228, 230, 276
system, 50, 100, 111112, 116, 143, 148, 186188, 216, 252, 266
collective self-defence, 50, 69, 292294
committees, 127, 142145, 214
ad hoc, 214215
Foreign Affairs, 3940, 130
sanctions, 145, 165, 168
compliance, 41, 52, 115, 155, 196, 243, 280
comprehensive strategic partnership (CSP), 5659
conflict situations, 202, 271, 292
conflicts
armed, 132133, 166, 175, 240
management, 191192, 201
military See military conflicts
prevention, 197, 272273, 275
conformity, 3538, 96
consensus See international consensus
consent, 57, 81, 92, 145, 148150, 235, 246247, 279280
consent-based use of force, 145150
Constitutive Act (AU) See African Union (AU)
consultations, 101, 145, 173, 250, 291
contractors, private military, 240241
cooperation, 7, 17, 20, 5758, 170, 173, 242244, 249, 274, 276
economic, 234
forbidden areas, 7, 58
counter-extremism, 6566, 68, 9698, 175, 253
counter-terrorism, 6467, 95, 169, 173174, 184, 188, 190, 242244, 252
New Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, 6467, 9697
objectives, 250, 252
operations, 244245, 248, 253
regimes, 166, 245
sanctions, 160
Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC), 170171
Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED), 170
COVID-19, 3, 6264, 72, 176, 269
Crimea, 545, 122, 263
crimes, 12, 90, 119, 206, 210211, 219, 267
against humanity, 1112, 90, 100, 119, 197198, 224, 266267
transactional organised, 248, 268
war, 12, 100, 119, 197198, 224, 266267
crises, 12, 91, 205, 209211, 214215, 246, 260, 262265, 268
climate, 176, 180, 190, 263, 268, 274, 276
humanitarian, 9192
international public health, 6264
Kosovo, 51
Libya, 94, 190, 206, 211213, 221
migrant, 40, 130
Syria, 54, 59, 74, 78, 81, 94, 205
Ukraine, 5455, 5859, 108, 121, 279, 284, 289291, 295
customary international law, 148149, 152, 158, 230231
cyber-attacks, 61, 6872, 141
cyber-defence, 70
cyber operations, 139, 141, 181, 184
cybersecurity, 6872, 180
cyberspace, 6870, 140141
cyber warfare, 68, 7172
Cyprus, 116
Darfur, 74, 81, 205206, 238, 270271
decision-making, 120, 122, 130, 132, 134, 188189, 191, 204, 264265
procedures, 29, 101, 280, 287
processes, 34, 189, 194195, 256, 264, 277, 285
delisting requests, 163164, 167
democracy, 5, 49, 57, 94, 111112, 199, 241, 258
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), 146, 175, 232, 264, 271See also MONUSCO
desertification, 178, 269270
dichotomies, 191, 278, 294295
diplomacy, 83, 206, 220, 225, 257, 262, 276
preventive, 132, 193
diplomats
Chinese, 7576
Libyan, 206
directives, 2
disarmament obligations, 4, 52
discourses
legal, 17, 284
political, 48, 208, 276
use of force, 123, 146, 150, 155, 167, 183
discretion, 36, 40, 115, 120, 140141, 290
disputes, 12, 21, 36, 38, 46, 6971, 88, 90, 103
international, 90, 92
over uses of force, 123155
regional, 191192
domestic affairs, interference in, 6667, 189
domestic authoritarianism, 6
domestic level, 24, 2627, 60, 173, 194
domestic power shifts, 7
domestic society, 18, 2627, 107, 284
draft conclusions, 116118, 153
draft resolutions, 59, 7880, 85, 89, 9395, 259260, 265, 268
credible, 100, 119, 266
droughts, 178, 269270
ecological changes, 178, 270271See also climate crisis
economic interests, 80, 131, 209210, 234235
economic power, 280, 282
economic powers, 111, 209
economic sanctions, 2, 81, 294
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 198199, 236, 246249
elected members of Security Council, 8, 13, 15, 32, 101, 112113, 118, 179180
Emergency Special Sessions, 5556, 121, 157
empowerment of other UN organs, 911
