Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Cited by 3
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: May 2011

13 - Future directions for research and conservation of long-tailed macaque populations

from Part V - Understanding and managing the human–macaque interface

Summary

Long-tailed macaques are an edge species, preferring to live along the forest borders of many habitat types (Gumert, Chapter 1). The result of this preference is that long-tailed macaques are adaptable generalists that are frequently found along the edges of human settlements across Southeast Asia. Another consequence is that long-tailed macaques can adjust quickly to living with other species, and thus have commonly expanded beyond the edge to overlap with humans in numerous contexts (see Part II). Due to the close association with humans, macaque populations can be powerfully impacted by human activity. In some cases they have been carried and introduced to areas beyond their normal range (see Part III). The overlap of macaques and humans, and the consequences of this overlap, needs to be better understood. While the basis of our relationship with long-tailed macaques is becoming apparent, much more research will be needed to fully understand their population and the causes and consequences of our interface with them. This chapter is an attempt to focus future research in a few important areas that will be necessary for better understanding the population, ecology, and synanthropic nature of long-tailed macaques. This chapter focuses on three subject areas that warrant special consideration for future scientific research on M. fascicularis: population-level research, the issue of ethnophoresy and introduced populations, and the causes and consequences of human-macaque overlap.

Directions for population-level research

Long-tailed macaques perhaps have the greatest amount of intraspecific variation of any primate species (Fooden, 2006).

