Skip to main content Accessibility help
The Institutions Curse
  • Cited by 33
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The 'resource curse' is the view that countries with extensive natural resources tend to suffer from a host of undesirable outcomes, including the weakening of state capacity, authoritarianism, fewer public goods, war, and economic stagnation. This book debunks this view, arguing that there is an 'institutions curse' rather than a resource curse. Legacies endemic to the developing world have impelled many countries to develop natural resources as a default sector in lieu of cultivating modern and diversified economies, and bad institutions have also condemned nations to suffer from ills unduly attributed to minerals and oil. Victor Menaldo also argues that natural resources can actually play an integral role in stimulating state capacity, capitalism, industrialization, and democracy, even if resources are themselves often a symptom of underdevelopment. Despite being cursed by their institutions, weak states are blessed by their resources: greater oil means more development, both historically and across countries today.


'This book explores the role of natural resources, especially oil, in the development of countries. … A wide geographic area is covered, including but not limited to North America, Europe and the Middle East. … The author argues that political institutions, not resource endowment, are the basis for differences in development. … It adds to the literature on the role of natural resources, institutions, and development. Footnotes and references. … Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty.'

J. E. Weaver Source: Choice

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Aaronson, Susan. 2011. “Limited Partnership: Business, Government, Civil Society, and the Public in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).” Public Administration and Development 31(1): 50–63.
Abba, Kolo, and Wälde, Thomas. 2008. “Coverage of Taxation under Modern Investment Treaties.” In Muchlinski, Peter, Ortino, Federico, and Schreuer, Christoph, eds., The Oxford Handbook of International Investment Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 305–362.
ABC Azerbaijan. 2009. “SOCAR-Total PSA on Absheron Block in Caspian Sea Put into Force.” ABC Azerbaijan, May 30. Available at:
Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, and Robinson, James. 2001. “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: an Empirical Investigation.” American Economic Review 91(5): 1369–1401.
Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, and Robinson, James. 2002. “Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 117(4): 1231–1294.
Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, and Robinson, James. 2005. “Institutions as the Fundamental Cause of Long-Run Growth.” In Aghion, Philippe, and Durlauf, Stephen, eds., Handbook of Economic Growth. London: Elsevier, pp. 385–472.
Acemoglu, Daron, and Robinson, James. 2006. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ahlquist, John, and Prakash, Aseem. 2008. “The Influence of Foreign Direct Investment on Contracting Confidence in Developing Countries.” Regulation & Governance 2(3): 316–339.
Aidt, Toke, and Jensen, Peter. 2009. “The Taxman Tools Up: an Event History Study of the Introduction of the Personal Income Tax.” Journal of Public Economics 93(1): 160–175.
Albert, Bill. 1988. South America and the First World War: The Impact of the War on Brazil, Argentina, Peru, and Chile. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Albertus, Michael, and Menaldo, Victor. 2012a. “If You're Against Them You're with Us: The Effect of Expropriation on Autocratic Survival.” Comparative Political Studies 45(8): 973–1003.
Albertus, Michael, and Menaldo, Victor. 2012b. “Dictators as Founding Fathers: The Role of Constitutions under Autocracy.” Economics and Politics 24(3): 279–306.
Albertus, Michael, and Menaldo, Victor. 2012c. “Coercive Capacity and the Prospects for Democratization.” Comparative Politics 44(2): 151–169.
Albertus, Michael, and Menaldo, Victor. 2014. “Gaming Democracy: Elite Dominance during Transition and the Prospects for Redistribution.” British Journal of Political Science 44(3): 575–603.
Alexeev, Michael, and Conrad, Robert. 2009. “The Elusive Curse of Oil.” The Review of Economics and Statistics 91(3): 586–598.
Allen, Larry. 2005. The Global Economic System Since 1945. London: Reaktion Books.
Jim, Alm, Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge, and Schneider, Friedrich. 2004. “‘Sizing’ the Problem of the Hard-to-Tax.” In Alm, James, Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge, and Wallace, Sally, eds., Taxing the Hard-to-Tax: Lessons from Theory and Practice. London: Elsevier, pp. 11–75.
Alon, Yoav. 2005. “The Tribal System in the Face of the State-Formation Process: Mandatory Transjordan, 1921–46.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 37(2): 213–240.
Altstadt, Audrey. 1992. The Azerbaijani Turks: Power and Identity under Russian Rule. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press.
Andersen, Jørgen, and Ross, Michael. 2014. “The Big Oil Change: a Closer Look at the Haber-Menaldo Analysis.” Comparative Political Studies 47(7): 993–1021.
Anderson, Gary, and Boettke, Peter. 1997. “Soviet Venality: a Rent-Seeking Model of the Communist State.” Public Choice 93(1–2): 37–53.
Anderson, Lisa. 1987. “The State in the Middle East and North Africa.” Comparative Politics 20(1): 1–18.
Anderson, Lisa. 1991. “Absolutism and the Resilience of Monarchy in the Middle East.” Political Science Quarterly 106: 1–15.
Aslaksen, Silje. 2010. “Oil and Democracy – More than a Cross-Country Correlation?Journal of Peace Research 47(4): 421–431.
Astorga, Pablo, Bergés, Ame, and FitzGerald, Edmund VK. 2003. The Oxford Latin American Economic History Database (OxLAD). The Latin American Centre, Oxford: Oxford University.
Auriol, Emmanuelle, and Warlters, Michael. 2005. “Taxation Base in Developing Countries.” Journal of Public Economics 89(4): 625–646.
Babali, Tuncay. 2005. “Implications of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Main Oil Pipeline Project.” Perceptions Winter: 29–59.
Bagirov, Sabit. 1996. “Azerbaijan Oil: Glimpses of a Long History.” Journal International Affairs 1(2): 22–36.
Bagirov, Sabit. 2006. “Azerbaijan's Oil Revenues: Ways of Reducing the Risk of Ineffective Use.” Working Paper. Central European University. Budapest, Hungary.
Banks, Arthur. 2009. “Cross-National Time-Series Data Archive.” SUNY Binghamton. New York: Binghamton.
Bardhan, Pranab. 1993. “Symposium on Democracy and Development.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 7(3): 45–49.
Barma, Naazneen, Kaiser, Kai, and Le, Tuan Minh. 2012. The Political Economy of Natural Resource-Led Development. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.
Barro, Robert, and Lee, Jong-Wha. 2013. “A New Dataset of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010.” Journal of Development Economics 104(September): 184–198.
Barth, James, Caprio, Gerard Jr., and Levine, Ross. 2006. Rethinking Bank Regulation: Till Angels Govern. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bates, Robert. 1981. Markets and States in Tropical Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bates, Robert. 1991. “The Economics of Transitions to Democracy.” PS: Political Science and Politics 24(1): 24–27.
Bates, Robert, Greif, Avner, and Singh, Smita. 2002. “Organizing Violence.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 46(5): 599–628.
Bates, Robert, and Lien, Da-Hsiang. 1985. “A Note on Taxation, Development, and Representative Government.” Politics and Society 14(1): 53–70.
Baunsgaard, Thomas. 2001. “A Primer on Mineral Taxation.” IMF Working Paper. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.
Beard, Charles, and Lewis, John. 1932. “Representative Government in Evolution.” American Political Science Review 26(2): 223–240.
Bebbington, Anthony, and Bury, Jeffrey, eds. 2013. Subterranean Struggles: New Dynamics of Mining, Oil, and Gas in Latin America. Austin: Texas University Press.
Beblawi, Hazem, and Luciani, Giacomo. 1987. “Introduction.” In Beblawi, Hazem, and Luciani, Giacomo, eds., The Rentier State. London: Croom Helm, pp. 1–21.
Becerra, Oscar, Cavallo, Eduardo, and Scartascini, Carlos. 2012. “The Politics of Financial Development: The Role of Interest Groups and Government Capabilities.” Journal of Banking & Finance 36(3): 626–643.
Beck, Nathaniel, Jackman, Simon, and Rosenthal, Howard. 2006. “Presidential Approval: The Case of George W. Bush.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Beck, Thorsten, Demirgüç-Kunt, Aslı, and Levine, Ross. 2010. “Financial Institutions and Markets across Countries and over Time: the Updated Financial Development and Structure Database.” The World Bank Economic Review 24(1): 77–92.
