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  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: September 2011

Chapter 2 - Initial approach to trauma

from Section 1 - Approach to trauma


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15. Ciesla DJ, Moore EE, Moore JB, et al. Intubation alone does not mandate trauma surgeon presence on patient arrival to the emergency department. J Trauma 2004;56(5):937–41; discussion 41–2.
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21. Knudtson JL, Dort JM, Helmer SD, et al. Surgeon-performed ultrasound for pneumothorax in the trauma suite. J Trauma 2004;56(3):527–30.
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30. Pepe PE, Mosesso VN, Jr., Falk JL. Prehospital fluid resuscitation of the patient with major trauma. Prehosp Emerg Care 2002;6(1):81–91.
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36. Sperry JL, Gentilello LM, Minei JP, et al. Waiting for the patient to “sober up”: effect of alcohol intoxication on Glasgow Coma Scale score of brain injured patients. J Trauma 2006;61(6):1305–11.
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40. Newgard CD, Lewis RJ, Kraus JF. Steering wheel deformity and serious thoracic or abdominal injury among drivers and passengers involved in motor vehicle crashes. Ann Emerg Med 2005;45(1):43–50.
41. Nadler EP, Potoka DA, Shultz BL, et al. The high morbidity associated with handlebar injuries in children. J Trauma 2005;58(6):1171–4.
42. Chandler CF, Lane JS, Waxman KS. Seatbelt sign following blunt trauma is associated with increased incidence of abdominal injury. Am Surg 1997;63(10):885–8.
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44. Wotherspoon S, Chu K, Brown AF. Abdominal injury and the seat-belt sign. Emerg Med (Fremantle) 2001;13(1):61–5.
45. Sokolove PE, Kuppermann N, Holmes JF. Association between the “seat belt sign” and intra-abdominal injury in children with blunt torso trauma. Acad Emerg Med 2005;12(9):808–13.
46. Ferrera PC, Verdile VP, Bartfield JM, et al. Injuries distracting from intraabdominal injuries after blunt trauma. Am J Emerg Med 1998;16(2):145–9.
47. Tyroch AH, McGuire EL, McLean SF, et al. The association between chance fractures and intra-abdominal injuries revisited: a multicenter review. Am Surg 2005;71(5):434–8.
48. Bernstein MP, Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan K. Chance-type fractures of the thoracolumbar spine: imaging analysis in 53 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006;187(4):859–68.
49. Holmes JF, Offerman SR, Chang CH, et al. Performance of helical computed tomography without oral contrast for the detection of gastrointestinal injuries. Ann Emerg Med 2004;43(1):120–8.
50. Livingston DH, Lavery RF, Passannante MR, et al. Admission or observation is not necessary after a negative abdominal computed tomographic scan in patients with suspected blunt abdominal trauma: results of a prospective, multi-institutional trial. J Trauma 1998;44(2):273–80; discussion 80–2.
51. Branney SW, Moore EE, Cantrill SV, et al. Ultrasound based key clinical pathway reduces the use of hospital resources for the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. J Trauma 1997;42(6):1086–90.
52. Holmes J, Wisner D, McGahan J, et al. A clinical prediction instrument for the abdominal evaluation of adult blunt trauma patients: abstract. Acad Emerg Med 2007;14(5):S62.
53. Rose JS. Ultrasound in abdominal trauma. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2004;22(3):581–99, vii.
54. Guillamondegui OD, Pryor JP, Gracias VH, et al. Pelvic radiography in blunt trauma resuscitation: a diminishing role. J Trauma 2002;53(6):1043–7.
55. Kessel B, Sevi R, Jeroukhimov I, et al. Is routine portable pelvic X-ray in stable multiple trauma patients always justified in a high technology era? Injury 2007;38:559–63.
56. Brohi K, Healy M, Fotheringham T, et al. Helical computed tomographic scanning for the evaluation of the cervical spine in the unconscious, intubated trauma patient. J Trauma 2005;58(5):897–901.
57. Schuster R, Waxman K, Sanchez B, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging is not needed to clear cervical spines in blunt trauma patients with normal computed tomographic results and no motor deficits. Arch Surg 2005;140(8):762–6.
58. Hogan GJ, Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan K, et al. Exclusion of unstable cervical spine injury in obtunded patients with blunt trauma: is MR imaging needed when multi-detector row CT findings are normal? Radiology 2005;237(1):106–13.
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60. Stiell IG, Clement CM, McKnight RD, et al. The Canadian C-spine Rule versus the NEXUS Low-risk Criteria in patients with trauma. N Engl J Med 2003;349(26):2510–18.
61. Hsu JM, Joseph T, Ellis AM. Thoracolumbar fracture in blunt trauma patients: guidelines for diagnosis and imaging. Injury 2003;34(6):426–33.
62. Terregino CA, Ross SE, Lipinski MF, et al. Selective indications for thoracic and lumbar radiography in blunt trauma. Ann Emerg Med 1995;26(2):126–9.
63. Sava J, Williams MD, Kennedy S, et al. Thoracolumbar fracture in blunt trauma: is clinical exam enough for awake patients? J Trauma 2006;61(1):168–71.
64. Chang CH, Holmes JF, Mower WR, et al. Distracting injuries in patients with vertebral injuries. J Emerg Med 2005;28(2):147–52.
65. Antevil JL, Sise MJ, Sack DI, et al. Spiral computed tomography for the initial evaluation of spine trauma: a new standard of care? J Trauma 2006;61(2):382–7.
66. Hauser CJ, Visvikis G, Hinrichs C, et al. Prospective validation of computed tomographic screening of the thoracolumbar spine in trauma. J Trauma 2003;55(2):228–34; discussion 34–5.
67. Berry GE, Adams S, Harris MB, et al. Are plain radiographs of the spine necessary during evaluation after blunt trauma? Accuracy of screening torso computed tomography in thoracic/lumbar spine fracture diagnosis. J Trauma 2005;59(6):1410–13; discussion 13.
68. Rootman DB, Mustard R, Kalia V, et al. Increased incidence of complications in trauma patients cointoxicated with alcohol and other drugs. J Trauma 2007;62(3):755–8.
69. Hoffman JR, Wolfson AB, Todd K, et al. Selective cervical spine radiography in blunt trauma: methodology of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS). Ann Emerg Med 1998;32(4):461–9.
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71. American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Radiographic assessment of the cervical spine in asymptomatic trauma patients. Neurosurgery 2002;50(Suppl. 3):S30–5.
72. Marion D, Domeier R, Dunham CM, et al. Determination of Cervical Spine Stability in Trauma Patients. Update of the 1997 EAST Cervical Spine Clearance Document. Chicago, IL: Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, 2000: pp. 1–9.
73. Abramson D, Scalea TM, Hitchcock R, et al. Lactate clearance and survival following injury. J Trauma 1993;35(4):584–8; discussion 8–9.
74. Lavery RF, Livingston DH, Tortella BJ, et al. The utility of venous lactate to triage injured patients in the trauma center. J Am Coll Surg 2000;190(6):656–64.
75. Bilkovski RN, Rivers EP, Horst HM. Targeted resuscitation strategies after injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 2004;10(6):529–38.
76. Pal JD, Victorino GP, Twomey P, et al. Admission serum lactate levels do not predict mortality in the acutely injured patient. J Trauma 2006;60(3):583–7; discussion 7–9.
77. Callaway D, Rosen C, Baker C, et al. Lactic acidosis predicts mortality in normotensive elderly patients with traumatic injury: abstract. Acad Emerg Med 2007;145(5):S152.