References
Aggimarangsee, N. 1992. Survey for semi-tame colonies of macaques in Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 40: 103–166.
Albert, F. W., Shchepina, O., Winter, C. et al. 2008. Phenotypic differences in behavior, physiology and neurochemistry between rats selected for tameness and for defensive aggression towards humans. Hormones and Behavior 53: 413–421.
Albert, F. W., Carlborg, O., Plyusnina, I. et al. 2009. Genetic architecture of tameness in a rat model of animal domestication. Genetics 182: 541–554.
Belyaev, D. K. 1979. Destablizing selection as a factor in domestication. Journal of Heredity 70: 301–308.
Berenstain, L. 1986. Responses of long-tailed macaques to drought and fire in Eastern Borneo: A preliminary report. Biotropica 18: 257–262.
Blancher, A., Bonhomme, M., Crouau-Roy, B., Terao, K., Kitano, T. and Saitou, N. 2008. Mitochondrial DNA sequence phylogeny of 4 populations of the widely distributed cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis). Journal of Heredity 99: 254–264.
Bunluesilp, N. 2009. No monkey business: Thailand launches primate birth control. Reuters Life, August 21, 2009.
Burton, F. and Carroll, A. 2005. By-product mutualism: Conservation implications amongst monkeys, figs, humans, and their domesticants in Honduras. In Commensalism and Conflict: The Primate-Human Interface. Paterson, J. D. and Wallis, J. (eds.). Norman, OK:American Society of Primatology Publications.
Carpenter, A. 1887. Monkeys opening oysters. Nature 36: 53.
Clutton-Brock, J. 1995. Origins of the dog: Domestication and early history. In The Domestic Dog its Evolution, Behaviour and Interactions with People. Serpell, J. (ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Coppinger, R. and Coppinger, L. 2001. Dogs: A Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behaviour and Evolution. New York:Scribner.
Coppinger, R. and Schneider, R. 1995. Evolution of working dogs. In The Domestic Dog its Evolution, Behaviour and Interactions with People. Serpell, J. (ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Diamond, J. 1997. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, New York:W. W. Norton and Company.
Di Silva, R. 2008. SpotLight: Culling solution to macaque ‘explosion’. New Straits Times. Kuala Lumpur. 11 February 2008.
Dorey, N. R., Udell, M. A. R., and Wyner, C. D. L. 2010. When do domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, start to understand human pointing? The role of ontogeny in the development of interspecies communication. Animal Behaviour 79: 37–41.
Eudey, A. A. 1994. Temple and pet primates in Thailand. Revue D'Ecologie (Terre et la Vie) 49: 273–280.
Eudey, A. A. 2008. The crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) widespread and rapidly declining. Primate Conservatio 23: 129–132.
Fooden, J. 1995. Systematic review of Southeast Asian longtail macaques, Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821). Fieldiana: Zoology, n.s. 81: v + 206.
Fooden, J. 2006. Comparative review of fascicularis-group species of macaques (primates: Macaca). Fieldiana: Zoology, n.s. 107: 1–43.
Froehlich, J., Schillaci, M., Jones-Engel, L., Froehlich, D., and Pullen, B. 2003. A Sulawesi beachead by longtail monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) on Kabaena Island, Indonesia. Anthropologie 41: 76–74.
Fuentes, A. 2006a. Human-nonhuman primate interconnections and their relevance to anthropology. Ecological and Environmental Anthropology 2: 1–11.
Fuentes, A. 2006b. Human culture and monkey behavior: assessing the contexts of potential pathogen transmission between macaques and humans. American Journal of Primatology 68: 880–896.
Fuentes, A. 2007a. Social organization: Social systems and the complexities in understanding the evolution of primate behavior. In Primates in Perspective. Campbell, C., Fuentes, A., Mackinnon, K., Panger, M., and Bearder, S. (eds.). Oxford University Press.
Fuentes, A. 2007b. Monkey and human interconnections: The wild, the captive, and the in-between. In Where the Wild Things are Now: Domestication Reconsidered. Cassidy, R. and Mullin, M. (ed.). Oxford:Berg Publishers.
Fuentes, A. (in press) Being human and doing primatology: National, socioeconomic, and ethnic influences on primatological practice. American Journal of Primatology.
Fuentes, A. and Gamerl, S. 2005. Disproportionate participation by age/sex classes in aggressive interactions between long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and human tourists at Padangtegal monkey forest, Bali, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology 66: 197–204.
Fuentes, A. and Hockings, K. 2010. The ethnoprimatological approach in primatology. American Journal of Primatology 71: 1–7.
Fuentes, A. and Wolfe, L. D. (eds.) 2002. Primates Face to Face: Conservation Implications of Human and Nonhuman Primate Interconnection. Cambridge University Press.
Fuentes, A., Suaryana, K., Rompis, A. et al. 2002. Behavior and demography of a semi-free ranging population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at Padangtegal, Bali, Indonesia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 117: 73.
