Allen, AJ, Kurlan, RM, Gilbert, DL, et al. (2005). Atomoxetine treatment in children and adolescents with ADHD and comorbid tic disorders. Neurology, 65, 1941–1949.
Baldwin, DS, Kosky, N (2007). Off-label prescribing in psychiatric practice. Adv Psychiatr Treat, 13, 414–422.
Bratt, AM, Masanyero-Bennie, B, Kelley, SP (2017). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of immediate release methylphenidate to reduce hyperactivity in children with autistic spectrum disorder. J Pharm Sci Exp Pharmacol, 2017, 11–20.
Brent, D, Emslie, G, Clarke, G (2008). Switching to another SSRI or to venlafaxine with or without cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescents with SSRI-resistant depression: the TORDIA randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 299, 901–913.
Cipriani, A, Zhou, X, Del Giovane, C, et al. (2016). Comparative efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants for major depressive disorder in children and adolescents: a network meta-analysis. Lancet, 388, 881–890.
Coghill, D, Seth, S (2015). Effective management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) through structured re-assessment: the Dundee ADHD Clinical Care Pathway. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health, 9, 52. doi:10.1186/s13034-015-0083-2.
Cohen, SC, Mulqueen, JM, Ferracioli-Oda, E, et al. (2015). Meta-analysis: risk of tics associated with psychostimulant use in randomized, placebo-controlled trials. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 54, 728–736.
Cortese, S, Holtmann, M, Banaschewski, T, et al. (2013). Practitioner review: current best practice in the management of adverse events during treatment with ADHD medications in children and adolescents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 54, 227–246.
Eddy, CM, Cavanna, AE, Gulisano, M, et al. (2011). Clinical correlates of quality of life in Tourette syndrome. Mov Disord, 26, 735–738.
Emslie, GJ, Mayes, T, Porta, G, et al. (2010). Treatment of resistant depression in adolescents (TORDIA): week 24 outcomes. Am J Psychiatry, 167, 782–791.
Fraguas, D, Correll, CU, Merchan-Naranjo, J, et al. (2011). Efficacy and safety of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents with psychotic and bipolar spectrum disorders: comprehensive review of prospective head-to-head and placebo-controlled comparisons. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 21, 621–645.
Gibbons, RD, Brown, CH, Hur, K, et al. (2007). Early evidence on the effects of regulators’ suicidality warnings on SSRI prescriptions and suicide in children and adolescents. Am J Psychiatry, 164, 1356–1363.
Goodyer, I, Dubicka, B, Wilkinson, P, et al. (2007). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and routine specialist care with and without cognitive behaviour therapy in adolescents with major depression: randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 335, 142.
Gusmao, R, Quintao, S, McDaid, D, et al. (2013). Antidepressant utilization and suicide in Europe: an ecological multi-national study. PLoS One, 8, e66455.
Hammad, TA, Laughren, T, Racoosin, J (2006). Suicidality in pediatric patients treated with antidepressant drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(3), 332–339.
Hazell, P, Mirzaie, M (2013). Tricyclic drugs for depression in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (6), CD002317.
Hetrick, SE, McKenzie, JE, Cox, GR, Simmons, MB, Merry, SN (2012). Newer generation antidepressants for depressive disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (11), CD004851.
Hollander, E, Phillips, A, Chaplin, W, et al. (2005). A placebo controlled crossover trial of liquid fluoxetine on repetitive behaviors in childhood and adolescent autism. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30, 582–589.
Hollander, E, Chaplin, W, Soorya, L, et al. (2010). Divalproex sodium vs placebo for the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 990–998.
Joint Formulary Committee (2019). British National Formulary for Children (online). London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press.
Kendall, T, Hollis, C, Stafford, M, Taylor, C; Guideline Development Group (2013). Recognition and management of psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ, 346, f150.
Le Noury, J, Nardo, JM, Healy, D, et al. (2015). Restoring Study 329: efficacy and harms of paroxetine and imipramine in treatment of major depression in adolescence. BMJ, 351, h4320.
Leslie, LK, Newman, TB, Chesney, PJ, et al. (2005). The Food and Drug Administration’s deliberations on antidepressant use in pediatric patients. Pediatrics, 116, 195–204.
Malone, RP, Gratz, SS, Delaney, MA, Hyman, SB (2005). Advances in drug treatments for children and adolescents with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. CNS Drugs, 19, 923–934.
March, J, Silva, S, Petrycki, S, et al.; Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) Team (2004). Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 292, 807–820.
