Alberts, MJ. (2001). Results of a multicentre prospective randomized trial of carotid artery stenting vs. carotid endarterectomy.
Stroke, 32, 325.
Barbato, JE, Dillavou, E, Horowitz, MB, Jovin, TG, Kanal, E. (2008). A randomized trial of carotid artery stenting with and without cerebral protection.
J Vasc Surg, 47, 760–5. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2007.11.058.
Bijuklic, K, Wandler, A, Hazizi, F, Schofer, J. (2012). The PROFI study (prevention of cerebral embolization by proximal balloon occlusion compared to filter protection during carotid artery stenting): a prospective randomized trial.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 59, 1383–9.
Bonati, LH, Dobson, J, Featherstone, RL, Ederle, J, van der Worp, HB, de Borst, GJ, et al.; International Carotid Stenting Study Investigators. (2015). Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial.
Lancet 385: 529–538
Bonati, LH, Jongen, LM, Haller, S, Flach, HZ, Dobson, J, Nederkoorn, PJ, et al. (2010). New ischaemic brain lesions on MRI after stenting or endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis: a substudy of the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS).
Lancet Neurol, 9, 353–62.
Bonati, LH, Lyrer, P, Ederle, J, Featherstone, R, Brown, MM. (2012). Percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty and stenting for carotid artery stenosis.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 9. CD000515. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000515.pub4.
Bond, R, Rerkasem, K, Rothwell, PM. (2003). A systematic review of the risks of carotid endarterectomy in relation to the clinical indication and the timing of surgery.
Stroke, 34, 2290–2301.
Brooks, WH, Jones, MR, Gisler, P, McClure, RR, Coleman, TC, Breathitt, L, et al. (2014). Carotid angioplasty with stenting versus endarterectomy: 10-year randomized trial in a community hospital.
JACC, 7. 163–8.
Brott, TG, Hobson, RW, Howard, G, Roubin, GS, Clark, WM, Brooks, W, et al. (2010). Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis.
N Engl J Med, 363, 11–23.
Brott, TG, Howard, G, Roubin, GS, Meschia, JF, Mackey, A, Brooks, W, et al. (2016). Long-term results of stenting versus endarterectomy for carotid-artery stenosis.
N Engl J Med, 374, 1021–31.
Bulbulia, R, Halliday, A. (2013). ACST-2 – an update. A large, simple randomised trial to compare carotid endarterectomy versus carotid artery stenting to prevent stroke in asymptomatic patients.
Gefasschirurgie, 18, 626–32.
Cao, PG, De Rango, P, Zannetti, S, Giordano, G, Ricci, S, Celani, MG . (2001). Eversion versus conventional carotid endarterectomy for preventing stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 1. CD001921.
CAVATAS Investigators. (2001). Endovascular versus surgical treatment in patients with carotid stenosis in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): a randomised trial.
Lancet, 357, 1729–37.
Cheng, SF, Brown, MM. (2017). Contemporary medical therapies of atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.
Semin Vasc Surg, 30, 8–16
Cheng, SF, Brown, MM, Simister, RJ, Richards, T. (2019). Contemporary prevalence of carotid stenosis in patients presenting with ischaemic stroke.
Br J Surg, 106, 872–8.
Chimowitz, MI, Lynn, MJ, Derdeyn, CP, Turan, TN, Fiorella, D, Lane, BF, et al. (2011). Stenting versus aggressive medical therapy for intracranial arterial stenosis.
N Engl J Med, 365, 993–1003.
Chongruksut, W, Vaniyapong, T, Rerkasem, K. (2014). Routine or selective carotid artery shunting for carotid endarterectomy (and different methods of monitoring in selective shunting).
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 6. CD000190. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000190.pub3.
Compter, A, van der Worp, HB, Schonewille, WJ, Schonewille, WJ, Vos, JA, Boiten, J, et al; VAST Investigators. (2015). Stenting versus medical treatment in patients with symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis: a randomised open-label phase 2 trial.
Lancet Neurol, 14, 606–14.
Coull, AJ, Lovett, JK, Rothwell, PM, on behalf of the Oxford Vascular Study. (2004). Population based study of early risk of stroke after transient ischemic attack or minor stroke: implications for public education and organisation of services.
BMJ, 328, 326–8.
Coward, LJ, McCabe, DJ, Ederle, J, Featherstone, RL, Clifton, A, Brown, MM; CAVATAS Investigators. (2007). Long-term outcome after angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis compared with medical treatment in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): a randomized trial.
