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Index

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 May 2022

Vladislava Stoyanova
Affiliation:
Lunds Universitet, Sweden
Stijn Smet
Affiliation:
Hasselt Universiteit, Belgium

Summary

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NCCreative Common License - ND
This content is Open Access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/cclicenses/

Index

Act LVIII on the Epidemiological Preparedness (Hungary), 227228
Act on Foreigners (2013) (Poland), 245248
Act on Granting Protection to Foreigners in the Republic of Poland (2003), 245248, 252253
Act on Succession (Sweden), 344353
administrative law
alien detention and, 369371
discretion and legality bonus, 365374
humanitarian visas and, 371373
inadmissible asylum applications, 373374
independence in Sweden of, 344353
legal resilience and, 374376
limited abilities of, 3941, 46
populism and, 356361
qualities of, 361365
subversion of legal resilience by, 355376
admission to territory
contestation of, 6465
as empirical fact, 7076
humanitarian visa program and, 122
in Hungary, 194195, 219220, 224227
infringement proceedings, 176179
migrants’ right to, 5861
in Poland, 252254
Spanish exclaves case and, 130133
waving through, 135137
Afghanistan, EU informal cooperation with, 148149
aging populations
economic growth decrease and, 9596, 103104
impact on labor of, 102
inequality growth and, anti-immigration politics and, 108111
migration law and, 101103, 111113
as norm, 114
relative disadvantage and, 110
restrictive migration policies and, 2021, 42
Åkesson, Jimmie, 337338
Aksoy, Y., 103104
Aleinikoff, T. Alexander, 331332
Aliens Act (Belgium), 314315
detention of children in, 324326
integration as residence condition in, 319320
international protections in, 316318
removal based on public order or national security in, 318319
Aliens Act (Sweden), 339343
Aliens’ Law Amendment Act (FrÄG) (Austria), 286288, 290291
Alternative für Deutschland, 110
American Revolution, peoplehood in, 8992
Ammer, Margit, 2324, 37, 45, 280300
Anlandeplattformen (docking platforms), Austrian proposal for, 284286
Annual Monitoring Cycle (European Commission Mechanism), 174176
Annual Rule of Law Report (European Commission), 174176
anti-concentration principle, 2930
anti-growth norm, restrictive migration policies and, 113114
anti-immigration parties
aging and inequality and growth of, 108111
migration crises and growth of, 304305
anti-pluralism, populism and, 20, 334336
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, 155158
Aristotle, 8687
Asylum Act (Hungary)
amendments to, 222224
mass migration crisis and changes to, 224227
Sections 80/A-80K of, 224227
asylum law
Austrian order and security rhetoric and, 283284
Belgian Asylum Act, 316318
Belgian Constitutional Court challenges to, 315322
Belgian Council of State and challenges to, 322326
Belgian optimization of, 313314
Belgian securitization provisions and, 318319
coercion of asylum seekers in, 150154
Dublin Regulation and, 135137
enforcement deficit in, 3839, 43, 145147
EU constitutional crisis and, 139140
EU governance challenges concerning, 142149
EU relocation decision, 134135
Europeanization of, 162164
EU-Turkey agreement and, 205206
evolution in Hungary of, 219220
in Hungary, 195197, 201203, 222230
legal status of, 76n.14
Member States’ noncompliance with protections for, 143145
in New EU Pact on Migration and Asylum, 150154
ÖVP-FPÖ coalition (Austria) and, 281290
in Poland, 238240, 244256
populism and, 158164
repoliticization of, 160161
Swedish constitutional framework for, 344354
Swedish migration restrictions and, 339343
Swedish pre-2015 migration policies and, 338339
transit zones in Hungary and, 201203
undermining in Belgium of, 314315
zero asylum seekers proposals and, 284286
Asylum Procedures Directive
administrative law and, 371373
administrative law denial of free legal assistance, 373374
Belgian refugee protections and, 316318
noncompliance with, 146147
asylum seekers
admission to territory for, 5861
rights of, in Austria, 286288
Australia, no way migration policy in, 265267
Austria
avoidance of democratic decay in, 25
constitutional law in, 296299
democratic decay in, 294296
Federal Agency for Care and Support Services in, 286290
Government Programme of 2017-2022 283, 286288
legal resilience in, 37, 296299
migrants’ rights and democratic decay in, 2324, 45, 280300
noncompliance proceedings against, 145147
order and security rhetoric on asylum in, 283284
populism in, 292294
restrictions on internationally protected refugees in, 290291
restrictive migration policy of ÖVP-FPÖ coalition in, 281290
zero asylum seekers as policy goal in, 284286
Austrian Constitution, 45
legal resilience and, 296299