Beck, Thorsten, Levine, Ross, and Loayza, Norman. 2000. “Finance and the Sources of Growth.” Journal of Financial Economics 58(1–2): 261–300.
Bell, Duran. 2004. “Evolution of Middle Eastern Social Structures: a New Model.” Social Evolution and History 3(2): 25–54.
Bell, Imogen, ed. 2002. Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia 2003. London: Taylor & Francis.
Benson, Bruce. 1990. The Enterprise of Law: Justice without the State. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy.
Benson, Bruce. 1994. “Emerging from the Hobbesian Jungle: Might Takes and Makes Rights.” Constitutional Political Economy 5(2): 129–158.
Bentham, Richard. 1988. State Petroleum Companies: Legal and Organizational Structure. Dundee: CPMLPI.
Berkey, Jonathan. 2003. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600–1800. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bernstein, Peter. 2000. The Power of Gold: the History of an Obsession. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bertola, Luis, and Williamson, Jeffrey. 2006. “Globalization in Latin America Before 1940.” In Bulmer-Thomas, Victor, Coatsworth, John, and Conde, Roberto Cortes, eds., Cambridge Economic History of Latin America: the Colonial Era and the Short Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 11–56.
Besley, Timothy, and Persson, Torsten. 2009. “The Origins of State Capacity: Property Rights, Taxation and Politics.” American Economic Review 99(4): 1218–1244.
Besley, Timothy, and Persson, Torsten. 2012. Pillars of Prosperity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Beydoun, Ziad. 1998. “Arabian Plate Oil and Gas: Why So Rich and So Prolific?Episodes 21(2): 74–81.
Bimonte, Salvatore. 2001. “Model of Growth and Environmental Quality: a New Evidence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Blomström, Magnuson, and Kokko, Ari. 2007. “From Natural Resources to High-tech Production: the Evolution of Industrial Competitiveness in Sweden and Finland.” In Lederman, Daniel, and Maloney, William, eds., Natural Resources, Neither Curse nor Destiny. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications, pp. 213–258.
Bockstette, Valerie, Chanda, Areendam, and Putterman, Louis. 2002. “States and Markets: the Advantage of an Early Start.” Journal of Economic Growth 7(4): 347–369.
Bohn, Henning, and Deacon, Robert. 2000. “Ownership Risk, Investment, and the Use of Natural Resources.” The American Economic Review 90(3): 526–549.
Bräutigam, Deborah. 2008a. “Contingent Capacity: Export Taxation and State-building in Mauritius” In Bräutigam, Deborah, Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge, and Moore, Mick, eds., Taxation and State-Building in Developing Countries: Capacity and Consent. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–159.
Bräutigam, Deborah. 2008b. “Taxation and Governance in Africa: Take a Second Look.” Development Policy Outlook 1(April): 1–6.
Broadhead, Susan Herlin. 1979. “Beyond Decline: the Kingdom of the Kongo in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies 12(4): 615–650.
Broadman, Harry. 1985. “Incentives and Constraints on Exploratory Drilling for Petroleum in Developing Countries.” Annual Review of Energy 10(1): 217–249.
Brownlee, Jason. 2011. “Executive Elections in the Arabic World: When and How Do They Matter?Comparative Political Studies 44(7): 807–828.
Bruckner, Markus, Ciccone, Antonio, and Tesei, Andrea. 2012. “Oil Price Shocks, Income and Democracy.” Review of Economics and Statistics 94(2): 389–399.
Brunnschweiler, Christa. 2008. “Cursing the Blessings? Natural Resource Abundance, Institutions, and Economic Growth.” World Development 36(3): 399–419.
Brunnschweiler, Christa, and Bulte, Erwin. 2008. “The Resource Curse Revisited and Revised: a Tale of Paradoxes and Red Herrings.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 55(3): 248–264.
Brunnschweiler, Christa, and Bulte, Erwin. 2009. “Natural Resources and Violent Conflict: Resource Abundance, Dependence, and the Onset of Civil Wars.” Oxford Economic Papers 61(4): 651–674.
Bucks, Brian, Kennickell, Arthur, and Moore, Kevin. 2009. “Recent Changes in U.S. Family Finances from 2004 to 2007: Evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances.” Federal Reserve Bulletin 95(February): 1–56.
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Smith, Alastair, Siverson, Randolph, and Morrow, James. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Bulmer-Thomas, Victor. 2003. The Economic History of Latin America since Independence. Vol. 77. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cai, Hongbin, and Treisman, Daniel. 2005. “Does Competition for Capital Discipline Governments? Decentralization, Globalization, and Public Policy.” American Economic Review 95(3): 817–830.
Calomiris, Charles, and Haber, Stephen. 2014. Fragile by Design: the Political Origins of Banking Crises and Scarce Credit. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Cardenas, Enrique. 1997. “A Macroeconomic Interpretation of Nineteenth Century Mexico.” In Haber, Stephen, ed., How Latin America Fell Behind. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 65–92.
Carneiro, Robert. 1970. “A Theory of the Origin of the State.” Science 169(August): 733–738.
Centeno, Miguel. 1997. “Blood and Debt: War and Taxation in Nineteenth-Century Latin America.” American Journal of Sociology 102(6): 1565–1605.
Centeno, Miguel. 2002. Blood and Debt: War and the Nation-State in Latin America. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Centro de Estudios de Minería y Desarrollo (CEMYD). 1990. Desempeño y Colapso de la Minería Nacionalizada. La Paz: CEMYD.
Chanda, Areendam, and Putterman, Louis. 2007. “Early Starts, Reversals and Catch-up in the Process of Economic Development.” The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 109(2): 387–413.
Chaney, Eric. 2012. “Democratic Change in the Arab World, Past and Present.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: 363–414.
Chaudhry, Kiren Aziz. 1994. “Economic Liberalization and the Lineages of the Rentier State.” Comparative Politics 27(1): 1–25.
Cheibub, José Antonio. 1998. “Political Regimes and the Extractive Capacity of Governments: Taxation in Democracies and Dictatorships.” World Politics 50(3): 349–376.
Cheibub, José Antonio, Gandhi, Jennifer, and Vreeland, James Raymond. 2010. “Democracy and Dictatorship Revisited.” Public Choice 143(1): 67–101.
Cheung, Yan-Leung, Rau, Raghavendra, and Stouraitis, Aris. 2011. Which Firms Benefit from Bribes, and by how Much? Evidence from Corruption Cases Worldwide. Working Paper.
Chevallier, Jérôme, and Kaiser, Kai. 2010. “The Political Economy of Mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)”. Unpublished Manuscript. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Ciaretta, Aitor, and Nasirov, Shahriyar. N.d. “Analysis of Azerbaijan Oil and Gas Sector.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Clague, Christopher, Keefer, Philip, Knack, Stephen, and Olson, Mancur. 1999. “Contract-Intensive Money.” Journal of Economic Growth 4(2): 185–211.
Clague, Christopher, Keefer, Philip, and Olson, Mancur. 1996. “Property and Contract Rights in Autocracies and Democracies.” Journal of Economic Growth 1(2): 243–276.
Coase, Ronald. 1937. “The Nature of the Firm.” Economica 4(3): 386–405.
Coatsworth, John. 1978. “Obstacles to Economic Growth in Nineteenth-Century Mexico.” The American Historical Review 83(1): 80–100.
Coatsworth, John. 2008. “Inequality, Institutions and Economic Growth in Latin America.” Journal of Latin American Studies 40(3): 545–569.
Coatsworth, John, and Williamson, Jeffrey. 2004. “Always Protectionist? Latin American Tariffs from Independence to Great Depression.” Journal of Latin American Studies 36(2): 205–232.
Cohen, Youssef, Brown, Brian, and Organski, Abramo F.K.. 1981. “The Paradoxical Nature of State Making: the Violent Creation of Order.” American Political Science Review 75(4): 901–910.
Collier, Paul. 2010. The Plundered Planet: Why We Must – and How We Can – Manage Nature for Global Prosperity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Conley, John, and Temini, Akram. 2001. “Endogenous Enfranchisement When Groups Preferences Conflict.” Journal of Political Economy 109(1): 79–102.