Stroke, 38, 1526–30.
Dotter, CT, Judkins, MP, Rosch, J. (1967). Nonoperative treatment of arterial occlusive disease: a radiologically facilitated technique.
Radiol Clin North Am, 5, 531–42.
Eberhardt, O, Naegele, T, Raygrotzki, S, Weller, M, Ernemann, U. (2006). Stenting of vertebrobasilar arteries in symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and acute occlusion: case series and review of the literature.
J Vasc Surg, 43, 1145–54.
Eckstein, H-H, Ringleb, P, Allenberg, J-R, Berger, J, Fraedrich, G, Hacke, W, et al. (2008). Results of the Stent-Protected Angioplasty versus Carotid Endarterectomy (SPACE) study to treat symptomatic stenoses at 2 years: a multinational, prospective, randomised trial.
Lancet Neurol, 7, 893–902
Eckstein, H-H, Reiff, T, Ringleb, P, Jansen, O, Mansmann, U, Hacke, W. (2016). SPACE-2: a missed opportunity to compare carotid endarterectomy, carotid stenting, and best medical treatment in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg, 51, 761–5. doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2016.02.005.
Ederle, J, Davagnanam, I, van der Worp, HB, Venables, GS, Lyrer, PA, Featherstone, RL, et al. (2013). Effect of white-matter lesions on the risk of periprocedural stroke after carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS): a prespecified analysis of data from a randomised trial.
Lancet Neurol, 12, 866–72.
Ederle, J, Featherstone, RL, Brown, MM. (2009a). Long-term outcome of endovascular treatment versus medical care for carotid artery stenosis in patients not suitable for surgery and randomised in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty study (CAVATAS).
Cerebrovasc Dis, 28, 1–7. doi:10.1159/000215936.
Ederle, J, Bonati, LH, Dobson, J, Featherstone, RL, Gaines, PA, Beard, JD. (2009b). Endovascular treatment with angioplasty or stenting versus endarterectomy in patients with carotid artery stenosis in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial.
Lancet Neurol, 8, 898–907. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70228-5.
Engelter, S, Lyrer, P (2003). Antiplatelet therapy for preventing stroke and other vascular events after carotid endarterectomy.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2. CD001458. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001458.
Engelter, S, Lyrer, P. (2004). Antiplatelet therapy for preventing stroke and other vascular events after carotid endarterectomy (Cochrane Corner).
Stroke, 35, 1227–8
European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group. (1991). MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial. Interim results for symptomatic patients with severe (70–99%) or with mild (0–29%) carotid stenosis.
Lancet, 337, 1235–43.
European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group. (1998). Randomised trial of endarterectomy for recently symptomatic carotid stenosis: final results of the MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST).
Lancet, 351, 1379–87.
Feasby, TE, Quan, H, Ghali, WA. (2002). Hospital and surgeon determinants of carotid endarterectomy outcomes.
Archiv Neurol, 59, 1877–81.
Fields, WS, Maslenikov, V, Meyer, JS, Hass, WK, Remington, RD, MacDonald, M. (1970). Joint study of extracranial arterial occlusion. V. Progress report on prognosis following surgery or non- surgical treatment for transient cerebral ischaemic attacks and cervical carotid artery lesions.
JAMA, 211, 1993–2003.
GALA Trial Collaborative Group, Lewis, SC, Warlow, CP, Bodenham, AR, Colam, B, Rothwell, PM, Torgerson, D, et al. (2008). General anaesthesia versus local anaesthesia for carotid surgery (GALA): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial.
Lancet, 372, 2132–42.
Goldstein, LB, Moore, WS, Robertson, JT, Chaturvedi, S. (1997). Complication rates for carotid endarterectomy: a call for action.
Stroke, 28, 889–90.
Gorelick, PB. (1993). Distribution of atherosclerotic cerebrovascular lesions. Effects of age, race, and sex.
Stroke, 24, 116–19
Gray, WA, Hopkins, LN, Yadav, S, Davis, T, Wholey, M, Atkinson, R. (2006). Protected carotid stenting in high-surgical-risk patients: the ARCHeR results.
J Vasc Surg, 44, 258–68. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2006.03.044.
Gray, WA, Yadav, JS, Verta, P, Scicli, A, Fairman, R, Wholey, M. (2007). The CAPTURE registry: predictors of outcomes in carotid artery stenting with embolic protection for high surgical risk patients in the early post-approval setting.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv, 70, 1025–33. doi:10.1002/ccd.21359.
