Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: June 2013

Chapter 17 - Rehabilitation of Friedreich ataxia

from Section 4 - Rehabilitation of specific conditions

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


1. DelatyckiMB, ParisDB, GardnerRJ, et al. Clinical and genetic study of Friedreich ataxia in an Australian population. Am J Med Genet 1999;87:168–74.
2. PandolfoM. Friedreich ataxia: the clinical picture. J Neurol 2009;256:3–8.
3. PandolfoM. Friedreich ataxia. Seminars Pediatr Neurol 2003;10:163–72.
4. JunckL, GilmanS, GebarskiSS, et al. Structural and functional brain imaging in Friedreich’s ataxia. Arch Neurol 1994;51:349–55.
5. KoeppenAH. Friedreich’s ataxia: pathology, pathogenesis, and molecular genetics. J Neurol Sci 2011;303:1–12.
6. BidichandaniSI, DelatyckiMB. Friedreich Ataxia. Seattle: University of Washington, 1998.
7. VonckenM, IoannouP, DelatyckiMB. Friedreich ataxia – update on pathogenesis and possible therapies. Neurogenetics 2004;5:1–8.
8. CampuzanoV, MonterminiL, MoltoMD, et al. Friedreich’s ataxia: autosomal recessive disease caused by an intronic GAA triplet repeat expansion. Science 1996;271:1423–7.
9. HardingAE. Friedreich’s ataxia: a clinical and genetic study of 90 families with an analysis of early diagnostic criteria and intrafamilial clustering of clinical features. Brain 1981;104:589–620.
10. LynchDR, FarmerJM, TsouAY, et al. Measuring Friedreich ataxia. Complementary features of examination and performance measures. Neurology 2006;66:1711–16.
11. ShultzJB, BoeschS, BürkK, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of Friedreich ataxia: a European perspective. Nature Rev Neurol 2009;5:222–34.
12. ShapiroF, SpechtL. The diagnosis and orthopaedic treatment of childhood spinal muscular atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, Friedreich ataxia, and arthrogryposis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1993;75:1699–714.
13. LabelleH, TohmeS, DuhaimeM, AllardP. Natural history of scoliosis in Friedreich’s ataxia. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1986;68:564–72.
14. CampanellaG, FillaA, DeFalcoF, et al. Friedreich’s ataxia in the south of Italy: a clinical and biochemical survey of 23 patients. Can J Neurol Sci 1980;7:351–7.
15. DürrA, CosseeM, AgidY, et al. Clinical and genetic abnormalities in patients with Friedreich’s ataxia. New Engl J Med 1996;335:1169–75.
16. MottramPM, DelatyckiMB, DonelanL, et al. Early changes in left ventricular long axis function in Friedreich ataxia – relation with the FXN gene mutation and cardiac structural change. J Am Soc Echocardiog 2011;24:782–9.
17. MilneSC, CampagnaEJ, CorbenLA, et al. Retrospective study of the effects of inpatient rehabilitation on improving and maintaining functional independence in people with Friedreich ataxia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:1860–3.
18. WhiteBV, LeibJR, FarmerJM, BieseckerBB. Exploration of transitional life events in individuals with Friedreich ataxia: implications for genetic counseling. Behav Brain Funct 2010;6:65.
19. KlockgetherT, LudtkeR, KramerB, et al. The natural history of degenerative ataxia: a retrospective study in 466 patients. Brain 1998;121:589–600.
20. DietzV, KetelsenUP, BergerW, QuinternJ. Motor unit involvement in spastic paresis. Relationship between leg muscle activation and histochemistry. J Neurol Sci 1986;75:89–103.
21. McComasAJ. Human neuromuscular adaptations that accompany changes in activity. Med Sci Sport Exer 1994;26:1498–509.
22. CarrJH, ShepherdRB. Stroke Rehabilitation: Guidelines for Exercise and Training to Optimise Motor Skill. Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003.
23. AkesonWH, AmielD, AbelMF, GarfinSR, WooSL-Y. Effects of immobilisation on joints. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1987;219:28–37.
24. CarrJH, ShepherdRB. Neurological Rehabilitation Optimising Motor Performance. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinman, 1998.