Cook, Steven. 2007. Ruling but Not Governing: the Military and Political Development in Egypt, Algeria and Turkey. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Cordesman, Anthony. 2004. “Current MENA Energy Developments: the Trends by Sub-region and Country.” Center for Strategic and International Studies. Washington, DC.
Cornell, Svante. 2011. Azerbaijan Since Independence. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.
Cotet, Anca, and Tsui, Kevin. 2010. “Oil and Conflict: What Does the Cross-Country Evidence Really Show?” Unpublished Manuscript.
Cowen, Tyler. 2014. “The Lack of Major Wars May Be Hurting Economic Growth.” The New York Times:
Cox, Gary, North, Douglass, and Weingast, Barry. 2013. “The Violence Trap.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Crystal, Jill. 1990. Oil and Politics in the Gulf: Rulers and Merchants in Kuwait and Qatar. New York: Cambridge University.
David, Paul, and Wright, Gavin. 1997. “Increasing Returns and the Genesis of American Resource Abundance.” Industrial and Corporate Change 6(2): 203–245.
Deas, Malcom. 1982. “The Fiscal Problems of Nineteenth-Century Colombia.” Journal of Latin American Studies 14(2): 287–328.
Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli, and Levine, Ross. 2009. “Finance and Inequality: Theory and Evidence.” In NBER Working Papers. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Dercon, Stefan. 1998. “Wealth, Risk and Activity Choice: Cattle in Western Tanzania.” Journal of Development Economics 55(1): 1–42.
DeVries, Jan, Datta, S. K., Nugent, J. B., Ginneken, J. K. Van, Muller, A. S., Voorhoeve, A. M., and Kawabe, H.. 1984. “European Urbanization 1500–1800.” Population Studies 38(3): 507–509.
Dincecco, Mark. 2009. “Fiscal Centralization, Limited Government, and Public Revenues in Europe, 1650–1913.” The Journal of Economic History 69(1): 48–103.
Dobado Gonzales, Rafael, Galvarriato, Aurora Gomez, and Williamson, Jeffrey. 2008. “Mexican Exceptionalism: Globalization and De-Industrialization, 1750–1877.” The Journal of Economic History 68(3): 758–811.
Dobado Gonzales, Rafael, and Marrero, Gustavo. 2006. “Mining-Led Growth in Bourbon Mexico, the Role of the State, and the Economic Cost of Independence.” The David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies. Working Paper on Latin America.
Downing, Brian. 1992. The Military Revolution and Political Change: Origins of Democracy and Autocracy in Early Modern Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Drelichman, Mauricio, and Voth, Hans-Joachim. 2008. “Institutions and the Resource Curse in Early Modern Spain.” In Helpman, Elhanan, ed., Institutions and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 120–147.
Driscoll, Jesse. 2015. Warlords and Coalition Politics in Post-Soviet States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dunning, Thad. 2008. Crude Democracy: Natural Resource Wealth and Political Regimes. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dunning, Thad. 2010. “Endogenous Oil Rents.” Comparative Political Studies 43(3): 379–410.
Dupuy, Kendra. 2014. “Community Development Requirements in Mining Laws.” The Extractive Industries and Society 1(2): 200–215.
Dupuy, Kendra. 2015. “Managing the Resource Curse: New Governance Initiatives.” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington.
Easterly, William. 2007. “Inequality Does Cause Underdevelopment: Insights from a New Instrument.” Journal of Development Economics 84(2): 755–776.
Easterly, William, and Levine, Ross. 2003. “Tropics, Germs, and Crops: How Endowments Influence Economic Development.” Journal of Monetary Economics 50(1): 3–39.
Eichengreen, Barry. 1994. “House Calls of the Money Doctor: The Kemmerer Missions to Latin America, 1917–1931.” In Drake, Paul, ed., Money Doctors, Foreign Debts, and Economic Reforms in Latin America from the 1890s to the Present. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, pp. 110–132.
Eifert, Benn, Gelb, Alan, and Tallroth, Nils Borje. 2002. “The Political Economy of Fiscal Policy and Economic Management in Oil-Exporting Countries.” Policy Research Working Paper 2899. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Ekelund, Robert, and Tollison, Rorbert. 1981. Mercantilism as a Rent-Seeking Society: Economic Regulation in Historical Perspective. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
Eleftheriadou, Marina. 2012Tribes: a Back to the Future Perspective on the Arab Spring.” Middle East Bulletin 23(June): 2–7.
Engemann, Kristie, Owyang, Michael, and Wall, Howard. 2014. “Where is an Oil Shock?Journal of Regional Science 54(2): 169–185.
Engerman, Stanley, and Sokoloff, Kenneth. 1997. “Factor Endowments, Institutions, and Differential Paths of Growth among New World Economies: a View from Economic Historians of the United States.” In Stephen, Haber. ed., Latin America Fell Behind: Essays on the Economic Histories of Brazil and Mexico, 1800–1914. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 260–306.
Erkan, Mustafa. 2011. International Energy Investment Law: Stability through Contractual Clauses. Amsterdam: Walters Kluwer.
Fabian, Bornhorst, Gupta, Sanjeev, and Thornton, John. 2009. “Natural Resource Endowments and the Domestic Revenue Effort.” European Journal of Political Economy 25(4): 439–446.
Fandy, Mamoun. 1994. “Tribe vs. Islam: The Post-colonial Arab State and the Democratic Imperative.” Middle East Policy 3(2): 40–51.
Fearon, James. 2005. “Primary Commodity Exports and Civil War.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49(4): 483–507.
Fearon, James, and Laitin, David. 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97(1): 75–90.
Firmin-Seller, Kathryn. 1995. “The Politics of Property Rights.” American Political Science Review 89(4): 867–881.
Fisman, Raymond, and Love, Inessa. 2003. “Financial Development and Growth in the Short and Long Run.” In NBER Working Papers. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Flores-Macías, Francisco. 2010. “Explaining the Behavior of State Owned Enterprises: Mexico's PEMEX in Comparative Perspective”. Ph.D. Dissertation. MIT: Cambridge, MA.
Frankel, Jeffrey. 2010. “The Natural Resource Curse: a Survey.” Working Paper No. 15836. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Frankel, Jeffrey, and Rose, Andrew. 2005. “Is Trade Good or Bad for the Environment? Sorting out the Causality.” Review of Economics and Statistics 87(1): 85–91.
Freeman, John, and Quinn, Dennis. 2012. “The Economic Origins of Democracy Reconsidered.” American Political Science Review 106(1): 58–80.
Frieden, Jeff. 1989. “The Economics of Intervention: American Overseas Investments and Relations with the Underdeveloped Areas, 1890–1950.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 31(1): 55–80.
Frieden, Jeff. 1994. “International Investment and Colonial Control: a New Interpretation.” International Organization 48(4): 559–593.
Fukuyama, Francis. 2011 The Origins of Political Order: from Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Profile Books.
Gadano, Nicolas. 2010. “Urgency and Betrayal: Three Attempts to Foster Private Investment in Argentina's Oil Industry.” In Hogan, William, and Sturzenengger, Federico, eds., The Natural Resources Trap. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 369–404.
Gandhi, Jennifer, and Przeworski, Adam. 2006. “Cooperation, Cooptation, and Rebellion Under Non-Democratic Leaderships.” Economics and Politics 18(1): 1–26.
Gantz, David. 1977. “The Marcona Settlement: New Forms of Negotiation and Compensation for Nationalized Property.” The American Journal of International Law 71(3): 474–493.
Gaus, Gregory. 1994. “Oil Monarchies: Domestic and Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf States.” New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
Geddes, Barbara. 1999. “What Do We Know about Democratization after Twenty Years?Annual Review of Political Science 2(1): 115–144.
Gehlbach, Scott. 2008. Representation through Taxation: Revenue, Politics, and Development in Postcommunist States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gehlbach, Scott, and Keefer, Phil. 2011. “Investment without Democracy: Ruling Party Institutionalization and Credible Commitment in Non-Democracies.” Journal of Comparative Economics 39(2): 123–139.
Gelb, Alan. 1988. Oil Windfalls: Blessing or Curse? Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Genschel, Philipp, and Plumper, Thomas. 1997. “Regulatory Competition and International Co-Operation.” Journal of European Public Policy 4(4): 626–642.