Grubb, Jr RL, Derdeyn, CP, Fritsch, SM, Carpenter, DA, Yundt, KD, Videen, TO, et al. (1998). Importance of hemodynamic factors in the prognosis of symptomatic carotid occlusion.
JAMA, 280, 1055–60.
Guimaraens, L, Sola, MT, Matali, A, Arbelaez, A, Delgado, M, Soler, L. (2002). Carotid angioplasty with cerebral protection and stenting: report of 164 patients (194 carotid percutaneous transluminal angioplasties).
Cerebrovasc Dis, 13, 114–19.
Gulli, G, Marquardt, L, Rothwell, PM, Markus, HS. (2013). Stroke risk after posterior circulation stroke/transient ischemic attack and its relationship to site of vertebrobasilar stenosis: pooled data analysis from prospective studies.
Stroke, 44, 598–604.
Gurm, HS, Yadav, JS, Fayad, P, Katzen, BT, Mishkel, GJ, Bajwa, TK. (2008). Long-term results of carotid stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients.
N Engl J Med, 358, 1572–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0708028.
Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. (2004). Effects of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin on stroke and other major vascular events in 20,536 people with cerebrovascular disease or other high-risk conditions.
Lancet, 363, 757–67.
Higgins, JP, Altman, DG, Gotzsche, PC, Juni, P, Moher, D, Oxman, AD. (2011). The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials.
BMJ, 343, d5928. doi:10.1136/bmj.d5928.
Hoffmann, A, Taschner, C, Mendelowitsch, A, Merlo, A, Radue, EW. (2008). Carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy – a prospective randomised controlled single-centre trial with long-term follow-up (BACASS).
Schweizer Archiv fur Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 159, 84–9.
Howard, G, Roubin, GS, Jansen, O, Hendrikse, J, Halliday, A, Fraedrich, G, et al. (2016). Association between age and risk of stroke or death from carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting: a meta-analysis of pooled patient data from four randomised trials.
Lancet, 387, 1305–11.
International Carotid Stenting Study Investigators. (2010). Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.
Lancet, 375, 985–97.
Kuliha, M, Roubec, M, Prochazka, V. (2015). Randomized clinical trial comparing neurological outcomes after carotid endaterectomy or stenting.
J Vasc Surg, 62, 519.
Liem, MI, Kennedy, F, Bonati, LH, van der Lugt, A, Coolen, BF, Nederveen, A, et al. (2017). Investigations of carotid stenosis to identify vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque and determine individual stroke risk.
Circ J, 81, 1246–53.
Lin, PH, Bush, RL, Lubbe, DF, Cox, MM, Zhou, W, McCoy, SA. (2004). Carotid artery stenting with routine cerebral protection in high-risk patients.
Am J Surg, 188, 644–52. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2004.08.035.
Ling, F. (2006). Preliminary report of trial of endarterectomy versus stenting for the treatment of carotid atherosclerotic stenosis in China (TESCAS-C).
Chinese J Cerebrovasc Dis, 3, 4–8.
Liu, CW, Liu, B, Ye, W, Wu, WW, Li, YJ, Zheng, YH. (2009). Carotid endarterectomy versus carotid stenting: a prospective randomized trial.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi, 47, 267–70.
Lovett, JK, Coull, A, Rothwell, PM, on behalf of the Oxford Vascular Study. (2004). Early risk of recurrent stroke by aetiological subtype: implications for stroke prevention.
Neurology, 62, 569–74.
Lovett, J, Dennis, M, Sandercock, PAG, Bamford, J, Warlow, CP, Rothwell, PM. (2003). The very early risk of stroke following a TIA.
Stroke, 34, e138–e140.
MacDonald, S, Evans, DH, Griffiths, PD, McKevitt, FM, Venables, GS, Cleveland, TJ, et al. (2010). Filter-protected versus unprotected carotid artery stenting: a randomised trial.
Cerebrovasc Dis, 29, 282–9.
Markus, HS, Droste, DW, Kaps, M, Larrue, V, Lees, K, Siebler, M, Ringelstein, EB (2005). Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin in symptomatic carotid stenosis evaluated using doppler embolic signal detection. The Clopidogrel and Aspirin for Reduction of Emboli in Symptomatic carotid Stenosis (CARESS) trial.
Circulation, 111, 2233–40.