Fuentes, A., Southern, M., and Suaryana, K. 2005. Monkey forests and human landscapes: Is extensive sympatry sustainable for Homo sapiens and Macaca fascicularis on Bali. In Commensalism and Conflict: The Primate-Human Interface. Patterson, J. D. (ed.) Norman, OK: The American Society of Primatologists Publications.
Fuentes, A., Kalchik, S., Gettler, L., Kwiatt, A., Konecki, M., and Jones-Engel, L. 2008. Characterizing human-macaque interactions in Singapore. American Journal of Primatology 70: 879–883.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute Press.
Gumert, M., Sha, J., Lee, B. P. Y.-H., and Chan, S. 2009.) Factors influencing the interface between humans and long-tailed macaques in Singapore. American Journal of Primatology 71: 56.
Gumert, M., Kluck, M., and Malaivijitnond, S. 2009a. Stone tool characteristics and usage patterns in long-tailed macaques from the Andaman Sea Region. American Journal of Primatology 71: 91.
Gumert, M., Kluck, M. and Malaivijitnond, S. 2009b. The physical characteristics and usage patterns of stone axe and pounding hammers used by long-tailed macaques in the Andaman Sea region of Thailand. American Journal of Primatology 71: 594–608.
Gumert, M., Low, K., Tan, V., and Malaivijitnond, S. 2010. Sex differences, handedness, and selection preferences in the stone tool-use of Andaman long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea). 23rd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Kyoto.
Hare, B. and Tomasello, M., 2005. Human-like social skills in dogs?Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9: 439–444.
Hare, B., Rosati, A., Kaminski, J., Bräuer, J., Call, J., and Tomasello, M. 2010. The domestication hypothesis for dogs' skills with human communication: A response to Udell et al. (2008) and Wynne et al. (2008). Animal Behaviour79(2): e1–e6.
Harrison, T. 1996. The paleoarcheological context of Niah cave, Sarawak: Evidence from the primate fauna. Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 14: 90–100.
Hart, D. and Sussman, R. W. 2008. Man the Hunted: Primates, Predators, and Human Evolution (expanded edition). New York: Westview Press.
Heinsohn, T. 2003. Animal translocation: Long-term human influences on the vertebrate zoogeography of Australasia (natural dispersal versus ethnophoresy). The Australian Zoologist 32: 351–376.
Lane, K. E., Lute, M., Rompis, A. et al. 2010. Pests, pestilence, and people: The long-tailed macaque and its role in the cultural complexities of Bali. In Indonesian Primates. Gursky-Doyen, S., and Supriatna, J. (eds.). Berlin: Springer Science.
Lindberg, J., Björnerfeldt, S., Saetre, P. et al. 2005. Selection for tameness has changed brain gene expression in silver foxes. Current Biology 15: R915–R916.
Lorence, D. and Sussman, R. 1986. Exotic species invasion into Mauritius wet forest remnants. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2: 1470–162.
Loudon, J. E., Howells, M. E., and Fuentes, A. 2006. The importance of integrative anthropology: A preliminary investigation employing primatological and cultural anthropological data collection methods in assessing human-monkey co-existence in Bali, Indonesia. Ecological and Environmental Anthropology 2: 2–13.
Lowe, S., Browne, M., Boudjelas, S. and Poorter, M. 2000. One hundred of the worst invasive species: A selection from the global invasive species database. Aliens 12.
Kemp, N. and Burnett, J. 2003. Final report: A biodiversity risk assessment and recommendations for risk management of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in New Guinea. Indo-Pacific Conservation Alliance and Universitas Cenderawasih.
Kemp, N. and Burnett, J. 2007. A non-native primate (Macaca fascicularis) in Papua: Implications for biodiversity. In The Ecology of Papua: Part II: Marshall B. M, A. J.. and Beehler, (eds.). Singapore: Periplus Editions Ltd.
Malaivijitnond, S., Lekprayoon, C., Tandavanittj, N., Panha, S., Cheewatham, C., and Hamada, Y. 2007. Stone-tool usage by Thai long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). American Journal of Primatology 69: 227–233.
Martelli, P. 2009. Endoscopic Tubectomy in Macaques (DVD). Endoskope.
Menninger, K., Wieczorek, G., Riesen, S. et al. 2002. The origin of cynomolgous monkey affects the outcome of kidney allografts under Neoral immunosuppression. Transplantation Proceedings 34: 2887–2888.
Mungroo, Y. and Tezoo, V. 1999. Control of invasive species in Mauritius. In Invasive Species in Eastern Africa: Proceedings of a workshop held at ICIPE, Lyons, E. and Miller, S. (eds.).
Ong, P. and Richardson, M. 2008. Macaca fascicularis. IUCN 2010: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Patterson, J. D. and Wallis, J. (eds.) 2005. Commensalism and Conflict: The Primate-Human Interface. Norman, OK: The American Society of Primatologists Publications.
Poirier, F. E. and Smith, E. O. 1974. The crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) of Angaur Island, Palau, Micronesia. Folia Primatologica 22: 258–306.
Riedel, J., Schumann, K., Kaminski, J., Call, J., and Tomasello, M. 2008. The early ontogeny of human-dog communication. Animal Behaviour 75: 1003–1014.
Riley, E. 2007. The human-macaque interface: Conservation implications of current and future overlap and conflict in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi, IndonesiaAmerican Anthropologist 109: 473–484.