authoritarian populism. See also executive aggrandizement; specific countries, e.g., Hungary
anti-concentration principle and, 2930
Belgian constitutional resistance to, 303312
Belgian robust constitutional framework and resistance to, 305310
crisis in democracy and, 12
defined, 1112
democratic decay and, 3334
instrumentalization of migration by, 1419
rule of law and, 356361
autocratisation
constitutional narratives for, 218220
criminalisation of asylum assistance and, 228230
democratic decay as, 1214
legal resilience and, 2734
migration as context for, 224230
backslidng in rule of law
anti-immigrant politics and, 299
assessment of tools for countering, 186
Belgian constitutional resilience against, 311312
EU action to limit, 165186
EU legal resilience and, 167176
funding conditionality as response to, 182185
Hungarian asylum law and, 194203
Basic Law on Social Assistance (Austria), 290291
Bélanger, A., 107
Belgian Maritime Code (2019), 316
Belgium
access to international protection and reception conditions in, 323324
administrative fees for residence applications in, 322, 326328
appeals procedures in asylum law, 320
constitutional resistance against authoritarian populism in, 303312
co-optation of populist polices by political parties in, 311312
Council of State challenges to asylum law in, 322326
democratic decay in, 301303
deterioration of legislative process in, 314315
erosion of migrants’ rights in, 312328
integration as residence condition in asylum law, 319320
international protections in asylum law of, 316318
legal resilience in, 2045
legislative challenges in Constitutional Court of, 315322
migrants’ rights in, 2045
migration politics in, 312313
optimization of asylum legislation in, 313314
political parties power in, 309310
populism in, 1112, 301329
proportional representation in electoral system of, 305307
resistance against migrants’ rights in, 301329
robust constitutional framework in, 305310
securitization provisions in asylum law of, 318319
separation of powers protections in, 307308
sham family relations in asylum law of, 320322
terrorist attacks in, 237
Vlaams Belang party in, 303305
Benhabib, Seylah, 5657, 6465
Bermeo, Nancy, 1314
birth rate, population aging and, 102103
Bistieva and others v. Poland, 254256
‘Blueprint for Action’ (European Commission), 174176
Boese, Vanessa, 2728
border control policies
Hungarian asylum law and, 224227
as immobilisation tool, 7880
in New EU Pact on Migration and Asylum, 150154
noncompliance with migrant law and, 144145
in Poland, 252253
Spanish enclaves case, 130133
border detention, EU migration law and, 124127
Bosniak, Linda, 7273
Boubtane, E., 105
bounded community
liberal democracy and, 5458
breakdown resilience, 2728
Bresson, Samantha, 55n.37
Bruni, M., 107108
Bulgaria, noncompliance with CEAS by, 143145
bundle-rights, citizenship status and, 8384
Cap Anamur case, 272273n.38
categorization of people, administrative law and, 361365
Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries, populism in, 1011
Chahal v. United Kingdom, 6162
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU, 121124, 169170
infringement proceedings and, 146147
violations of, 176179, 181182
children, detention of
Belgian asylum law and, 324326
Swedish asylum law and, 350353
Chinese fertility declines, immigration flows and, 107108
Christian Democratic and Flemish (CD&V) states party, 326
citizenship
legal status concepts and, 7376
migration and laws of, 9293
population design and fabrication of, 8085
terminology of, 88n.36
civil law, administrative law and, 361365
civil society organizations
Austrian legal resilience and, 296299
Belgian resistance to migrants’ rights erosion and, 313314
Hungarian criminalization of, 230
ÖVP-FPÖ coalition (Austria) attacks on, 292
class politics, Italian anti-migration policies and, 263265
Clements, B., 102103, 107108
closed ports policy (Italy)
criminalisation of search and rescue activities and, 270271
establishment of, 263265
international law and, 265267
litigation involving, 269270
Security Decree and, 267268
coalition governments, prevalence in Belgium of, 305307
Code of Conduct for NGOs, Italian migration policies and, 273
collective vs. individual dichotomy, liberal democracy and stress of, 5152
colonialism
EU migration law and, 97
privileging of state interests over human rights and, 39, 4243
Commissioner for Children’s Rights (Poland), 241242
Commissioner General for Refugees and Stateless Persons (Belgium), 316318
Commission of Advice for Foreigners (Belgium), 318319
Commission Vice President for the ‘European Way of Life,’ 189190, 193194
Commission v. Poland, 169170
Committee Against Torture (CAT), 252253
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD), 251256
Committee on the Rights of the Child, 254256
Belgian asylum law and, 326328