Markus, HS, Larsson, SC, Kuker, W, Schulz, UG, Ford, I, Rothwell, PM, Clifton, A; VIST Investigators. (2017). Stenting for symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis: The Vertebral Artery Ischaemia Stenting Trial.
Neurology, 89, 1229–36.
Markus, HS, van der Worp, HB, Rothwell, PM. (2013). Posterior circulation ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack: diagnosis, investigation, and secondary prevention.
Lancet Neurol, 12, 989–98.
Mas, J-L, Chatellier, G, Beyssen, B, Branchereau, A, Moulin, T, Becquemin, JP, et al. (2006). Endarterectomy versus stenting in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis.
N Engl J Med, 355, 1660–71.
Mas, JL, Arquizan, C, Calvet, D, Viguier, A, Albucher, JF, Piquet, P (2014). Long-term follow-up study of endarterectomy versus angioplasty in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis trial.
Stroke, 45, 2750–6. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005671.
Matsen, SL, Chang, DC, Perler, BA, Roseborough, GS, Williams, GM. (2006). Trends in the in-hospital stroke rate following carotid endarterectomy in California and Maryland.
J Vasc Surg, 44, 488–95.
Mayberg, MR, Wilson, E, Yatsu, F, Weiss, DG, Messina, L, Hershey, LA, et al. (1991). Carotid endarterectomy and prevention of cerebral ischemia in symptomatic carotid stenosis. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program 309 Trialist Group.
JAMA, 266, 3289–94.
Mercuri, M, Bond, MG, Sirtori, CR, Veglia, F, Crepaldi, G, Feruglio, FS, et al. (1996). Pravastatin reduces carotid intima-media thickness progression in an asymptomatic hypercholesterolemic Mediterranean population: the Carotid Atherosclerosis Italian Ultrasound Study.
Am J Med, 101, 627–34.
Molloy, J, Markus, HS. (1999). Asymptomatic embolization predicts stroke and TIA risk in patients with carotid artery stenosis.
Stroke, 30, 1440–3.
Morgenstern, LB, Fox, AJ, Sharpe, BL, Eliasziw, M, Barnett, HJ, Grotta, JC, for the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) Group. (1997). The risks and benefits of carotid endarterectomy in patients with near occlusion of the carotid artery.
Neurology, 48, 911–15.
Naylor, AR, Bolia, A, Abbott, RJ, Pye, IF, Smith, J, Lennard, N. (1998). Randomized study of carotid angioplasty and stenting versus carotid endarterectomy: a stopped trial.
J Vasc Surg, 28, 326–334.
North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators. (1991a). Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis.
N Engl J Med, 325, 445–53.
North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators. (1991b). North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial. Methods, patient characteristics, and progress.
Stroke, 22, 711–20.
North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators (1998). Benefit of carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe stenosis.
N Engl J Med, 339, 1415–25.
Ogata, J, Masuda, J, Yutani, C, Yamaguchi, T. (1990). Rupture of atheromatous plaque as a cause of thrombotic occlusion of stenotic internal carotid artery.
Stroke, 21, 1740–45.
Orrapin, S, Rerkasem, K. (2017). Carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 6. CD001081. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001081.pub3.
Paraskevas, KI, Robertson, V, Saratzis, AN, Naylor, AR. (2018). An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes following eversion vs. conventional carotid endarterectomy in randomised controlled trials and observational studies.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg, 55, 465–73. doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2017.12.025
Payne, DA, Jones, CI, Hayes, PD, Thompson, MM, London, NJ, Bell, PR, et al. (2004). Beneficial effects of clopidogrel combined with aspirin in reducing cerebral emboli in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy.
Circulation, 109, 1476–81.
PROGRESS Collaborative Group. (2001). Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure- lowering regimen among 6,105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack.
Lancet, 358, 1033–41.
Reimers, B, Corvaja, N, Moshiri, S, Sacca, S, Albiero, R, Di Mario, C. (2001). Cerebral protection with filter devices during carotid artery stenting.
Circulation, 104, 12–15.
Reimers, B, Schluter, M, Castriota, F, Tubler, T, Corvaja, N, Cernetti, C. (2004). Routine use of cerebral protection during carotid artery stenting: results of a multicenter registry of 753 patients.
Am J Med, 116, 217–22. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2003.09.043
Rerkasem, K, Rothwell, PM. (2009). Patch angioplasty versus primary closure for carotid endarterectomy.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 4. CD000160. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000160.pub3.