25. BruyneelA, ChavetP, EbermeyerE, MesureS. Idiopathic scoliosis: relations between the cob angle and the dynamic strategies when sitting on a seesaw. Eur Spine J 2011;20:247–53.
26. Bruyneel, Chavet P, BolliniG, EbermeyerE, MesureS. Idiopathic scoliosis and balance organization in seated position on a seesaw. Eur Spine J 2010;19:739–46.
27. Patell, J, WalkerJL, TalwalkarVR, IwinskiHJ, MilbrandtTA. Correlation of spine deformity, lung function, and seat pressure in spina bifida. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2011;469:1302–7.
28. CorbenLA, TaiG, WilsonC, et al. A comparision of three measures of upper limb function in Friedreich ataxia. J Neurol 2010;257:518–23.
29. DiCarloSE, SipeE, LayshockJP, VaryaniS. Experiment demonstrating skeletal muscle biomechanics. Adv Physiol Educ 1998;20:S59–71.
30. FolkerJE, MurdochBE, CahillLM, et al. Dysarthria in Friedreich’s ataxia: a perceptual analysis. Folia Phoniatrica Logopaedia 2010;62:97–103.
31. Hoffman-RuddyB, SchulzG, VitekJ, EvattM. A preliminary study of the effects of sub thalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) on voice and speech characteristics in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clin Linguist Phonet 2001;15:97–101.
32. de NóbregaE, NietoA, BarrossoJ, MontónF. Differential impairment in semantic, phonemic, and action fluency performance in Friedreich’s ataxia: possible evidence of prefrontal dysfunction. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2007;13:944–52.
33. RanceG, FavaR, BaldockH, et al. Speech perception ability in individuals with Friedreich ataxia. Brain 2008;131:2002–12.
34. FaheyMC, CremerPD, SweeTA, et al. Vestibular, saccadic and fixation abnormalities in genetically confirmed Friedreich ataxia. Brain 2008;131:1035–45.
35. FieldingJ, CorbenL, CremerP, et al. Disruption to higher order processes in Friedreich ataxia. Neuropsychologia 2010;48:235–42.
36. CorbenLA, AkhlaghiH, Georgiou-KaristianisN, et al. Impaired inhibition of prepotent motor tendencies in Friedreich ataxia demonstrated by the Simon interference task. Brain Cognit 2011;76:140–5.
37. CorbenLA, DelatyckiMB, BradshawJL, ChurchyardAJ, Georgiou-KaristianisN. Utilization of advance motor information is impaired in Friedreich ataxia. Cerebellum 2011;10:793–803.
38. CorbenLA, DelatyckiMB, BradshawJL, et al. Impairment in motor reprogramming in Friedreich ataxia reflecting possible cerebellar dysfunction. J Neurol 2010;257:782–91.
39. CorbenLA, Georgiou-KaristianisN, BradshawJL, et al. The Fitts task reveals impairments in planning and online control of movement in Friedreich ataxia: reduced cerebellar-cortico connectivity?Neuroscience 2011;192:382–90.
40. KlopperF, DelatyckiMB, CorbenLA, BradshawJL, RanceG. The test of everyday attention reveals significant sustained volitional attention and working memory deficits in Friedreich ataxia. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2011;17:196–200.
41. HockingDR, FieldingJ, CorbenLA, et al. Ocular motor fixation deficits in Friedreich ataxia. Cerebellum 2010;9:411–18.
42. SchmahmannJD. An emerging concept. The cerebellar contribution to higher function. Arch Neurol. 1991;48:1178–87.
43. DirnbergerG, NovakJ, NaselC, ZehnterM. Separating coordinative and executive dysfunction in cerebellar patients during motor skill acquisition. Neuropsychologia 2010;48:1200–8.
44. BerardiN, BraschiC, CapsoniS, CattaneoA, MaffeiL. Environmental enrichment delays the onset of memory deficits and reduces neuropathological hallmarks in a mouse model of Alzheimer-like neurodegeneration. J Alz Dis 2007;11:359–70.
45. NithianantharajahJ, HannanAJ. The neurobiology of brain and cognitive reserve: mental and physical activity as modulators of brain disorders. Prog Neurobiol 2009;89:369–82.
46. LandiD, RossiniPM. Cerebral restorative plasticity from normal ageing to brain diseases: a “never ending story”. Restor Neurol Neurosci 2010;28:349–66.