enforcement, 4, 37, 60, 80, 92, 115
actions, 91, 192, 198, 213
law, 26, 3536, 107, 139
measures, 2, 19, 3637
peace, 3536, 197, 244, 248
Europe, 54, 55, 169, 293, 296See also individual countries
European Union, 110, 214, 249, 293
experts, 1, 139, 145, 167168, 287
panels, 144147, 163, 167168, 183184, 220
extremism, 61, 6468, 9598, 169, 174, 242
combating, 66, 97
novel threats and Security Council response, 6468
stretching Security Council prerogatives, 169
violent, 6566, 174, 190, 253254, 270
extremists, 98, 248
acts of, 9697
‘Ezulwini Consensus’, 129, 202203, 211, 219, 255257
failure to decide and inaction, 264268
Federal Member States (FMS), 252
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), 51, 88, 105
Five Points, 5859
Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, 83
food insecurity, 178, 270
forbidden areas of cooperation, 7, 58
force, use of See use of force
Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR), 146
Foreign Affairs Committee (UK), 3940, 130
foreign policy, 44, 49, 5859, 7576, 8283, 85, 205, 231, 240
tools, 156, 281
formal reforms, 78
Forum on China–Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), 234
France, 4446, 7577, 9394, 99102, 118, 125126, 129130, 138139, 247248
forces, 248249
functions in peace and security architecture, 13
Gabon, 120, 206, 208, 259
Gaddafi, Muammar, 40, 128, 130, 143, 211212, 215216, 218
regime, 94, 124, 127, 204, 206208, 210211, 214, 226, 230
General Assembly (UN), 911, 4748, 5556, 6366, 7071, 121, 156159, 256257, 260261, 267268
Charter Committee, 136
resolutions, 41, 55, 58, 72, 91, 193, 231, 290
general international law, 3637, 41, 267, 276
genocide, 9, 1112, 67, 90, 95, 100, 104, 119, 197198, 265267
Rwanda, 37, 104, 198, 264
unsubstantiated claims, 144
Germany, 79, 110111, 115116, 123126, 140141, 161162, 208209, 255, 257
Ghana, 120121, 259
Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, 6467, 9697
global governance, 57, 85, 182
global interests, 92, 95, 205, 231
global polarisation, 1, 14
global power shift, 18108
global powers, 49, 237, 258, 276See also great powers
global security, 178, 190, 271
global threats, unconventional, 175176, 268
good faith, 30, 57, 115, 128, 137, 213, 289
governance, 18, 26, 28, 113, 236, 241, 284
global, 57, 85, 182
great powers, 1824, 2733, 39, 4244, 49, 51, 6061, 89, 99105, 107108
legal privileges of, 20, 23, 28, 43, 119
legal restraints on, 23, 3132
‘responsible’, 8283, 112
unanimity, 279
gross violations of human rights, 4546, 67
Group of Five Sahel (G5S), 248249
Group of Seven (G7), 112
Group of Eight (G8), 51
Group of Nine (G9), 111, 112
Group of 77 (G77), 176, 177, 229
group veto, 32
Haiti, 106, 161
harmonious world, 48, 83
Horn of Africa, 273, 275
hostilities, 58, 62, 176, 214, 232, 248
human rights, 12, 15, 4546, 49, 57, 6668, 90, 9596, 111, 172174
protection, 66, 172, 253
violations of, 4, 12, 40, 45, 68, 206, 210, 219, 241242
gross, 4546, 67
humanitarian assistance, 121, 169, 172, 214, 250, 275
humanitarian crises, 9192
humanitarian disasters, 47, 104
humanitarian intervention, 45, 74, 8992, 198200, 209, 216, 223, 225226
humanitarian law, 66, 122, 133, 145, 210, 219, 240, 293
humanity, 45, 47, 291
crimes against, 1112, 90, 100, 119, 197198, 224, 266267
inaction, 22, 42, 72, 104, 152154, 190, 277278, 288, 297
and failure to decide, 264268
inclusion, 268, 272273, 286
inclusive processes, 123155
India, 9193, 120, 123126, 169, 208209, 226, 239, 241, 255, 259
information and telecommunications (ITCs), 70