Rerkasem, K, Rothwell., PM (2010). Patches of different types for carotid patch angioplasty.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 3. CD000071. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000071.pub3.
Ringleb, PA, Allenberg, J, Bruckmann, H, Eckstein, HH, Fraedrich, G, Hartmann, M. (2006). 30 day results from the SPACE trial of stent-protected angioplasty versus carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial.
Lancet, 368, 1239–47. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69122-8.
Rosenfield, K, Matsumura, JS, Chaturvedi, S, Riles, T, Ansel, GM, Metzger, DC. (2016). Randomized trial of stent versus surgery for asymptomatic carotid stenosis.
N Engl J Med, 374, 1011–20.
Rothwell, PM. (2005). With what to treat which patient with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis?
Pract Neurol, 5, 68–83.
Rothwell, P, Slattery, J, Warlow, C. (1997). Clinical and angiographic predictors of stroke and death from carotid endarterectomy: systematic review.
BMJ, 315, 1571–7.
Rothwell, PM, Eliasziw, M, Gutnikov, SA, Fox, AJ, Taylor, W, Mayberg, MR, et al., for the Carotid Endarterectomy Trialists’ Collaboration. (2003b). Pooled analysis of individual patient data from randomised controlled trials of endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis.
Lancet, 361, 107–16.
Rothwell, PM, Eliasziw, M, Gutnikov, SA, Warlow, CP, Barnett, HJ, for the Carotid Endarterectomy Trialists’ Collaboration. (2004). Endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis in relation to clinical subgroups and the timing of surgery.
Lancet, 363, 915–24.
Rothwell, PM, Gibson, R, Warlow, CP. (2000). Interrelation between plaque surface morphology and degree of stenosis on carotid angiograms and the risk of ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis.
Stroke, 31, 615–21.
Rothwell, PM, Gibson, RJ, Slattery, JM, Sellar, RJ, Warlow, CP. (1994). Equivalence of measurements of carotid stenosis: a comparison of three methods of 1001 angiograms.
Stroke, 25, 2435–9.
Rothwell, PM, Gutnikov, SA, Warlow, CP, for the ECST. (2003a). Re-analysis of the final results of the European Carotid Surgery Trial.
Stroke, 34, 514–23.
Rothwell, PM, Howard, SC, Spence, D. (2003c). Relationship between blood pressure and stroke risk in patients with symptomatic carotid occlusive disease.
Stroke, 34, 2583–90.
Rothwell, PM, Mehta, Z, Howard, SC, Gutnikov, SA, Warlow, CP. (2005). From subgroups to individuals: general principles and the example of carotid endartectomy.
Lancet, 365, 256–65.
Rothwell, PM, Slattery, J, Warlow, CP. (1996a). A systematic comparison of the risk of stroke and death due to carotid endarterectomy.
Stroke, 27, 260–5.
Rothwell, PM, Slattery, J, Warlow, CP. (1996b). A systematic comparison of the risk of stroke and death due to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis.
Stroke, 27, 266–9.
Rothwell, PM, Warlow, CP, for the European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group. (2000). Low risk of ischaemic stroke in patients with collapse of the internal carotid artery distal to severe carotid stenosis: cerebral protection due to low post-stenotic flow?
Stroke, 31, 622–30.
Rothwell, PM, Warlow, CP, on behalf of the ECST Collaborators. (1999). Prediction of benefit from carotid endarterectomy in individual patients: a risk-modelling study.
Lancet, 353, 2105–10.
Safian, RD, Jaff, MR, Bresnahan, JF, Foster, M, Bacharach, JM, Yadav, J. (2010). Protected carotid stenting in high-risk patients: results of the SpideRX arm of the carotid revascularization with ev3 arterial technology evolution trial.
J Interv Cardiol, 23, 491–8.
Sandercock, PA, Warlow, CP, Jones, LN, Starkey, IR. (1989). Predisposing factors for cerebral infarction: the Oxfordshire community stroke project.
BMJ, 298, 75–80.
Schnaudigel, S, Groschel, K, Pilgram, SM, Kastrup, A. (2008). New brain lesions after carotid stenting versus carotid endarterectomy: a systematic review of the literature.
Stroke, 39, 1911–19. doi:10.1161/strokeaha.107.500603.
Shaw, DA, Venables, GS, Cartilidge, NE, Bates, D, Dickinson, PH. (1984). Carotid endarterectomy in patients with transient cerebral ischaemia.
J Neurol Sci, 64, 45–53.