47. ShinJ, IvryR. Spatial and temporal sequence learning in patients with Parkinson’s disease or cerebellar lesions. J Cognitive Neurosci 2003;15:1232–43.
48. LeggioMG, ChiricozziFR, ClausiS, TedescoAM, MolinariM. The neuropsychological profile of cerebellar damage: the sequencing hypothesis. Cortex 2011;47:137–44.
49. SpencerR, IvryR. Sequence learning is preserved in individuals with cerebellar degeneration when the movements are directly cued. J Cognitive Neurosci 2008;21:1302–10.
50. FaheyMC, CorbenLA, CollinsV, ChurchyardA, DelatyckiMB. How is disease progress in Friedreich’s ataxia best measured? A study of four rating scales. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007;78:411–13.
51. LynchDR, FarmerJM, BalcerLJ, WilsonRB. Friedreich ataxia: effects of genetic understanding on clinical evaluation and therapy. Arch Neurol 2002;59:743–7.
52. DelatyckiMB, FaheyMC, CorbenLA, ChurchyardAJ. Friedreich ataxia. In LynchDR, ed. Neurogenetics: Scientific and Clinical Advances. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2006.
53. DelatyckiMB, HolianA, CorbenL, et al. Surgery for equinovarus deformity in Friedreich’s ataxia improves mobility and independence. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2005;430:138–41.
54. BurtnerPA, WoolacottMH, QuallsC. Stance balance control with orthoses in a group of children with spastic cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1999;41:748–57.
55. IlgW, GieseMA, GizewskiER, SchochB, TimmannD. The influence of focal cerebellar lesions on the control and adaptation of gait. Brain 2008;131:2913–27.
56. MaringJR, CroarkinE. Presentation and progression of Friedreich ataxia and implications for physical therapist examination. Phys Ther 2007;87:1687–96.
57. EdwardsS. Abnormal tone and movement as a result of neurological impairment: considerations for treatment. In: EdwardsS, ed. Neurological Physiotherapy, 2nd edition. Edinburgh: Churchill-Livingstone, 2002;89–120.
58. LimaFP, LimaMO, LeoneDI, et al. fMRI of the sensorimotor cortex in patients with traumatic brain injury after intensive rehabilitation. Neurol Sci 2011;32:633–9.
59. IlgW, SynofzikM, BrotzS, et al. intensive coordinative training improves motor performance in degenerative cerebellar disease. Neurology 2009;73:1–8.
60. Harris-LoveMO, SiegelKL, PaulSM, BensonK. Rehabilitation management of Friedreich ataxia: lower extremity force-control variability and gait performance. Neurorehabil Neural Res. 2004;18:117–124.
61. GoulipianC, BensoussanL, VitonJM, et al. Orthopaedic shoes improve gait in Friedreich’s ataxia; a clinical and quantified case study. Eur J Phys Rehab Med 2008;44:93–8.
62. Mar Trujillo-MartinM, Serrano-AguilarP, Monton-AlvarezF, Carrillo-FumeroR. Effectiveness and safety of treatments for degenerative ataxias: a systematic review. Mov Disord 2009;24:1111–24.
63. CassidyE, KilbrideC, HollandA. Management of the Ataxias: Towards Best Clinical Practice: Physiotherapy Supplement. London: Lincoln House, 2009. Available from: {Accessed Jun 4, 2012}.
64. DroletM, NoreanL, VachonJ, MoffetH. Muscle strength changes as measured by dynamometry following functional rehabilitation in individuals with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999;80:791–800.
65. SanesJR, JessellTM. The formation and regulation of synapses. In KandelER, SchwartzJH, JessellTM, eds. Principles of Neural Science. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000;1087–114.
66. PerlmanSL. Symptomatic and disease-modifying therapy for the progressive ataxias. The Neurologist 2004;10:275–89.
67. MortonSM, BastianAJ. Can rehabilitation help ataxia?Neurology 2009;73:1818–19.
68. WeissH, SeibelS. Scoliosis short-term rehabilitation (sstr) – a pilot investigation. Internet J Rehabil, 2010;1. Available from:
69. SeligSE, CareyMF, MenziesDG, et al. Moderate-intensity resistance exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure improves strength, endurance, heart rate variability, and forearm blood flow. J Card Fail 2004;10:21–30.