Institut de Droit International (IDI), 148
institutional capabilities, 105, 108, 274
institutional environment, 112, 114
bolstering, 118122
institutional perspective, 113, 117, 128, 130, 142, 183184
institutional reforms, 188, 255
institutional strength, 22, 25, 98, 109185
bolstering institutional environment, 118122
disputes on uses of force and inclusive processes, 123155
Resolution 1973 and wavering international consensus, 123131
future trajectories and unconventional global threats, 175181
institutionalist perspective on, 115117
proposals to refine use-of-force decision-making and discourse, 131155
and Article 51 reporting, 134136
broadening reporting requirements to other uses of force, 147150
potential backlash of insisting on reporting, 150155
Responsibility while Protecting (RwP), 132134
Responsible Protection (RP), 132, 134, 228, 229
substantiation of reporting requirements, 136146
sanctions outside and inside UN institutional framework, 155169
development of procedures and remedies, 159169
non-UN sanctions as challenge to Security Council prerogative, 156159
terrorism and extremism, stretching Security Council prerogatives, 169
institutionalisation, 8, 182183
institutionalist perspective, 16, 112114, 175, 184
interests
coalition, 189
global, 92, 95, 205, 231
national, 78, 204205, 258, 280281
political, 15, 152, 196
state, 2728, 31, 47
strategic, 53, 80, 104, 205, 221, 232, 237, 275
International Criminal Court (ICC), 2, 124125, 129, 206207, 221
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), 90, 287288, 298
international consensus, 15, 191, 204, 208, 236, 247, 267
wavering, 123131
international humanitarian law, 133, 145, 210, 219, 240, 293
international law-based international order (ILBIO), 87See also rules-based international order (RBIO)
International Law Commission (ILC), 35, 114, 117, 158
international lawyers, 20, 25, 33, 124, 165
international legal order, 15, 1819, 73, 92, 109, 136
international level, relationship between politics and law, 23, 2529
international obligations, 66, 102
international order, 56, 73, 85, 87, 109110, 113, 230
Charter-centred, 50, 88
international organisations, 1112, 115116, 144, 182, 185, 246, 250, 286
international peace, 12, 1415, 1922, 2934, 6063, 7273, 8689, 186188, 191194
maintenance of, 16, 22, 60, 192, 197
or peace between only the great powers, 6061
international politics, 7, 208, 222
international public health crisis, 6264
international relations, 1819, 4849, 56, 61, 76, 84, 8788, 225, 275, 291
international responsibilities, 36, 82, 92, 212
international rule of law, 21, 27, 189, 194196, 205, 277
international security, 46, 70, 141
international society, 18, 2631, 62, 84, 107, 284
international system, 82, 87, 194196
international terrorism, 190, 236, 242, 247, 249, 276
interpretation, 910, 3637, 50, 88, 123, 199, 201, 204, 208
interventions
armed, 90, 226See also interventions, military
humanitarian, 45, 74, 8992, 198200, 209, 216, 223, 225226
Libya, 4, 102, 123124, 132, 142, 147, 183, 213, 222224, 229
NATO, 208, 210, 213, 220, 262
military, 12, 45, 54, 80, 90, 102, 132133, 211, 287, 294
invasions
Iraq, 5052
Ukraine, 109, 263, 278, 291
Iraq, 3940, 5052, 143
invasion, 5052
War, 3839, 52, 92
Iraqi Freedom, Operation, 39, 52
Ireland, 120121, 167168, 178, 257
ISIL (so-called Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant), 40, 130, 160, 165, 166, 169, 176
ISIS (so-called Islamic State of Iraq and Syria), 52
Italy, 102, 111, 116, 141, 147, 255
ius cogens, 7, 42, 114118, 158, 195, 200