Common European Asylum System (CEAS)
collapse of, 140142
democracy and rule of law, implications of violations, 179180
infringement proceedings and, 176179
Member States’ noncompliance with, 143145
New EU Pact on Migration and Asylum and, 150154, 160161
noncompliance with, 146147
Polish migration law and, 245248
systematic noncompliance with, 139140
Common Man’s Front (Fronte dell’Uomo Qualunque (Italy), 259263
Common Provision Regulation (CPR), 183
Constitutional Court (Austria), 45, 296299
Constitutional Court (Belgium), 308309
international protection of refugees in Belgian Asylum Act and, 316318
legislative challenges in, 315322
constitutional crises
autocratisation and, 218220
Europeanization and, 162164
migration in EU as, 43, 139164
constitutional law
anti-concentration principle, 2930
Austrian legal resilience and, 296299
Belgian constitutional resistance to populism and, 303312
Belgian robust constitutional framework in, 305310
Hungarian constitutional developments and, 219220
Italian populism and, 262263
legal resilience and, 2829
liberal democracy and, 5053
migrant law and, 45
Polish democratic decay and, 238240
populism and, 1618, 6869, 335336
Swedish migrant policies and, 344353
Conte, Giuseppe, 259263
contrario construction, EU migrant law and, 136137
Cooley, T., 103104
Council for Alien Law Litigation (Belgium), 320
Council of Europe (CoE)
Hungarian re-democratisation and, 232233
legal resilience and, 41
Council of Legislation (Sweden), 37
Council of National Media (Poland), 240
Council of State (Belgium)
challenges to asylum law in, 322326
families in asylum law challenges and, 321322
political undermining of, 314315
Council of the European Union, EU relocation decision, 134135
Council on Legislation (Sweden), 344353
Court of Cassation (Italy), 37, 269270, 274277
Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), 39
CEAS infringement cases, 146147
EU Common Foreign and Security Policy and Development Cooperation and, 155158
EU governance of migrant rights and, 142n.17
EU relocation decision, 134135
EU-Turkey agreement, 120121
humanitarian visa program, 121124
Hungarian asylum cases, 222224
Hungarian infringement proceedings and, 203
infringement proceedings, 168170, 173, 181182
Italian migration cases, 277279
Member States actions against other Member States, 170171
migration case law and, 4243
rule of law and, 203208
COVID-19 pandemic
in Belgium, 301302
Italian migration policy and, 277
restrictive migration measures linked to, 176179
criminalisation of asylum-seekers, migrants and NGOs
Hungarian legislation for, 195197, 201203, 222230
Italian criminalisation of search and rescue activities, 270271
Italian “no way” model and, 259279
criminal law, administrative law and, 361365, 374376
crisis framework
Austrian order and security rhetoric on asylum and, 283284
emergency framing of migrant crisis, 3536, 4243, 118119
EU political transformation and, 165166
Hungarian restrictive migration policy and use of, 44, 195197, 216218, 225227
Orbán’s use of, 44, 213
populism and, 1011, 334336
Swedish migrant rights policies and, 330333, 339343
Croatia
Dublin Regulation and, 135137
noncompliance proceedings against, 145147
Cross-Party Committee of Inquiry on Migration (Sweden), 339343
Czech Republic
EU relocation programme challenged by, 198201
infringement proceedings against, 176179, 248251
noncompliance proceedings against, 146147
Data Protection Authority, 316318
Dauvergne, Catherine, 330
De Block, Maggie, 313314, 323324
De Cleen, Benjamin, 910
de lege ferenda principles, 180186
de lege lata principles, 180186
democracy
decline of, 12
de lege lata and de lege ferenda and, 180186
EU constitutional crisis and, 140142
human rights and protection of, 52n.15, 292
in Hungary, 219220
Member States’ disrespect for, 167176
in political thought, 8687
populism’s undermining of, 712
Schmitt’s interwar theory of, 214215
democratic decay (democratic backsliding)
ageing population and, 9596, 111113
in Austria, 294296
Belgian constitutional resistance to, 303312
in Belgium, 301303
constitutional law and, 1618
definition of, 714
in Europe, 3
European Union constitutional crisis and, 2122
human rights and, 1925
incremental and purposive aspects of, 1214
legal resilience scholarship and, 2734
majority views on processes of, 1925
migrant crisis and, 5
migrants’ rights in context of, 1823, 4445
peoplehood concept in populism and, 8992
in Poland, 1314, 2023, 2829, 237240, 243244
populism and migration interrelationship with, 527, 3334, 356361
protections against, 236237
restrictive migration policies and, 2021, 44
rule of law and migration policy and, 190191
democratic iteration, jurisgenerative politics and, 5657
Démocratie Nationale (Belgium), 305307
demographic change, economic change, 101103