70. SmaniaN, PicelliA, MunariD, et al. Rehabilitation procedures in the management of spasticity. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2010;46:423–38.
71. CorbenLA, Georgiou-KaristianisN, BradshawJL, et al. Characterising the neuropathology and neurobehavioural phenotype in Friedreich ataxia In: HannanA, ed. Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms: Genetic Plasticity, Neural Diversity and Disease. Texas: Landes Bioscience and Springer Science and Business Media, 2011.
72. DaviesPM. Steps to Follow, 2nd edn. Berlin: Springer, 2000.
73. EdwardsS. Longer term management for patients with residual or progressive disability. In: EdwardsS, ed. Neurological Physiotherapy, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2002;255–74.
74. SadowskyCL, BeckerD, BosquesG, et al. Rehabilitation in transverse myelitis. Continuum lifelong learning. Neurology 2011;17:816–30.
75. SahrmannSA. Diagnosis and Treatment of Movement Impairment Syndromes. St. Louis: Mosby Inc., 2002.
76. RaineS. The current theoretical assumptions of the Bobath concept as determined by the members of BBTA. Physiother Theor Pract 2007;23:137–52.
77. DoddKJ, TaylorNF, DamianoDL. A systematic review of the effectiveness of strength-training programs for people with cerebral palsy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1157–64.
78. BeauchampM, LabelleJ, DuhaimeM, JoncasJ. Natural history of muscle weakness in Friedreich’s ataxia and its relation to loss of ambulation. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1995;311:270–5.
79. MorrisS. Ashworth and Tardieu scales: their clinical relevance for measuring spasticity in adult and pediatric neurological populations. Phys Ther Rev 2002;7:53–62.
80. BoydRN, GrahamHK. Objective measurement of clinical findings in the use of botulinum toxin type A for the management of children with cerebral palsy. Eur J Neurol 1999;6:23–35.
81. VaughanGJ, EustaceC, BrockK, SwainE, Irwin-CarruthersS. The Bobath concept in contemporary clinical practice. Top Stroke Rehabil 2009;16:57–68.
82. HastingsJ, GoldsteinB. Paraplegia and the shoulder. Phys Med Rehabil Clin 2004;15:699–718.
83. RoyJS, MoffetH, LucJ, HébertLJ, LiretteR. Effect of motor control and strengthening exercises on shoulder function in persons with impingement syndrome: a single-subject study design. Manual Ther 2009;14:180–8.
84. SubramonySH, MayW, LynchD, et al. Measuring Friedreich ataxia: interrater reliability of a neurologic rating scale. Neurology 2005;64:1261–2.
85. MehrholzJ, WagnerK, MeiβnerD, GrundmannK, ZangeC. Reliability of the modified Tardieu scale and the modified Ashworth scale in adult patients with severe brain injury: a comparison study. Clin Rehabil 2005;19:751–9.
86. CroarkinE, MaringJ, PfalzerL, et al. Characterizing gait, locomotor status, and disease severity in children and adolescents with Friedreich ataxia. J Neurol Phys Ther 2007;33:144–9.
87. SerraoM, PierelliF, RanavoloA, et al. Gait pattern in inherited cerebellar ataxias. Cerebellum 2012;11:194–211.
88. MarsdenJ, HarrisC. Cerebellar ataxia: pathophysiology and rehabilitation. Clin Rehabil 2011;25:195–216.
89. CernakK, StevensV, PriceR, Shumway-CookA. Locomotion using body weight support on a treadmill in conjunction with ongoing physical therapy in a child with severe cerebellar ataxia. Phys Ther 2008;88:88–97.
90. FreundJE, StettsDM. Use of trunk stabilisation and locomotor training in an adult with cerebellar ataxia: a single system design. Phys Theory Pract 2010;26:447–58.
91. VazDA, SchettinoR, Rolla de CastroTR, et al. Treadmill training for ataxic patients: a single subject experimental design. Clin Rehabil 2008;22:234–41.
92. AdaL, DeanCM, HallJM, BamptonJ, CromptonS. A treadmill and overground walking program improves walking in persons residing in the community after stroke: a placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2003;84:1486–91.