breach of, 118, 158
Japan, 111, 118, 239, 255, 257
joint statements, 57, 182, 259, 291
Kelsen, Hans, 3538
Kenya, 120, 207, 259, 261
Korea, 9
North, 9, 47, 121
South, 47, 111112, 255
War, 47, 56
Kosovo, 4, 12, 51, 56, 113
Krisch, Nico, 2021, 37
Kuwait, 5052
Lake Chad, 178, 271274
land degradation, 178, 269270
Lavrov, Sergey, 53, 87, 128
law enforcement, 26, 3536, 107, 139
League of Arab States (LAS), 125126, 203, 209, 211, 213214, 226, 292
legal claims, 136137, 142, 144, 151, 154
legal discourse, 17, 284
legal limits, 41, 115, 119, 286, 288, 295
legal obligations, 30, 139140, 150, 266
legal privileges of great powers, 20, 23, 28, 43, 119
politics of, 2931
legal proposals, 16, 2224, 9899, 107
legal restraints on great powers, 23, 3132
legalised actions and politicised institution, 3342
legislative activities, 38, 41
legislative resolutions, 41, 172, 179
legitimacy, 158, 161, 194, 195, 246, 248, 281283, 285, 290292, 296297
deficits, 161, 228
Libya, 3940, 7981, 9394, 128131, 190, 203223, 240241, 261262, 286287
AU response to Security Council’s decision and action on Libya, 213213
authorities, 125, 207, 214
conflict, 203231
crisis, 94, 190, 206, 211213, 221
diplomats, 206
intervention in, 4, 102, 123124, 132, 142, 147, 183, 213, 222224, 229
NATO, 208, 210, 213, 220, 262
Transitional National Council (TNC), 215
See also UNSMIL
Liechtenstein, 10, 121, 138, 152, 155, 167, 256, 268
Loughlin, Martin, 2426
maintaining peace during global power shift, 18108
China’s ascension and Security Council, 7298
novel threats and the response of the Security Council, 6172
power politics’ influence on Security Council workings, 4261
Security Council between politics and law, 2342
Mali, 159, 165, 190, 233, 236, 240241, 244249, 252, 271, 276 See also MINUSMA
Mauritania, 248
Mexico, 5859, 99, 102, 118, 120121, 134136, 138, 147, 149151, 155
migrant crisis, 40, 130
military alliances, 5859
military assistance, 55, 105, 148, 156
military conflicts, 2, 47, 60
protracted, 126, 208209
military contractors, private, 240241
military coups, 106, 246
military force, 2, 65, 130, 227
military interventions, 12, 45, 54, 80, 90, 102, 132133, 211, 287, 294
military operations, 127, 150, 176, 215216, 247, 260, 283
military solutions, 126127, 218
military support, 201, 241, 246, 294
MINUSMA (Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali), 190, 233, 236, 246249
MONUSCO (Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo), 233, 264
Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJWA), 236, 248
Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in MaliSee MINUSMA
multilateralism, 111, 118, 129, 139, 182183
multilateralist perspectives, 187188, 277
Muslims, 67, 95
Myanmar, 205, 222, 225, 238, 265
national interests, 78, 204205, 258, 280281
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), 23, 51, 53, 55, 210, 213, 215, 260, 262, 292294
actions, 51, 102, 213, 222
expansion, 54, 58, 284
intervention in Libya, 208, 210, 213, 220, 262
involvement, 204, 210, 213, 219
members, 51, 55, 102
membership, 53
operations, 204, 215, 230
Netherlands, The, 15, 116, 139, 167
‘new Cold War’, 5, 20, 5360, 110, 189, 261, 289
New World Order, 5, 2223, 42, 4849, 81, 191
Niger, 248, 272
Nigeria, 125, 206, 208, 215
non-authorised use of force, 136, 141
non-interference, 8889, 105, 111, 132, 189, 198, 205, 224226, 232234
non-intervention, 30, 70, 91, 228, 231
principle of, 57, 66, 90, 92, 231, 254
non-permanent members of Security Council, 24, 3132, 101, 136, 149, 193, 208, 227, 282, 287See also elected members of Security Council