Sillesen, H, Amarenco, P, Hennerici, MG, Callahan, A, Goldstein, LB, Zivin, J, et al. (2008). Atorvastatin reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with carotid atherosclerosis: a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial.
Stroke, 39, 3297–3302.
Spence, JD. (2000). Management of resistant hypertension in patients with carotid stenosis: high prevalence of renovascular hypertension.
Cerebrovasc Dis, 10, 249–54.
Stabile, E, Sannino, A, Schiattarella, GG, Gargiulo, G, Toscano, E, Brevetti, L. (2014). Cerebral embolic lesions detected with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging following carotid artery stenting: a meta-analysis of 8 studies comparing filter cerebral protection and proximal balloon occlusion.
JACC, 7, 1177–83.
Stayman, AN, Nogueira, RG, Gupta, R. (2011). A systematic review of stenting and angioplasty of symptomatic extracranial vertebral artery stenosis.
Stroke, 42, 2212–16.
Steinbauer, MG, Pfister, K, Greindl, M, Schlachetzki, F, Borisch, I, Schuirer, G. (2008). Alert for increased long-term follow-up after carotid artery stenting: results of a prospective, randomized, single-center trial of carotid artery stenting vs carotid endarterectomy.
J Vasc Surg, 48, 93–8. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2008.02.049.
Streifler, JY, Eliasziw, M, Benavente, OR, Alamowitch, S, Fox, AJ, Hachinski, V, et al. (2002). Prognostic importance of leukoaraiosis in patients with symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.
Stroke, 33, 1651–5.
Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) Investigators. (2006). High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic attack.
N Engl J Med, 355, 549–59.
Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial (SPIRIT) Study Group. (1997). A randomised trial of anticoagulants versus aspirin after cerebral ischaemia of presumed arterial origin.
Annals of Neurology, 42, 857–65.
Strömberg, S, Gelin, J, Osterberg, T, Bergström, GM, Karlström, L, Osterberg, K; Swedish Vascular Registry (Swedvasc) Steering Committee. (2012). Very urgent carotid endarterectomy confers increased procedural risk.
Stroke, 43, 1331–5.
Theron, JG, Payelle, GG, Coskun, O, Huet, HF, Guimaraens, L. (1996). Carotid artery stenosis: treatment with protected balloon angioplasty and stent placement.
Radiology, 201, 627–36. doi:10.1148/radiology.201.3.8939208
Thiele, BL, Young, JV, Chikos, PM, Hirsch, JH, Strandness, DE. (1980). Correlation of arteriographic findings and symptoms in cerebrovascular disease.
Neurology, 30, 1041–6.
Torvik, A, Svindland, A, Lindboe, CF. (1989). Pathogenesis of carotid thrombosis.
Stroke, 20, 1477–83.
Valton, L, Larrue, V, Le Traon, AP, Massabuau, P, Geraud, G. (1998). Microembolic signals and risk of early recurrence in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Stroke, 29, 2125–8.
Van der Grond, J, Balm, R, Kappelle, J, Eikelboom, BC, Mali, WP. (1995). Cerebral metabolism of patients with stenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid artery.
Stroke, 26, 822–8.
van Swieten, JC, Koudstaal, PJ, Visser, MC, Schouten, HJ, van Gijn, J. (1988). Interobserver agreement for the assessment of handicap in stroke patients.
Stroke, 19, 604–7.
Wang, P, Liang, C, Du, J, Li, J. (2013). Effects of carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting on high-risk carotid stenosis patients.
Pakistan J Med Sci, 29.
Warfarin Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study Group. (2001). A comparison of warfarin and aspirin for the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke.
N Engl J Med, 345, 1444–51.
Yadav, JS, Wholey, MH, Kuntz, RE, Fayad, P, Katzen, BT, Mishkel, GJ. (2004). Protected carotid-artery stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients.
N Engl J Med, 351, 1493–1501. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa040127.
Zaidat, OO, Fitzsimmons, BF, Woodward, BK, Wang, Z, Killer-0berphalzer, M, Wakhloo, A, et al; VIS- SIT Trial Investigators. (2015). Effect of a balloon-expandable intracranial stent vs medical therapy on risk of stroke in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis: the VISSIT randomized clinical trial.
JAMA, 313, 1240–8.
Zhao, XL, Ji, XM, Peng, M, Ling, F. (2003). A follow-up: stroke in patients with bilateral severe carotid stenosis after intervention treatment.
Chinese J Clin Rehab, 7, 2714–15.