Gervasoni, Carlos. 2010. “A Rentier Theory of Subnational Regimes.” World Politics 62(2): 302–340.
Gillis, Malcom. 1982. “Evolution of Natural Resource Taxation in Developing Countries.” Natural Resources Journal 22(June): 619–648.
Gleditsch, Kristian, and Ward, Michael. 2006. “Diffusion and the International Context of Democratization.” International Organization 60(4): 911–933.
Global Investment Center. 2012. Azerbaijan Mineral & Mining Sector Investment and Business Guide. Washington, DC: USA International Business Publications.
Goldberg, Ellis. N.d.a “Global Energy Shifts: Socialism and American Hegemony in the 20th Century.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Goldberg, Ellis. N.d.a “Saudi Arabia and Aramco: Evolution of an Agreement.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Goldstone, Jack. 2011. “Understanding the Revolutions of 2011: Weakness and Resilience in Middle Eastern Autocracies.” Foreign Affairs 90(5): 8–16.
Gordon, Roger, and Li, Wei. 2005. “Tax Structures in Developing Countries: Many Puzzles and a Possible Explanation.” Working Chapter 11267. National Bureau of Economic Research. Cambridge, MA.
Grafe, Regina, and Irigoin, Maria Alejandra. 2006. “The Spanish Empire and its Legacy: Fiscal Redistribution and Political Conflict in Colonial and Post-Colonial Spanish America”. Journal of Global History 1(2): 241–267.
Grant, Oliver. 2005. Migration and Inequality in Germany. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gray, Patrick. 1999. “A Corrected Ethnographic Atlas.” World Cultures 10(1): 24–136.
Greenwald, Gerald. 1988. “Encouraging Natural Gas Exploration Policies.” In Beredjick, Nicky and Walde, Thomas, eds., Petroleum Investment Policies in Developing Countries. London: Graham and Trotman, pp. 175–188.
Greif, Avner. 1994. “Cultural Beliefs and the Organization of Society: a Historical and Theoretical Reflection on Collectivist and Individualist Societies.” Journal of Political Economy 102(4): 912–950.
Greif, Avner, and Laitin, David. 2004. “A Theory of Endogenous Institutional Change.” American Political Science Review 98(4): 633–652.
Greif, Avner, Milgrom, Paul, and Weingast, Barry. 1994. “Coordination, Commitment and Enforcement: the Case of the Merchant Guild.” Journal of Political Economy 102(4): 745–776.
Gross, Daniel. 2014. “Can China be Green?” Slate. June 19th:
Grossman, Gene, and Krueger, Alan. 1995. “Economic Growth and the Environment.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 110(2): 353–377.
Guiso, Luigi, Sapienza, Paola, and Zingales, Luigi. 2008. “Trusting the Stock Market.” Journal of Finance 63(6): 2557–2600.
Gustafson, Thane. 1989. Crisis amid Plenty: The Politics of Soviet Energy under Brezhnev and Gorbachev. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Gustafson, Thane. 2012. Wheel of Fortune. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Haber, Stephen. 2006. “It Wasn't All Prebisch's Fault: the Political Economy of Latin American Industrialization.” In Bulmer-Thomas, Victor, Coatsworth, John, and Conde, Roberto Cortes, eds., The Cambridge Economic History of Latin America: Volume 2, The Long Twentieth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 537–584.
Haber, Stephen. 2007. “Authoritarian Government.” In Weingast, Barry and Wittman, Donald, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Political Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 693–708.
Haber, Stephen. 2011. “Differential Paths of Financial Development, Evidence from New World Economies.” In Costa, Dora and Lamoreaux, Naomi, eds., Understanding Long-Run Economic Growth: Geography, Institutions, and the Knowledge Economy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 89–120.
Haber, Stephen. 2012a. “Politics and Banking Systems.” In Engerman, Stanley, Sokoloff, Kenneth, Mariscal, Elisa, and Zolt, Eric, eds., Economic Development in the Americas Since 1500. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 245–298.
Haber, Stephen. 2012b. “Climate, Technology, and the Evolution of Economic and Political Institutions.” Working Paper.
Haber, Stephen. 2014. “Resource Booms and Industrial Development: Evidence from the Economic History of Latin America.” Working Paper.
Haber, Stephen, Razo, Armando, and Maurer, Noel. 2003. The Politics of Property Rights: Political Instability, Credible Commitments, and Economic Growth in Mexico, 1876–1929. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Haber, Stephen, Kline, Herb, Maurer, Noel, and Middlebrook, Kevin. 2008. Mexico Since 1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Haber, Stephen, North, Douglass, and Weingast, Barry, eds., 2008. Political Institutions and Financial Development. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Haber, Stephen, and Menaldo, Victor. 2011a. “Does Oil Fuel Authoritarianism?: a Reevaluation of the Resource Curse.” American Political Science Review 105(1): 1–26.
Haber, Stephen, and Menaldo, Victor. 2011b. “Rainfall, Human Capital, and Democracy.” Working Paper.
Haggard, Stephan, and Maxfield, Sylvia. 1996. “The Political Economy of Financial Internationalization in the Developing World.” International Organization 50(1): 35–68.
Halbouty, Michael. 1993. “Reflections After 62 Years of Exploration.” United States Geological Survey. Professional Paper 1570.
Hanson, Jonathan, and Sigman, Rachel. 2011. “Measuring State Capacity: Assessing and Testing the Options.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Hamilton, Kirk, and Clemens, Michael. 1999. “Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries.” The World Bank Economic Review 13(2): 333–356.
Hechter, Michael, and Brustein, William. 1980. “Regional Modes of Production and Patterns of State Formation in Western Europe.” American Journal of Sociology 85(5): 1061–1094.
Heilbrunn, John. 2014. Oil, Democracy, and Development in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hendricks, Kenneth, and Porter, Robert. 1996. “The Timing and Incidence of Exploratory Drilling on Offshore Wildcat Tracts.” The American Economic Review 38(6):388–407.
Hendrix, Cullen. 2010. “Measuring State Capacity: Theoretical and Empirical Implications for the Study of Civil Conflict.” Journal of Peace Research 47(3): 273–285.
Henisz, Witold. 2000. “The Institutional Environment for Multinational Investment.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 16(2): 334–364.
Henisz, Witold. 2010. “Political Constraint Index (POLCON).” Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.
Henisz, Witold, and Williamson, Oliver. 1999. “Comparative Economic Organization – Within and Between Countries.” Business and Politics 1(3): 261–277.
Herb, Michael. 1999. All in the Family. Albany: SUNY Press.
Herb, Michael. 2003. “Taxation and Representation.” Studies in Comparative International Development 38(3): 3–31.
Herb, Michael. 2005. “No Representation without Taxation? Rents, Development, and Democracy.” Comparative Politics 37(3): 297–316.
Herbst, Jeffrey. 2000. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Heston, Alan, Summers, Robert, and Aten, Bettina. 2009. Penn World Table Version 6.3. Center for International Comparisons of Production, Income and Prices at the University of Pennsylvania.
Hibbs, Douglas, and Olsson, Ola. 2004. “Geography, Biogeography and Why Some Countries are Rich & Others Poor.” Proceedings of National Academies of Sciences 101(10): 3715–3720.
Hilton, F. G., and Levinson, Arik. 1998. “Factoring the Environmental Kuznets Curve: Evidence from Automotive Lead Emissions.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 35(2): 126–141.
Hoffman, Philip, Jacks, David, Levin, Patricia, and Lindert, Peter. 2002. “Real Inequality in Europe Since 1500.” The Journal of Economic History 62(2): 322–355.
Hoffman, Philip, Postel-Vinay, Gilles, and Rosenthal, Jean-Laurent. 2007. Surviving Large Losses: Financial Crises, the Middle Class, and the Development of Capital Markets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Hogan, William, Sturzenengger, Federico, and Tai, Laurence. 2010. “Contracts and Investment in Natural Resources.” In Hogan, William, and Sturzenengger, Federico, eds., The Natural Resources Trap. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 1–44.
Humphries, Marc. 2013. “Rare Earth Elements: the Global Supply Chain”. Congressional Research Service.