non-proliferation, 121, 166, 297
non-state actors, 50, 113, 135, 137138, 142, 161
non-UN sanctions, 263
as challenge to Security Council prerogative, 156159
non-Western powers, 21, 189, 229 See also China; Russia
norms, 92, 95, 97, 155, 207209, 223228, 230231
ius cogens, 116117
new, 70, 89, 92, 110, 152, 199, 230231
norm ‘antipreneur’, 24, 88, 92, 108, 230231
norm entrepreneur, 24, 88, 95, 108, 229
norm defender, 8889
norm taker, 116, 200, 267
peremptory, 8889, 223, 237
North Africa, 40, 130
North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationSee NATO
North Korea, 9, 47, 121
Norway, 120121, 167
novel threats and Security Council response, 6172
cyber-attacks, 6872
extremism, 6468
international public health crisis, 6264
obligations, 30, 52, 66, 99, 102, 118, 140141, 170171, 264
binding, 170, 288
disarmament, 4, 52
international, 66, 102
state, 3, 71
treaty, 147, 241
See also requirements
Ombudsperson, 163167, 183
Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG), 71
Operation Iraqi Freedom, 39, 52
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), 144, 181
Organisation of African Unity (OAU), 105, 234, 242
member states, 197, 242
Terrorism Convention, 241243
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), 293
Organization of American States (OAS), 106107, 293
Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the CongoSee MONUSCO
organs, 10, 14, 33, 38, 4041, 6364, 73, 115, 121
empowering other UN organs, 911
political, 33, 40, 113, 115, 294
P5 See permanent members of Security Council
pandemic, 62, 64, 72, 176, 179, 269
panels of experts, 144147, 163, 167168, 183184, 220
partnership peacekeeping, 17, 189, 192193, 196, 250, 276
partnerships, 98, 104, 187188, 197, 219, 231, 237, 274, 292
past Security Council responses, 713
authority of external actors, 1213
empowering other UN organs, 911
formal reforms, 78
informal mechanisms, 11, 14
peaceSee international peace
peace and security architecture, 13, 14
Peace and Security Council (PSC) (AU), 197, 200201, 210211, 213214, 219220, 243, 245, 250251, 270271, 273
members, 220
Peace and Security Protocol (AU), 200201, 222, 243, 273
peace enforcement, 3536, 197, 244, 248
peace operations, 187190, 193, 232236, 238, 242, 244246, 250, 274, 276
collaborative, 186, 219
peace support operations, 238, 250, 252
peaceful coexistence, 83
peaceful settlement of disputes, 6971, 90, 92
peacekeepers, 63, 234236, 241, 245
peacekeeping, 8182, 188190, 193, 197, 232, 239, 244246, 250, 275276
forces, 79, 81, 244
in Africa, 231, 234235
missions, 81, 83, 233, 235, 239, 253, 258, 263, 274, 276
operations, 40, 44, 74, 7879, 192, 197, 231233, 244245, 247
partnerships, 17, 189, 192193, 196, 250, 276
peacemaking, 193, 197
penholders, 101, 232, 237, 247
People’s Republic of China (PRC)See China
peremptory norms, 116, 200, 267
periphery, 104, 112, 187188, 191192, 237, 274275, 278, 284, 291295
Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ), 29
permanent members of Security Council (P5), 811, 13, 15, 30, –7577, 118119, 255256, 263, 2812, 289291
permanent memberships, 19, 56, 256
permanent seats on Security Council, 113, 223, 255256, 277
for Africa, 254258
Plan of Action for Preventing Violent Extremism, 174, 253
Pol Pot, 4547
polarisation, global, 1, 14
police, 233, 284
function, 35, 38
policies, 58, 76, 79, 8283, 104, 187, 189, 211, 244245
international legal, 75, 82, 189
pro-Western, 49, 53
political discourse, 48, 208, 276
political environment, 1, 37, 16, 179