Marcus, RN, Owen, R, Kamen, L, et al. (2009). A placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study of aripiprazole in children and adolescents with irritability associated with autistic disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 48, 1110–1119.
McClellan, L, Dominick, KC, Pedapati, EV, Wink, LK, Erickson, CA (2017). Lurasidone for the treatment of irritability and anger in autism spectrum disorders. Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 26, 985–989.
McDougle, CJ, Scahill, L, Aman, MG, et al. (2005). Risperidone for the core symptom domains of autism: results from the study by the autism network of the research units on pediatric psychopharmacology. Am J Psychiatry, 162, 1142–1148.
Murray, ML, Thompson, M, Santosh, PJ, Wong, IC (2005). Effects of the Committee on Safety of Medicines advice on antidepressant prescribing to children and adolescents in the UK. Drug Saf, 28(12), 1151–1157.
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (2015). Depression in children and young people: identification and management in primary, community and secondary care. Clinical guideline [CG28]. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.
Owen, R, Sikich, L, Marcus, RN, et al. (2009). Aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Pediatrics, 124, 1533–1540.
Politte, LC, Scahill, L, Figueroa, J, et al. (2018). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of extended-release guanfacine in children with autism spectrum disorder and ADHD symptoms: an analysis of secondary outcome measures. Neuropsychopharmacology, 43, 1772–1778.
Rani, F, Murray, ML, Byrne, PJ, Wong, IC (2008). Epidemiologic features of antipsychotic prescribing to children and adolescents in primary care in the United Kingdom. Pediatrics, 121, 1002–1009.
Remington, G, Sloman, L, Konstantareas, M, Parker, K, Gow, R (2001). Clomipramine versus haloperidol in the treatment of autistic disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 21, 440–444.
Roessner, V, Plessen, KJ, Rothenberger, A, et al.; ESSTS Guidelines Group (2011). European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part II: pharmacological treatment. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 20, 173–196.
Rosen, MS (2017). Lithium in child and adolescent bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry Resid J, 12, 3–5.
Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (2013). The use of unlicensed medicines or licensed medicines for unlicensed applications in paediatric practice. London: Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health.
Royal College of Psychiatrists (2007). Use of Licensed Medicines for Unlicensed Applications in Psychiatric Practice, 2nd ed. College Report CR210. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Ryan, ND (1990). Heterocyclic antidepressants in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 1, 21–31.
Rylance, GW, Moreland, TA (1980). Drug level monitoring in paediatric practice. Arch Dis Child, 55, 89–98.
Sandor, P (1995). Clinical management of Tourette’s syndrome and associated disorders. Can J Psychiatry, 40, 577–583.
Scahill, L, Erenberg, G, Berlin, CM Jr, et al.; Tourette Syndrome Association Medical Advisory Board: Practice Committee (2006). Contemporary assessment and pharmacotherapy of Tourette syndrome. NeuroRx, 3, 192–206.
Sharma, AN, Arango, C, Coghill, D, et al. (2016). BAP Position Statement: Off-label prescribing of psychotropic medication to children and adolescents. J Psychopharmacol, 30, 416–421.
Shrestha, SS, Nelson, EE, Liow, JS, et al. (2014). Fluoxetine administered to juvenile monkeys: effects on the serotonin transporter and behavior. Am J Psychiatry, 171, 323–331.
Simonoff, E, Pickles, A, Charman, T, et al. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 47, 921–929.
Sonuga-Barke, EJ, Swanson, JM, Coghill, D, Decory, HH, Hatch, SJ (2004). Efficacy of two once-daily methylphenidate formulations compared across dose levels at different times of the day: preliminary indications from a secondary analysis of the COMACS study data. BMC Psychiatry, 4, 28.
Sparks, JA, Duncan, BL (2013). Outside the black box: re-assessing pediatric antidepressant prescription. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 22, 240–246.
Stone, M, Laughren, T, Jones, ML, et al. (2009). Risk of suicidality in clinical trials of antidepressants in adults: analysis of proprietary data submitted to US Food and Drug Administration. BMJ, 339, b2880.
UK Government (1983). UK Medical Act 1983 (c54).
Usala, T, Clavenna, A, Zuddas, A, Bonati, M (2008). Randomised controlled trials of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in treating depression in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 18, 62–73.
Verdellen, C, van de Griendt, J, Hartmann, A, Murphy, T; ESSTS Guidelines Group (2011). European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part III: behavioural and psychosocial interventions. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 20, 197–207.
Zheng, W, Li, XB, Xiang, YQ, et al. (2016). Aripiprazole for Tourette’s syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Psychopharmacol, 31, 11–18.