93. TremblayF, MalouinF, RichardsCL, DumasF. Effects of prolonged muscle stretch on reflex and voluntary muscle activations in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Scand J Rehabil Med 1990;22:171–80.
94. FinleyMA, RodgersMM. Prevalence and identification of shoulder pathology in athletic and nonathletic wheelchair users with shoulder pain: a pilot study. J Rehabil Res Dev 2004;41:395–402.
95. FinleyMA, McQuadeKJ, RogersMM. Scapular kinematics during transfers in manual wheel-chair users with and without shoulder impingement. Clin Biomech 2005;20:32–40.
96. CooperRA, KoontzAM, DingD, et al. Manual wheeled mobility – current and future developments form the human engineering research laboratories. Disabil Rehabil 2010;32:2210–21.
97. MortonSM, BastianAJ. Cerebellar control of balance and locomotion. Neuroscientist 2004;10:247–59.
98. PandolfoM. Friedreich ataxia. Arch Neurology 2008;65:1296–303.
99. Lohmann SiegelK, HicksJE, KoziolDE, GerberLH, RiderLG. Walking ability and its relationship to lower-extremity muscle strength in children with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:767–71.
100. JedaJJ. Light touch contact as a balance aid. Phys Ther 1997;77:476–87.
101. RhodesR, FialaB. Building motivation and sustainability into the prescription and recommendations for physical activity and exercise therapy: the evidence. Physiother Theory Practice 2009;25:424–41.
102. DibbleLE, HaleTF, MarcusRL, et al. High-intensity resistance training amplifies muscle hypertrophy and functional gains in persons with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2006;21:1444–52.
103. WhiteLJ, McCoySC, CastellanoV, et al. Resistance training improves strength and functional capacity in persons with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2004;10:668–74.
104. GjelsvikB. The Bobath Concept in Adult Neurology. Stuttgart: Thieme, 2008.
105. FillyawMJ, AdesPA. Endurance exercise training in Friedreich ataxia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989;70:786–8.
106. PollockML, FranklinBA, BaladyGJ, et al. Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2000;101:828–33.
107. AkuthotaV, FerreiroA, MooreT, FrederisconM. Core stability exercise principles. Curr Sports Med Rep 2008;7:39–44.
108. StokesI, Gardner-MorseM, HenrySM, BadgerGJ. Decrease in trunk muscular response to perturbation with preactivation of lumbar spinal musculature. Spine 2000;25:1957–64.
109. ReinthalAK, MansourM, GreenwaldG. Improved ambulation and speech production in an adolescent post-traumatic brain injury through a therapeutic intervention to increase postural control. Pediatr Rehabil 2004;7:37–49.
110. VerheydenG, VereeckL, TruijenS, TrochM, LaFosseC, SaeysW, et al. Additional exercises improve trunk performance after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Neurorehabil Neural Res 2009;23:281–6.
111. JohnsonEG, LarsenA, OzawaH, et al. The effects of pilates based exercise on dynamic balance in healthy adults. J Bodywork Mov Ther 2007;11:238–42.
112. MasseryM. Breathing and upright posture: simultaneous needs: 2010. Proceedings of the 26th International Seating Symposium, Vancouver, British Columbia, 2010; 25–8.
113. KiblerWB, PressJ, SciasciaA. The role of core stability in athletic function. Sports Med 2006;36:189–98.
114. Shumway-CookA, HallerS. Postural sway biofeedback: its effect on re-establishing stance stability in hemiplegic patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998;69:395–400.
115. MissaouiB, ThoumieP. How far do patients with sensory ataxia benefit from so-called “proprioceptive rehabilitation”?Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;39:229–33.
116. IlgW, Doris BrotzD, BurkardS, et al. Long-term effects of coordinative training in degenerative cerebellar disease. Mov Disord 2010;25:2239–46.
117. VearrierLA, LanganJ, Shumway-CookA, WoollacottM. An intensive massed practice approach to retraining balance post-stroke. Gait Posture 2005;22:154–63.
118. CattaneoD, JonsdottirJ, ZocchiM, RegolaA. Effects of balance exercises on people with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Clin Rehabil 2007;21:771–81
119. SayenkoDG, AlekhinaMI, MasaniK, et al. Positive effect of balance training with visual feedback on standing balance abilities in people with incomplete spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2010;48:886–93.