political interests, 15, 152, 196
political organs, 33, 40, 113, 115, 294
political power, 13, 17, 187, 285, 294, 296
political reforms, 126, 214
politicised institution and legalised actions, 3342
politics, 16, 2027, 29, 107, 152, 154, 191, 208
and law
international level, 2529
legal privileges and great powers, 2931
legal restraints on great powers, 3132
politicised institution and legalised actions, 3342
Security Council between, 2442
of legal privileges
and great powers, 2931
of powerSee power politics
post-Cold-War era, 48, 115, 184, 187190, 193, 230, 232, 237238, 274277
power
and law, 13, 16, 278, 284, 294, 296
economic, 280, 282
political, 13, 17, 187, 285, 294, 296
raw, 31, 112, 280, 285
rising, 223, 276
veto, 28, 3032, 4344, 7577, 80, 99100, 255258, 264266, 268
power constellation, 53, 280, 283, 295
power dynamics, 192193, 204, 276
power politics, 2024, 42, 44, 4647, 107108, 112113, 115, 275, 279
influence on Security Council workings, 4261
Cold War, 4248
‘new Cold War’, 5360
New World Order, 4852
Security Council for international peace or for peace between only the great powers, 60
negative impact, 22, 61
perspective, 32, 53, 79, 98, 108, 205
power shifts
domestic, 7
global, 18108
See also maintaining peace during global power shift
powers
economic, 111, 209
global See global powers
great See great powers
non-Western, 21, 189, 229See also China; Russia
war, 131, 287
Western, 1819, 37, 5458, 7374, 77, 7984, 8687, 205, 227, 230
world, 44
primacy of the Security Council, 104105, 187190, 194, 197, 200202, 228, 274275, 277, 291, 296
principles of international law, 28, 70, 157, 276
private military contractors, 240241
privileges, 8, 20, 2931, 44, 99, 101, 121, 167
legal See legal privileges
special, 120
procedural proposals, 289
procedural reforms, 162, 168, 183, 264, 266
proportionality, 137138, 142, 157, 173
proposals
legal, 16, 2224, 9899, 107
procedural, 289
reform, 8, 16
to refine use-of-force decision-making and discourse, 131155
protection of civilians, 72, 126, 132, 204, 216217, 245
protocols, 96, 200201, 222, 243, 273
protracted military conflicts, 126, 208209
pro-Western policy, 49, 53
proxy wars, 54, 56
Putin, Vladimir, 5, 54, 262, 294
radicalisation, 2, 65
raw power, 31, 112, 280, 285
recommendations, 2, 5, 9, 47, 66, 99, 175, 273274
reconfiguration of regionalism, 17, 274
reforms, 85, 91, 95, 100, 162163, 168, 254, 256257, 264, 267
formal, 78
future, 98, 108
institutional, 188, 255
need for, 254274
political, 126, 214
procedural, 162, 168, 183, 264, 266
regional and universal approaches, 98108
sanctions, 160, 169, 183
regional actors, 17, 152, 291292
regional agencies, 192193, 198
regional approach, 17, 23, 43, 98108
regional arrangements, 22, 98, 104, 193, 198200
regional councils, 191
regional interests, 17
regional organisations, 1417, 104106, 186188, 190192, 196197, 199200, 202204, 213, 273276, 291293
regional peace and security, 243, 247, 274
regional perspective, 113, 187, 275, 277
regionalism, 14, 189, 191193
and centralism, 186277
future trajectories and need for reforms, 254274
partnering with regional organisations, 191196
AU partnership peace operations, 196254
AU–UN collaboration on international terrorism, 242, 254
reconfiguration, 17, 274
reporting, 103, 142, 288
Article 51, 134136
potential backlash against insisting on, 150155
requirements, 22, 102, 135136, 141, 146150, 158, 288
broadening, 147150
substantiation, 136146
requirements, 34, 3638, 4041, 94, 140, 147148, 150, 163, 219, 281