Huntington, Samuel. 1968. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Ibrahimov, Rovshan. N.d. “Azerbaijan Production as a Main Locomotive of State Economy.” Çankiri Karatekin Üniversitesi Uluslar arasi Avrasya Strateji Dergisi 1(1): 61–74.
Ibrahimov, Rovshan. 2010. “Azerbaijan Energy Strategy and the Importance of Diversification of Exported Transport Routes.” Journal of Qafqaz University 29(November): 23–29.
INEGI. Various Years. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Estadisticas Históricas de México. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía.
International Energy Agency. 2014. “World Energy Investment Outlook 2014 Factsheet.” International Energy Agency. Paris, France.
International Monetary Fund (IMF). 1997. “Staff Country Report 97/001 Azerbaijan: Recent Economic Report.” Washington, DC: IMF.
Jackson, Robert. 1990. Quasi-States: Sovereignty, International Relations and the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jacoby, Henry. 1973. The Bureaucratization of the World. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Jalan, Jyotsna, and Ravallion, Martin. 2001. “Behavioral Responses to Risk in Rural China.” Journal of Development Economics 66(1): 23–49.
Jensen, Nathan, and Wantchekon, Leonard. 2004. “Resource Wealth and Political Regimes in Africa.” Comparative Political Studies 37(7): 816–841.
Jensen, Nathan, and Johnston, Noel. 2011. “Political Risk, Reputation, and the Resource Curse.” Comparative Political Studies 44(6): 662–668.
Kantchev, Georgi. 2015. “Oman to Use Solar Power to Extract Oil.” The Wall Street Journal. July 9th, B5.
Karl, Terry Lynn. 1997. The Paradox of Plenty: Oil Booms and Petro-States. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kato, Junko, and Tanaka, Seiki. 2014. “Representation with Regressive Taxation: State Revenue Production and Democratization Revisited.” Working Paper.
Kau, James, and Rubin, Paul. 2002. “The Growth of Government: Sources and Limits.” Public Choice 113(3–4): 389–402.
Keefer, Philip. 2004. “What Does Political Economy Tell us about Economic Development – and Vice-Versa?.” Annual Review of Political Science 7: 247–272.
Keefer, Philip, and Stasavage, David. 2003. “The Limits of Delegation: Veto Players, Central Bank Independence, and the Credibility of Monetary Policy.” American Political Science Review 97(3): 407–423.
Keefer, Philip, and Vlaicu, Razvan. 2007. “Clientelism, Credibility, and the Policy Choices of Young Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science 51(4): 804–821.
Keefer, Philip, and Vlaicu, Razvan. 2008. “Democracy, Credibility, and Clientelism.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 24(2): 371–406.
Kemp, Alexander. 1992. “Petroleum Policy Issues in Developing Countries.” Energy Policy 20(2): 104–115.
Kennedy, Hugh. 1998. “Egypt as a Province in the Islamic Caliphate.” Cambridge History of Egypt, 1: 62–85.
Kennedy, Ryan, and Tiede, Lydia. 2013. “Economic Development Assumptions and the Elusive Curse of Oil.” International Studies Quarterly 57(4): 760–771.
Kenny, Lawrence, and Winer, Stanley. 2006. “Tax Systems in the World: an Empirical Investigation into the Importance of Tax Bases, Administration Costs, Scale, and Political Regime.” International Tax and Public Finance 13(2): 181–215.
Kerner, Andrew, and Lawrence, Jane. 2014. “What's the Risk? Bilateral Investment Treaties, Political Risk and Fixed Capital Accumulation.” British Journal of Political Science 44(1): 107–121.
Khoury, Philip Shukry, and Kostiner, Joseph. 1990. “Introduction: Tribes and the Complexities of State Formation in the Middle East.” In Khoury, Philip Shukry, and Kostiner, Joseph, eds., Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 1–24.
King, Gary. 1988. “Statistical Models for Political Science Event Counts: Bias in Conventional Procedures and Evidence for the Exponential Poisson Regression Model.” American Journal of Political Science. 32(3): 838–863.
Kiser, Edgar, and Linton, April. 2001. “Determinants of the Growth of the State: War and Taxation in Early Modern France and England.” Social Forces 80(2): 411–448.
Kobrin, Stephen. 1984. “Expropriation as an Attempt to Control Foreign Firms in LDCs.” International Studies Quarterly 28(3): 329–348.
Kocher, Matthew. 2010. “State Capacity as a Conceptual Variable.” Yale Journal of International Affairs 5(Spring/Summer): 137–145.
Kolstad, Ivar, and Wiig, Arne. 2009. “Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries?World Development 37(3): 521–532.
Gideon, Kressel. 1996. Ascendancy Through Aggression: the Anatomy of a Blood Feud Among Urbanized Bedouins. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.
Krishnan, Malavika. 2014. “Canadian Mining in Latin America: Exploitation, Inconsistency, and Neglect.” Council on Hemispheric Affairs. June 11, 2014.
Krueger, Anne. 1974. “The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society.” The American Economic Review 64(3): 291–303.
Krylov, N.A., Boksernan, A.A., and Stavrovsky, E.P.. 1998. Oil Industry of the Former Soviet Union: Reserves, Extraction, and Transportation. Amsterdam, Holland: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.
Kuran, Timur. 1991. “Now Out Of Never: the Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989.” World Politics 44(1): 7–48.
Kuran, Timur. 2008. “Institutional Causes of Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East: a Historical Perspective.” In Kornai, János, Mátyás, László, and Roland, Gérard, eds., Institutional Change and Economic Behavior. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, pp. 64–76.
La Croix, Sumner. 1992. “Property Rights and Institutional Change During Australia's Gold Rush.” Explorations in Economic History 29(2): 204–227.
Laherrère, Jean. 2003. “Future of Oil Supplies.” Energy, Exploration & Exploitation 21(3): 227–267.
Laeven, Luc, and Valencia, Fabian, 2008. “Systemic Banking Crises: A New Database.” Washington, DC: IMF Working Paper.
Lake, David, and Baum, Michael. 2001. “The Invisible Hand of Democracy: Political Control and the Provision of Public Services.” Comparative Political Studies 34(6): 587–621.
Landes, David. 1969. The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lane, Philip, and Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria. 2007. “The External Wealth of Nations Mark II.” Journal of International Economics 73(2): 223–250.
Lapidus, Ira. 1990. “Tribes and State Formation in Islamic History.” In Khoury, Philip Shukry, and Kostiner, Joseph, eds., Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East. Berkeley: University Of California Press, pp. 25–47.
Layish, Aharon. 2004. “The Transformation of the Sharia from Jurists’ Law to Statutory Law in the Contemporary Muslim World.” Die Welt des Islams 44(1): 85–112.
Lederman, Daniel, and Maloney, William. 2008. “In Search of the Missing Resource Curse.” Economía 9(1): 1–57.
Levi, Margaret. 1988. Of Rule and Revenue. Berkeley: The University of California Press.
Levi, Margaret. 2002. “The State of the Study of the State.” In Katznelson, Ira, and Milner, Helen, eds., Political Science: The State of the Discipline. New York: W.W. Norton, pp. 33–55.
Levi, Margaret, and Menaldo, Victor. 2015. “The New Economic Institutionalism in Historical Perspective.” In Gandhi, Jennifer and Ruiz, Rubén, eds., Routledge Handbook on Political Institutions. New York: Routledge Press, pp. 15–30.
Levine, Ross, Loayza, Norman, and Beck, Thorsten. 2000. “Financial Intermediation and Growth: Causality and Causes.” Journal of Monetary Economics 46(1): 31–77.
Lewis, Bernard. 2005. “Freedom and Justice in the Modern Middle East.” Foreign Affairs 84(3): 36–51.
Lewis, Colin. 1999. The Economics of the Latin American State: Ideology, Policy and Performance, c. 1820–1945. In Smith, David, Solinger, Dorothy, and Topik, Steven, eds., States and Sovereignty in the Global Economy. London: Routledge Press, pp. 99–119.
Lieberman, Evan. 2002. “Taxation Data as Indicators of State-society Relations: Possibilities and Pitfalls in Cross-national Research.” Studies in Comparative International Development 36(4): 89–115.