120. BetkerAL, DesaiA, Cristabel NettC, KapadiaN, SzturmT. Game-based exercises for dynamic short-sitting balance rehabilitation of people with chronic spinal cord and traumatic brain injuries. Phys Ther 2007;87:1389–98.
121. TakasoM, NakazawaT, ImuraT, et al. Surgical management of severe scoliosis with high risk pulmonary dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: patient function, quality of life and satisfaction. Int Orthop 2010;34:695–702.
122. HolmesKJ, MichaelSM, ThorpeSL, SolomonidisSE. Management of scoliosis with special seating for the non-ambulant spastic cerebral palsy population – a biomechanical study. Clin Biomech 2003;18:480–7.
123. McCarthyRE. Management of neuromuscular scoliosis. Orthop Clin N Am 1999;30:435–49.
124. StocktonL, GebhardtKS, ClarkM. Seating and pressure ulcers: clinical practice guidelines. J Tissue Viabil 2009;18:98–108.
125. ParentF, DansereauJ, LacosteM, AissaouriR. Evaluation of the new flexible contour backrest for wheelchairs. J Rehabil Res Dev 2000;37:325–33.
126. TsirikosAI, SmithG. Scoliosis in Friedreich’s ataxia. J Bone Joint Surg 2012;94B:684–9.
127. MilbrandtTA, KunesJR, KarolLA. Friedreich ataxia and scoliosis. The experience of two institutions. J Pediatr Orthop 2008;28:234–8.
128. CadyRB, BobechkoWP. Incidence, natural history and treatment of scoliosis in Friedreich’s ataxia. J Paediatr Orthop 1984;4:673–6.
129. KatalinicOM, HarveyLA, HerbertRD, et al. Stretch for the treatment and prevention of contractures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;9:CD007455. Available from: {Accessed May 20, 2012}
130. CardaS, InvernizziM, BaricichA, CisariC. Casting, taping or stretching after botulinum toxin type A for spastic equines foot: a single-blind randomised trial on adult stroke patients. Clin Rehabil 2011;25:1119–27.
131. KiblerWB, MurrellGA. Shoulder pain. In: BruknerP, KhanK, eds. Clinical Sports Medicine, 3rd edition. Sydney: McGraw-Hill, 2007;243–88.
132. BabyarSR. Excessive scapula motion in individuals recovering from painful and stiff shoulders: causes and treatment strategies. Phys Ther 1996;76:226–38.
133. MottramSL. Dynamic stability of the scapula. Manual Ther 1997;2:123–31.
134. EdwardsS. An analysis of normal movement as the basis for the development of treatment techniques. In EdwardsS, ed. Neurological Physiotherapy, 2nd edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2002;35–68.
135. KiblerWB, McMullenJ, UhlT. Shoulder rehabilitation strategies, guidelines and practice. Orthop Clin N Am 2001;32:527–38.
136. TalliaAF, CardoneDA. Diagnostic and therapeutic injection of the shoulder region. Am Fam Physician 2003;67:1271–8.
137. IagulliND, FieldLD, HobgoodER, RamseyJR, SavoieFH. Comparison of partial versus complete arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears. Am J Sports Med 2012;40:1022–6.
138. BlattnerKA. Friedreich’s ataxia: a suggested physical therapy regimen. Clin Man Phys Ther 1998;8:14–5, 30.
139. KesiktasN, PakerN, ErdoganN, et al. The use of hydrotherapy for the management of spasticity. Neurorehab Neural Rep 2004;18:268–73.
140. VivasJ, AriasP, CudeiroJ. Aquatic therapy versus conventional land-based therapy for Parkinson’s disease: an open-label pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1202–10.
141. ZamparoP, PagliaroP. The energy cost of level walking before and after hydro-kinesic therapy in patients with spastic paresis. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1998;8:222–8.
142. DutkaDP, DonnellyJE, PalkaP, et al. Echocardiographic characterization of cardiomyopathy in Friedreich’s ataxia with tissue Doppler echocardiographically derived myocardial velocity gradients. Circulation 2000;102:1276–82.
143. SchmidJP, NoveanuM, MorgerC, et al. Influence of water immersion, water gymnastics and swimming on cardiac output in patients with heart failure. Heart 2007;93:722–7.