reporting, 22, 102, 135136, 141, 146150, 158, 288
rule of law, 173, 196
See also obligations
resolutions, 34, 3840, 8081, 101102, 172, 196, 220, 222, 271272, 274
adopted, 50, 55, 60, 6465, 156, 175, 203
draft See draft resolutions
General Assembly, 41, 55, 58, 72, 91, 193, 231, 290
legislative, 41, 172, 179
Resolution 1973 of 2011
and NATO intervention, 203213
and wavering international consensus, 123131
Responsibility to Protect (R2P), 84, 89, 92, 99, 124, 127, 132, 133, 177, 190, 198, 202, 204, 207, 208, 217, 219, 222, 230, 276
Responsibility while Protecting (RwP), 91, 132134, 227228
Responsible Protection, 92, 132134, 228229
rising powers, 223, 276
rule of law, 5, 16, 2627, 34, 66, 138, 183, 189, 194196, 241
international, 21, 27, 189, 194196, 205, 277
requirements, 173, 196
rules-based international order (RBIO), 8687See also international law-based international order (ILBIO)
Russia, 47, 4849, 5160, 7881, 126128, 130131, 225226, 230233, 238241, 258261
aggression, 57, 156, 169, 283284
in Ukraine, 48, 120, 259, 261262, 279, 292
Article 51 letter, 283284
invasion of Ukraine, 109, 157, 188, 190, 258, 260, 262263, 278, 291
pro-Western policy, 49, 53
rising presence in Africa, 238241
Rwanda, 90, 104, 265, 267
genocide, 37, 104, 198, 264
Sahel, 165, 236, 240, 247249, 261, 271273
San Francisco Conference, 3031, 43, 104, 189, 191
sanctions, 3637, 49, 5860, 77, 106107, 114, 145146, 155, 156162, 237238, 263
and development of procedures and remedies, 159169
committees, 145, 165, 168
comprehensive, 156, 161
economic, 2, 81, 294
financial, 168, 183, 293
imposition, 155, 159, 206, 221, 237, 241
individual, 124, 164
machinery, 162, 167, 169
non-UN, 156159, 263
outside and inside UN institutional framework, 155169
reform, 160, 169, 183
regimes, 114, 144, 159169, 183, 238
targeted, 160161, 238
threats of, 93, 280
tool, 155156, 169
unilateral, 13, 60, 114, 158159, 169, 183, 237238, 263
scrutiny
legal, 26
public, 11, 140
security
global, 178, 190, 271
international, 46, 70, 141
issues/matters, 12, 1417, 63, 68, 188, 233, 235
threats, 61, 186, 268274
self-defence, 51, 6871, 89, 123, 134138, 142, 147, 150152, 170, 283284
anticipatory, 137138, 142
collective, 50, 69, 292
self-interest, 205, 257, 281
settlement, 103, 272
peaceful, 6971, 90, 92
Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), 67, 96
members, 9697
silence, 62, 117, 152155, 173, 199, 261
Slovenia, 116
society
civil, 20, 172
domestic, 18, 2627, 107, 284
Somalia, 164, 190, 197, 233, 238, 244245, 250252, 271, 276
Federal Government of Somalia (FGS), 252
Transitional Federal Government, 250
See also AMISOM; ATMIS
South Africa, 9194, 116, 125128, 130, 214215, 217, 225226, 260, 272273
South Korea, 47, 111112, 255
South Sudan, 205, 233, 235, 264
sovereign equality, 8, 28, 31, 70, 88
sovereign states, 27, 29, 50, 107, 195, 298
sovereignty, 4547, 6970, 8384, 8890, 202, 209, 225226, 230, 232234, 259
principle of, 45, 55, 69, 89, 228
Soviet Union, 910, 1819, 22, 4347, 49, 54, 60, 7576, 108, 192193See also Russia
Spain, 116, 255
Spain, Anna, 120, 264265
special military operations (SMOs), 20, 55, 5860, 284
Five Points, 5859See also Ukraine
Special Rapporteurs, 116, 152, 171174, 253
state interests, 2728, 31, 47
state obligations, 3, 71
state responsibility, 118, 157158
state sovereigntySee sovereignty
subregional organisations, 197, 244, 247
Sudan, 8182, 92, 177, 205206, 233, 240241, 269
South, 205, 233, 235, 264
sustainable development, 176
Switzerland, 116, 161162, 167, 256
Syria, 54, 78, 80, 9295, 104, 131133, 205, 222, 230