Liou, Yu-Ming, and Musgrave, Paul. 2014. “Refining the Oil Curse: Country-Level Evidence From Exogenous Variations in Resource Income.” Comparative Political Studies 47(11): 1584–1610.
Lizzeri, Alessandro, and Persico, Nicola. 2004. “Why Did the Elites Extend the Suffrage? Democracy and the Scope of Government, with an Application to Britain's ‘Age of Reform’”. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 119(2): 707–765.
Llavador, Humberto, and Oxoby, Robert. 2005. “Partisan Competition, Growth, and the Franchise Franchise.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 120 (3): 1155–1189.
Lingyu, Lu, and Thies, Cameron. 2013. “War, Rivalry and State Building in the Middle East.” Political Research Quarterly 66(2): 239–253.
Luciani, Giacomo. 1987. “Allocation versus Production States: A Theoretical Framework.” In Beblawi, Hazem and Luciani, Giacomo, eds., The Rentier State. New York: Croom Helm, pp. 63–82.
Lücke, Matthias. 2010. “Stabilization and Savings Funds to Manage Natural Resource Revenues: Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan vs. Norway.” Kiel Working Paper No. 1652.
Luong, Pauline Jones, and Weinthal, Erika. 2010. Oil is Not a Curse: Ownership Structure and Institutions in Petroleum-Rich Soviet Successor States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lynch, Martin. 2002. Mining in World History. London: Reaktion Books.
Magaloni, Beatriz. 2008. “Credible Power-Sharing and the Longevity of Authoritarian Rule.” Comparative Political Studies 41(4–5): 715–741.
Maghraoui, Driss. 2011. “Constitutional Reforms in Morocco: Between Consensus and Subaltern Politics.” The Journal of North African Studies 16(4): 679–699.
Mahdavy, Hossein. 1970. “The Patterns and Problems of Economic Development in Rentier States: The Case of Iran.” In Cook, M.A., ed., Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East. London: Oxford University Press: 428–467.
Manzano, Osmel, and Monaldi, Francisco. 2008. “The Political Economy of Oil Production in Latin America.” Economía 9(1): 59–98.
Marcel, Valerie. 2005. “Good Governance of the National Oil Company.” Position paper for the Workshop on Good Governance of the National Petroleum Sector.
Mares, David. 2011. “Oil Policy Reform in Resource Nationalist States: Lessons for Mexico.” James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University 29.
Mares, Isabela. 2015. From Open Secrets to Secret Voting: Democratic Electoral Reforms and Voter Autonomy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Mariscal, Elisa, and Sokoloff, Ken. 2000. “History Lessons: Institutions, Factors Endowments, and Paths of Development in the New World.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 14(3): 217–232.
Marshall, Monty, and Jaggers, Keith. 2008. “Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2006.” University of Maryland.
Matsen, Egil, Natvik, Gisle, and Torvik, Ragnar. 2014. “Petro Populism.” Working Paper.
Maurer, Noel. 2011. “The Empire Struck Back: Sanctions and Compensation in the Mexican Oil Expropriation of 1938.” Journal of Economic History 71(3): 590–615.
Maurer, Noel. 2013. The Empire Trap: The Rise and fall of U.S. Intervention to Protect American Property Overseas, 1893–2013. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
McGuire, Martin, and Olson, Mancur. 1996. “The Economics of Autocracy and Majority Rule: The Invisible Hand and the Use of Force.” Journal of Economic Literature 34(1): 72–96.
McPherson, Charles. 2003. “National Oil Companies: Evolution, Issues, Outlook.” In Davis, Jeffrey, Ossowski, Rolando, and Fedelino, Annalisa, eds., Fiscal Policy Formulation and Implementation in Oil-Producing Countries. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, pp. 184–203.
Mehlum, Halvor, Moene, Karl, and Torvik, Ragnar. 2006. “Institutions and the Resource Curse.” The Economic Journal 116(508): 1–20.
Menaldo, Victor. 2009. “Banking on Redistribution in Latin America: Transaction Costs, Democracy, and Fiscal Redistribution in Latin America from 1808 to 2008.” Ph.D. Dissertation: Stanford University.
Menaldo, Victor. 2012. “The Middle East and North Africa's Resilient Monarchs.” Journal of Politics 74(3): 707–729.
Menaldo, Victor. 2016. “The Fiscal Roots of Financial Underdevelopment.” American Journal of Political Science. 60(2): 456–471.
Menaldo, Victor, and Webb-Williams, Nora. 2015. “Judicial Supremacy: Explaining False Starts and Surprising Successes.” In Melton, James and Hazell, Robert, eds., How the Magna Carta Matters: Reflecting on the Legacy of the Great Charter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 169–193.
Michalopoulos, Stelios, Naghavi, Alireza, and Prarolo, Giovanni. 2012. “Trade and Geography in The Origins and Spread of Islam.” No. 18438. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Middle East/North Africa Report. 2012. “Lost in Transition: The World According to Egypt's Scaf.” Middle East/North Africa Report 121(April): 1–31.
Midlarsky, Manu. 1998. “Democracy and Islam: Implications for Civilizational Conflict and the Democratic Peace.” International Studies Quarterly 42(3): 485–511.
Migdal, Joel 1988. Strong Societies and Weak States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mikdashi, Zuhayr. 1985. “Oil Funding and International Financial Arrangements.” Natural Resources Forum 9(4): 283–291.
Mitchell, Brian. 2003. International Historical Statistics: The Americas 1750–2000. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Monaldi, Francisco. 2002. “Government Commitment Using External Hostages.” Mimeo.
Moore, Barrington. 1966. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press.
Moran, Theodore. 1998. “Lessons in the Management of International Political Risk from the Natural Resource and Private Infrastructure Sectors.” In Moran, Theodore, ed., Managing International Political Risk. Malden: Blackwell, pp. 70–79.
Morris, Ian. 2010. Why the West Rules–for Now: the Patterns of History and What They Reveal About the Future. London: Profile Books.
Morris, Ian. 2014. War! What is it Good for? Conflict and the Progress of Civilization from Primates to Robots. London: Profile Books.
Morrison, Kevin. 2009. “Oil, Nontax Revenue, and the Redistributional Foundations of Regime Stability.” International Organization 63(1): 107–138.
Myerson, Roger. 2008. “The Non-Democratic Leader's Credibility Problem and Foundations of the Constitutional State.” American Political Science Review 102(1): 125–139.
Neumayer, Eric, and Spess, Laura. 2005. “Do Bilateral Investment Treaties Increase Foreign Direct Investment to Developing Countries?World Development (33)10: 1567–1585.
Newby, Gordon Darnell. 1988. A History of the Jews of Arabia. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
North, Douglass. 1981. Structure and Change in Economic History. New York: Norton.
North, Douglass. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass. 2005. Understanding the Process of Economic Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
North, Douglass, and Weingast, Barry. 1989. “Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutional Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England.” Journal of Economic History 49(4): 803–832.
North, Douglass, Summerhill, William, and Weingast, Barry. 2000. “Order, Disorder and Economic Change: Latin America vs. North America”. In Mesquita, Bueno de, and Root, Hilton, eds., Governing for Prosperity. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 17–58.
North, Douglass, Wallis, John Joseph, and Weingast, Barry. 2009. Violence and Social Orders: a Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Okruhlik, Gwenn. 1999. “Rentier Wealth, Unruly Law, and the Rise of Opposition: the Political Economy of Oil States.” Comparative Politics 31(3): 295–315.
Olson, Mancur. 1993. “Dictatorship, Democracy and Development.” American Political Science Review 87(3): 567–576.
Olson, Bradley, and Ailworth, Erin. 2015. “Low Prices Catch up with U.S. Oil Patch.” The Wall Street Journal. November 21–22, A2.
O'Rourke, Kevin, and Williamson, Jeff. 2002. “After Columbus: Explaining Europe's Overseas Trade Boom, 1500–1800.” The Journal of Economic History 62(2): 417–456.
Otto, James, Andrews, Craig, Cawood, Fred, Doggett, Michael, Guj, Pietro, Stermole, Frank, Stermole, John, and Tilton, John. 2006. Mining Royalties: A Global Study of their Impact on Investors, Government, and Civil Society. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Papaioannou, Elias, and Siourounis, Gregorios. 2008. “Economic and Social Factors Driving the Third Wave of Democratization.” Journal of Comparative Economics 36(3): 365–387.