Riley, E. P. and Fuentes, A. 2010. Conserving social-ecological systems in Indonesia: human-nonhuman primate interconnections in Bali and Sulawesi. American Journal of Primatology 71: 1–13.
Schaik, C. P. 1989. The ecology of social relationships amongst female primates. In Comparative Socioecology: The Behavioural Ecology of Humans and Other Mammals. V. Standen, R. and Foley, (eds.) Boston: Blackwell Science.
Schaik, C. P. 2002. Fragility of traditions: the disturbance hypothesis for the loss of local traditions in orangutans. International Journal of Primatology 23: 527–538.
Schillaci, M. A., Engel, G. A., Fuentes, A. et al. 2010. The not-so-sacred monkeys of Bali: A radiographic study of human-primate commensalism. In Indonesian Primates. Gursky-Doyen, S. and Supriatna, J. (eds.). New York: Springer.
Sha, J., Gumert, M., Lee, B., et al. 2009a. Macaque-human interactions and the societal perceptions of macaques in Singapore. American Journal of Primatology 71: 825–839.
Sha, J., Gumert, M., Lee, B., et al. 2009b. Status of the long-tailed macaque Macaca fascicularis in Singapore and implications for management. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 2909–2926.
Shepherd, 2010. Illegal primate trade in Indonesia exemplified by surveys carried out over a decade in North Sumatra. Endangered Species Research 11: 201–205.
Sponsel, L. E. 1997. The human niche in Amazonia: Explorations in ethnoprimatology. In New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. Kinzey, W. G. (ed.) Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Sterck, E. H. M., Watts, D. P., and Schaik, C. P. 1997. The evolution of female social relationships in nonhuman primates. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 41: 291–309.
Stewart, A.-M., Gordon, C., Wich, S., Schroor, P., and Meijaard, E. 2008. Fishing in Macaca fascicularis: A rarely observed innovative behavior. International Journal of Primatology 29: 543–548.
Strier, K. B. 2006. Primate Behavioral Ecology, 3rd edn. Needam, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Sussman, R. W. and Tattersall, I. 1981. Behavior and ecology of Macaca fascicularis in Mauritius: A preliminary study. Primates 22: 192–205.
Tenaza, R. R. 1996. Kupang's cave monkeys. Wildlife Conservation 99: 48–53.
Trut, L. N. 1999. Early canid domestication: The farm-fox experiment. American Scientist 87: 160–169.
Twigg, I. C. and Nijman, V. 2008. Export of wild-caught long-tailed macaque from Southeast Asia. 22nd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Edinburgh, UK.
Udell, M. A. R., Dorey, N. R., and Wynne, C. D. L. 2008. Wolves outperform dogs in following human social cues. Animal Behaviour 76: 1767–1773.
Waite, T., Chhangani, A., Campbell, L., Rajpurohit, L. and Mohnot, S. 2007. Sanctuary in the city: Urban monkeys buffered against catastrophic die-off during ENSO-related drought. EcoHealth 4: 278–286.
Watanabe, K., Urasopon, N., and Malaivijitnond, S. 2007. Long-tailed macaques use human hair as dental floss. American Journal of Primatology 69: 940–944.
Wheatley, B. 1999. The Sacred Monkeys of Bali. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.
Wheatley, B. and Harya Putra, D. K. 1994. Biting the hand that feeds you: Monkeys and tourists in Balinese monkey forests. Tropical Biodiversity 2: 317–327.
Wheatley, B. and Harya Putra, D. K. 1994. The effects of tourism on conservation at the monkey forest in Ubud, Bali. Revue D'Ecologie (Terre et la Vie) 49: 245–257.
Wheatley, B. and Harya Putra, D. K. 1995. Hanuman, the monkey god, leads conservation efforts in Balinese Monkey Forest at Ubud, Indonesia. Prim. Rep. 41: 55–64.
Wheatley, B., Stephenson, R., and Kurashina, H. 1999. The effects of hunting on the longtailed macaques of Ngeaur Island, Palau. In and The Nonhuman Primates. Dolhinow, P. and Fuentes, A. (eds.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.
Wheatley, B., Stephenson, R., Kurashina, H., and Marsh-Kautz, K. 2002. A cultural primatological study of Macaca fascicularis on Ngeaur Island, Republic of Palau. In and Primates Face-to-Face: Conservation Implications of Human and Nonhuman Primate Interconnections. Fuentes, A. and Wolfe, L.. (eds.). Cambridge University Press.
Williamson, E. A. and Feistner, A. T. C. 2003. Habituating primates: Processes, techniques, variables and ethics. In Field and Laboratory Methods in Primatology: A Practical Guide. J. M. Setchell, D. J.Curtis, (eds.). Cambridge University Press.
Wolfe, L. D. and Fuentes, A. 2007. Ethnoprimatology: Contextualizing human/primate interactions. In Primates in Perspective. Campbell, C., Fuentes, A., Mackinnon, K., Panger, M., and Bearder, S. K. (eds.). Oxford University Press.
Wong, C. L. and Chow, G. 2004. Preliminary results of trial contraceptive treatment with SpayVacTM on wild monkeys in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Biodiversity: AFCD Newsletter 6: 13–16.
Wrangham, R. W. and Ross, E. 2008. Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Benefits of Long-term Research. Cambridge University Press.
Yanuar, A., Bekti, D., and Saleh, C. 1993. The status of the Karimata primates Presbytis rubicunda carimatae and Macaca fascicularis carimatensis in Karimata Island, Indonesia. Tropical Biodiversity 1: 157–162.