144. KellyBT, RoskinLA, KirkendallDT, SpeerKP. Shoulder muscle activation during aquatic and dry land exercises in nonimpaired subjects. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2000;30:204–10.
145. PoyhonenT, KyrolainenH, KeskinenKL, et al. Electromyographic and kinematic analysis of therapeutic knee exercises under water. Clin Biomech 2001;16:496–504.
146. DelatyckiMB. Evaluating the progression of Friedreich ataxia and its treatment. J Neurol 2009;256:36–41.
147. TariccoM, AdoneR, PagliacciC, TelaroE. Pharmacological interventions for spasticity following spinal cord injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;4:CD001131. Available from: {Accessed May 31, 2012}.
148. LubschL, HabersangR, HaaseM, LuedtkeS. Oral baclofen and clonidine for treatment of spasticity in children. J Child Neurol 2006;21:1090–2.
149. EliaAE, FilippiniG, CalandrellaD, AlbaneseA. Botulinum neurotoxins for post-stroke spasticity in adults: a systematic review. Mov Disord 2009;24:801–12.
150. GiovannelliM, BorrinelloG, CastriP, ProsperiniL, PozzilliC. Early physiotherapy after injection of botulinum toxin increases the beneficial effects on spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Clin Rehabil 2007;21:331–7.
151. EamesNW, BakerR, CosgroveAP, et al. The effect of botulinum toxin A injection on gastrocnemius muscle growth in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1996;38:23–4.
152. ThompsonNS, BakerRJ, CosgroveAP, CorryIS, GrahamHK. Musculoskeletal modelling in determining the effect of botulinum toxin on the hamstrings of patients with crouch gait. Dev Med Child Neurol 1998;40:622–5.
153. SuatE, FatmaU, NilgünB. The effects of dynamic ankle–foot orthoses on functional ambulation activities, weight bearing and spatio-temporal characteristics of hemiparetic gait. Disabil Rehabil 2011;33:2605–11.
154. NäslundA, JesinkeyK, HirschfeldH, von WendtL, SundelinG. Effects of dynamic ankle–foot orthoses on standing in children with severe spastic diplegia. Int J Therapy Rehabil 2005;12:200–7.
155. FatoneS, GardSA, MalasBS. Effect of ankle–foot orthosis alignment and foot-plate length on the gait of adults with post-stroke hemiplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2009;90:810–18.
156. ChenC, HongW, WangC, et al. Kinematic features of rear-foot motion using anterior and posterior ankle–foot orthoses in stroke patients with hemiplegic gait. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2010;91:1862–8.
157. KobayashiT, LeungAK, AkazawaY, HutchinesSW. Design and effect of ankle–foot orthoses proposed to influence muscle tone: a review. J Prosthet Orthot 2011;23:52–7.
158. CruzTH, DhaherYY. Impact of ankle–foot orthosis on frontal plane behaviours post-stoke. Gait Post 2009;30:312–16.
159. CreightonDL, MorganAL, BoardleyD, Gunnar BrolinsonP. Weight-bearing exercise and markers of bone turnover in female athletes. J Appl Physiol 2001;90:565–70.
160. ArvaJ, PalegG, LangeM, et al. RESNA Position on the Application of Wheelchair Standing Devices. Assistive Technology 2009;21:161–8.
161. BohannonRW. Tilt table standing for reducing spasticity after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74:1121–2.
162. MarikPE, KaplanD. Aspiration pneumonia and dysphagia in the elderly. Chest 2003;124:328–36.
163. RanceG, CorbenL, BarkerE, et al. Auditory perception in individuals with Friedreich’s ataxia. Audiol Neuro-Otol 2010;15:229–40.
164. ClarkJ, ShonaM, MorrowM. Wheelchair postural support for young people with progressive neuromuscular disorders. Int J Ther Rehabil 2004;11:365–73.
165. MortensonWB, MillerWC, Miller-PogarJ. Measuring wheelchair intervention outcomes: development of the wheelchair outcome measure. Disabil Rehabil: Assist Technol 2007;2:275–85.
166. MartinCL, TanD, BraggeP, BialocerkowskiA. Effectiveness of physiotherapy for adults with cerebellar dysfunction: a systematic review. Clin Rehabil 2009;23:15–26.