Perkins, Richard, and Neumayer, Eric. 2012. “Does the ‘California Effect’ Operate Across Borders?Journal of European Public Policy 19(2): 217–237.
Petri, Martin, Taube, Günther, and Tsyvinski, Aleh. 2002. “Energy Sector Quasi-Fiscal Activities in the Countries of the Former Soviet Union.” Washington, DC: IMF Working Paper.
Pierson, Paul. 2000. “Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics.” American Political Science Review 94(2): 251–267.
Pomeranz, Kenneth. 2009. The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Potoski, Matthew, and Prakash, Aseem. 2004. “The Regulation Dilemma: Cooperation and Conflict in Environmental Governance.” Public Administration Review 64(2): 152–163.
Potoski, Matthew, and Prakash, Aseem. 2013. “Green Clubs: Collective Action and Voluntary Environmental Programs.” Annual Review of Political Science. 16: 399–419.
Prados de la Escosura, Leandro. 2007. “Lost Decades? Independence and Latin America's Falling Behind, 1820–1870.” Working Papers in Economic History. Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
Prados de la Escosura, Leandro, and Amaral, Samuel. 1993. La Independencia Americana: Consecuencias Económicas. Madrid: Alianza Editorial.
Prakash, Aseem and Potoski, Matthew. 2007. “Investing Up: FDI and the Cross-Country Diffusion of ISO 14001 Management Systems.” International Studies Quarterly 51(3): 723–744.
Prichard, Wilson, Cobham, Alex, and Goodall, Andrew. 2014. “The ICTD Government Revenue Dataset.” International Centre for Tax and Development. Brighton, United Kingdom.
Przeworski, Adam. 2009. “Conquered or Granted? A History of Suffrage Extensions.” British Journal of Political Science 39(2): 291–321.
Przeworski, Adam, Alvarez, Michael, Cheibub, José Antonio, and Limongi, Fernando. 2000. Democracy and Development. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Przeworski, Adam, and Curvale, Carolina. 2005. “Does Politics Explain the Economic Gap between the United States and Latin America.” Unpublished Manuscript. New York University, Department of Politics.
Putterman, Louis, and Weil, David. 2010. “Post-1500 Population Flows and the Long-Run Determinants of Economic Growth and Inequality.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 125(4): 1627–1682.
Quiroz, A.W. 1993. “Consequencias Economicas y Financieras del Proceso de la Independencia en el Peru, 1800–1850.” In de la Escosura, Prados and Amaral, , eds., Independencia Americana: Consecuencias Economicas. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, pp. 124–146.
Radnitz, Scott. 2012. “Oil in the Family: Managing Presidential Succession in Azerbaijan.” Democratization 19(1): 60–77.
Rajan, Raghuram, and Zingales, Luigi. 1998. “Financial Dependence and Growth.” American Economic Review 88(3): 559–586.
Ramsay, Kristopher. 2011. “Revisiting the Resource Curse: Natural Disasters, the Price of Oil, and Democracy.” International Organization 65(3): 507–529.
Razo, Armando. 2008. Social Foundations of Limited Dictatorship: Networks and Private Protection during Mexico's Early Industrialization. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Reizman, Raymond, and Slemrod, Joel. 1987. “Tariffs and Collection Costs.” Review of World Economics 123(3): 545–549.
Reyes Abadie, Washington, and Romero, A. Vazquez. N.d. Cronica General del Uruguay, Volume 3: El Uruguay del Siglo XIX. Montevideo: Ediciones de la Banda Oriental.
Robinson, Glenn. 2012. “Oil States, Rentier States, and the Arab Spring.” In Lynch, Marc, ed., Arab Uprisings: New Opportunities for Political Science. Washington, DC: Project On Middle East Political Science, pp. 53–55.
Roeder, Philip. 1993. Red Sunset: The Failure of Soviet Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Root, Hilton. 1989. “Tying the King's Hands: Credible Commitment and Royal Fiscal Policy during the Old Regime.” Rationality and Society 1(2): 240–258.
Ross, Michael. 1999. “The Political Economy of the Resource Curse.” World Politics 51(2): 297–322.
Ross, Michael. 2001. “Does Oil Hinder Democracy?World Politics 53(3): 325–361.
Ross, Michael. 2012. The Oil Curse: How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rosser, Andrew. 2007. “Escaping the Resource Curse: The Case of Indonesia.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 37(1): 38–58.
Rostoum, Elly. 2014. “Dissecting China's $1 Trillion in Investments Globally.” Foreign Policy Association.
Rothkopf, David. 2012. Power, Inc.: The Epic Rivalry between Big Business and Government – and the Reckoning That Lies Ahead. New York: Macmillan.
Sachs, Jeffrey, and Warner, Andrew. 2001. “The Curse of Natural Resources.” European Economic Review 45(4): 827–838.
Scheve, Ken, and Stasavage, David. 2012. “Democracy, War, and Wealth: Lessons from Two Centuries of Inheritance Taxation.” American Political Science Review 106(1): 81–102.
Schrad, Mark. 2014. Vodka Politics: Alcohol, Autocracy, and the Secret History of the Russian State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schultz, Kenneth, and Weingast, Barry. 2003. “The Democratic Advantage: Institutional Foundations of Financial Power in International Competition.” International Organization 57(1): 3–42.
Selden, Thomas, and Song, Daqing. 1994. “Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 27(2): 147–162.
Siegelbaum, Paul, Sherif, Khaled, Borish, Michael, and Clarke, George. 2002. Structural Adjustment in the Transition: Case Studies from Albania, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyz Republic, and Moldova. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Skaperdas, Stergios. 1992. “Cooperation, Conflict, and Power in the Absence of Property Rights.” The American Economic Review 82(4): 720–739.
Skocpol, Theda. 1979. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia & China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Smith, Alastair. 2008. “The Perils of Unearned Income.” Journal of Politics 70(3): 780–793.
Smith, Benjamin. 2004. “Oil Wealth and Regime Survival in the Developing World, 1960–1999.” American Journal of Political Science 48(2): 232–246.
Smith, Benjamin. 2007. Hard Times in the Lands of Plenty: Oil Politics in Iran and Indonesia. Cornell: Cornell University Press.
Smith, Brock 2015. “The Resource Curse Exorcised: Evidence from a Panel of Countries.” Journal of Development Economics 116(4): 57–73.
Snyder, Richard, and Bhavnani, Ravi. 2005. “Blood, Diamonds, and Taxes: Lootable Wealth and Political Order in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49(4): 563–97.
Soares de Oliveira, Ricardo. 2007. “Business Success, Angola-Style: Postcolonial Politics and the Rise of Sonangol.” Journal of Modern African Studies 45(4): 595–619.
Sokoloff, Kenneth, and Zolt, Eric. 2007. “Inequality and the Evolution of Institutions of Taxation: Evidence from the Economic History of the Americas.” In Edwards, Sebastian, Esquivel, Gerardo, and Marquez, Graciela, eds., The Decline of Latin American Economies: Growth, Institutions, and Crises. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 83–138.
Solnick, Steven. 1988. Stealing the State: Control and Collapse in Soviet Institutions. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Sornarajah, Muthucumaraswamy. 2010. The International Law on Foreign Investment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Spector, Regine. 2012. “The Impact of Energy Resources on Nation- and State-Building: The Contrasting Cases of Azerbaijan and Georgia.” In Shaffer, Brenda, and Ziyadov, Taleh, eds., Beyond the Resource Curse. College Station, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 225–258.
Spiegel Online. 2011. “Interview with Mikhail Gorbachev: They Were Truly Idiots.” Hamburg, Germany. August 16th: Available at:
Spruyt, Hendrik. 1994. The Sovereign State and its Competitors: an Analysis of Systems Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Staiger, Douglas, and Stock, James. 1997. “Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments.” Econometrica 65(3): 557–586.
Stallings, Barbara. 1987. Banker to the Third World: U.S. Portfolio Investment in Latin America, 1900–1986. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Stasavage, David. 2003. Public Debt and the Birth of the Democratic State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stasavage, David. 2010. “When Distance Mattered: Geographic Scale and the Development of European Representative Assemblies.” American Political Science Review 104(4): 625–643.
Stasavage, David. 2011. States of Credit: Size, Power, and the Development of European Polities. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Steckel, Richard. 2004. “New Light on the ‘Dark Ages’: The Remarkably Tall Stature of Northern European Men during the Medieval Era.” Social Science History 28(2): 211–229.
Stijns, Jean-Philippe. 2006. “Natural Resource Abundance and Human Capital Accumulation.” World Development 34(6): 1060–1083.
Strayer, Joseph. 2005. On the Medieval Origins of the Modern State. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Sunnevåg, Kjell. 2002. “Auctions Combined with Ex Post Taxation – Expected Revenue When Three Parties Want a Piece of the Cake.” Resources Policy 28(1): 49–59.
Suny, Ronald. 1996. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Washington, DC: DIANE Publishing.
Svolik, Milan. 2009. “Power Sharing and Leadership Dynamics in Authoritarian Regimes.” American Journal of Political Science 53(2): 477–494.
Swietochowski, Tadeusz. 1995. Russia and Azerbaijan: a Borderland in Transition. New York: Columbia University Press.
Thies, Cameron. 2005. “War, Rivalry, and State Building in Latin America.” American Journal of Political Science 49(3): 451–465.
The Economist. 2013. “Supermajordämmerung.” August, 3rd:
The Economist. 2014. “Smeltdown.” January 18th:
The Economist. 2014. The North Sea: Running on Fumes. March 1st:
The Economist. 2015. Nodding Donkeys: Some Oil Majors are Still Ducking the Issue of Global Warming. November 14th:
Thornton, John. 2001. “The Origins and Early History of the Kingdom of Kongo, c. 1350–1550.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies 34(1): 89–120.
Ticchi, Davide, and Vindigni, Andrea. 2009. “War and Endogenous Democracy.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Tijerina Guajardo, José, and Pagan, José. 2003. “Government Spending, Taxation, and Oil Revenues in Mexico.” Review of Development Economics 7(1): 152–164.
Tilly, Charles. 1975. The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Tilly, Charles. 1992. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990–1990. Cambridge: Blackwell.
Tordo, Silvana, Tracy, Brandon, and Arfaa, Noora. 2011. “National Oil Companies and Value Creation.” World Bank Working Paper 218.
Tortella, Gabriel, and Comin, Francisco. 2001. “Fiscal and Monetary Institutions in Spain.” In Bordo, Michael, and Cortés-Conde, Roberto, eds., Transferring Wealth and Power from the Old to the New World: Monetary and Fiscal Institutions in the 17th through the 19th Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–86.
Tracy, Joseph, Schneider, Henry, and Chan, Sewin. 1999. “Are Stocks Overtaking Real Estate in Household Portfolios?Current Issues in Economics and Finance 5(5): 1–6.
Tsebelis, George. 1995. “Decision Making in Political Systems: Veto Players in Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, Multicameralism and Multipartyism.” British Journal of Political Science 25(3): 289–325.
Tsui, Kevin. 2011. “More Oil, Less Democracy: Evidence from Worldwide Crude Oil Discoveries.” Economic Journal 121(551): 89–115.
UNCTAD. 2012. “World Investment Report.” Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Publications.
UNCRET. 1980. State Petroleum Enterprises in Developing Countries. New York: Pergamon Press.
UNESCAP. 2001. Azerbaijan. Accession to the World Trade Organization: Issues and Recommendations for Central Asian and Caucasian Economies in Transition. Bangkok: United Nations Publications.
Vagts, Detlev. 1978. “Coercion and Foreign Investment Rearrangements.” American Journal of International Law 72(1): 17–36.
Van der Ploeg, Frederick. 2011. “Natural Resources: Curse or Blessing?Journal of Economic Literature 49(2) 366–420.
Van Meurs, Pedro. 1988. “Financial and Fiscal Arrangements for Petroleum Development – an Economic Analysis.” In Beredjick, Nicky and Walde, Thomas, eds., Petroleum Investment Policies in Developing Countries. London: Graham and Trotman, pp. 47–79.
Vanhanen, Tatu. 2000. “A New Dataset for Measuring Democracy, 1810–1998.” Journal of Peace Research 37(2): 251–265.
Vardy, Felix. 2010. “The Increasing Marginal Returns of Better Institutions.” Background paper for the 2010 Annual Flagship Report, The World Bank.
Vernon, Raymond. 1971. Sovereignty at Bay: the Multinational Spread of U.S. Enterprises. New York: Basic Books.
Vogel, David. 2014. “Why the Golden State Became Green: the Political Origins of Environmental Protection in California” Working Paper.
Wacziarg, Romain. 2012. ‘‘The First Law of Petropolitics.” Economica 79(316): 641–657.
Wade, Nicholas. 2014. A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History. New York: Penguin Books.
Waelde, Thomas. 1978. “Revision of Transnational Investment Agreements in the Natural Resource Industries.” Law Americas 10(2): 265–298.
Waelde, Thomas. 1988. “Investment Policies in the International Petroleum Industry – Responses to the Current Crisis.” In Beredjick, Nicky and Waelde, Thomas, eds., Petroleum Investment Policies in Developing Countries. London: Graham and Trotman, pp. 7–27.
Waelde, Thomas. 1996. “International Energy Investment.” Energy Law Journal 17: 191–213.
Waldner, David. 2012. “An Agenda for a Post-Arab Spring Political Economy of the Middle East.” In Lynch, Marc, ed., Arab Uprisings: New Opportunities for Political Science. Washington, DC: Project on Middle East Political Science, pp. 59–60.
Waldner, David, and Smith, Benjamin. 2014. “Rentier States and State Transformations.” In Leibfried, Stephan, Huber, Evelyne, Lange, Matthew, Levy, Jonah, Nullmeier, Frank, and Stephens, John, eds., Oxford Handbook on Transformations of the State. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 714–729.
Webb, Steven. 2010. “Managing Mineral Wealth in Middle-Income Countries: Political Economy in Five Examples from Latin America.” Working Paper. The World Bank.
Weeks, Jessica. 2008. “Autocratic Audience Costs: Regime Type and Signalling Resolve.” International Organization 62(1): 35–64.
Weingast, Barry. 1995. “The Economic Role of Political Institutions: Market-Preserving Federalism and Economic Development.” Journal of Law, Economics and Organization 11(Spring): 1–31.
Weingast, Barry. 1997. “The Political Foundations of Democracy and the Rule of Law.” American Political Science Review 91(2): 245–263.
Weinthal, Erika, and Luong, Pauline Jones. 2006. “Combating the Resource Curse: an Alternative Solution to Managing Mineral Wealth.” Perspectives on Politics 4(1): 35–53.
Williamson, Jeffrey. 1999. “Real Wages, Inequality and Globalization in Latin America Before 1940.” Revista de Historia Economica. XVII, Special Edition.
Wittfogel, Karl. 1957. Oriental Despotism: a Comparative Study of Total Power. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Woods, Dwayne. 2012. “Patrimonialism (Neo) and the Kingdom of Swaziland: Employing a Case Study to Rescale a Concept.” Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 50(3): 344–366.
Woolcock, Michael, Pritchett, Lant, and Isham, Jonathan. 2001 “The Social Foundations of Poor Economic Growth in Resource-Rich Countries.” In Auty, Richard, ed., Resource Abundance and Economic Development. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 76–92.
Wooldridge, Jeffrey. 2006. Introductory Econometrics. Mason: Thompson South-Western.
Wright, David, and Czelusta, Jesse. 2007. “Resource-Based Growth Past and Present.” In Lederman, Daniel, and Maloney, William, eds., Natural Resources, Neither Curse nor Destiny. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications, pp. 183–212.
Wright, Joseph. 2008. “Do Authoritarian Institutions Constrain?American Journal of Political Science 52(2): 322–343.
Wright, Joseph, Frantz, Erica, and Geddes, Barbara. 2015. “Oil and Autocratic Regime Survival.” British Journal of Political Science 45(2): 287–306.
Wrigley, Edward. 1988. Continuity, Chance and Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zeitlin, Irving. 2013 The Historical Muhammad. Cambridge: Polity Press.