demos, in political thought, 8687
Denmark
noncompliance proceedings against, 145147
noncompliance with migrant law and, 144145
zero asylum seekers proposals and, 285
Dennison, James, 304305
De Ridder, Maaike, 3839, 43, 165186
Desmet, Ellen, 1112, 2045, 301329, 372373
detention
administrative law and, 369371
Austrian security detention initiative, 288
in Belgian Asylum Act, 316318
of children, Belgian asylum law and, 324326
Hungarian transit zones as, 201203
Hungarian violations of directives on, 225227
Italian illegitimate deprivation of personal liberty aboard ships as, 270271
migrants’ rights and, 6162
in Poland, 254256
deterrence against immigration law, state’s rights vs family life, 6364
Deutsche Welle, 231234
Diciotti case, 270271
discretion, administrative law and, 365374
disembarkations following search and rescue
Anlandeplattformen (docking platforms) proposal, 284286
Italian violations of, litigation involving, 269271
regulation of, 154155
diversity, migrants’ rights and democratic decay linked to, 20
Dixon, Roslind, 311312
Dublin Regulation
asylum law and, 135137
challenges to, 193194
establishment of, 98
EU relocation decision and, 134135
failure of, 203208
Member States relations in, 151154
New EU Pact on Migration and Asylum and, 150154
noncompliance with migrant law and, 143145
Polish opposition to, 250, 254256
repeal of, 150n.59
D. v. Poland, 253254
economic growth
ageing population and slowing of, 9596, 103104
demise in EU of, 9496
demographic change and, 101103
immigration and increase in, 105108
labour mobility linked to, 101103
economic migration, Italian targeting of, 263265
EEC Treaty (1957), 119
effet utile principle, Hungarian re-democratisation and, 232233
elections
Belgian anti-migrant politics and, 301303
as extra-legal shifts in power, 4445
ÖVP-FPÖ coalition success in, 281290
proportional representation in Belgium and, 305307
Swedish Democrats’ success in, 342343
Vlaams Belang party in Belgium and, 304305
elites, populist criticism of, 334336
emergency powers
EU relocation decision, 134135
informalization of migration policy in framework of, 147149
migrant crisis in context of, 3536, 4243, 118119
migration law and, 118119, 134138
emigration, populism and impact of, 110
empirical facts
defined, 7072
migration and, 9293
enforcement deficit in EU law
asylum law and, 3839, 43, 145147
design and functionality problems and, 203208
Engel and Others v. Netherlands, 267268
environmental law
legal resilience in, 3032
threat in, 3334
ERTA doctrine, 120121
EU citizens, anti-migrant targeting of, 189190
EU Common Foreign and Security Policy and Development Cooperation, 155158
EU Migration Agenda, 205206
European Agenda on Migration, 198201
European Asylum Support Office, 162164
European Border and Coast Guard Agency, 162164
European Commission
enforcement deficit by, 145147
Hungarian re-democratisation and, 232233
infringement proceedings, 38, 145147, 168170
Member States actions against other Member States, 170171
migration crisis and, 3839
noncompliance with migrant law and, 143145, 171174
proactive policies of, 161162n.101
procedure against Hungarian criminalisation of asylum assistance, 228230
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)
Austria and, 296299
border detention and, 124127
detention and, 6162
failure legal resilience and, 3941
family life right, 6364
humanitarian visa program and, 123124
Hungarian asylum violations of, 225227
island detention conditions and, 127130
local migration requirements, 127133
migrant rights limitations in, 118119
non-refoulement principle, 5861
Polish migrant policies and, 253256
Spanish enclaves case, 130133
Swedish asylum law and, 350353
European Council
Conclusions from June 2018 284286
remedial procedures against noncompliance and, 172174
European Council Summit (2020), 183186
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), 39
admission to territory rulings, 5861
Belgian asylum law and, 318319
border detention and, 124127
detention cases and, 6162, 324326
humanitarian visa program and, 123124
Hungarian re-democratisation and, 233
island detention conditions and, 127130
Italian migration cases, 277279
judicial Independence cases and, 202n.95
Khalifa judgment, 117118
migrant rights and, 4445, 5758
migration case law and, 4243
Polish migrant policies and, 253254
restrictive migration policies and, 3839, 4243
Sea Watch 3 litigation, 269270
Spanish enclaves case, 130133
European integration, migration law and, 96101
Europeanization, constitutional crises and, 162164
European Parliament
Hungarian re-democratisation and, 232233
informal agreements and bypassing of, 148149
remedial procedures against noncompliance and, 172174
European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIFs), withholding of, for noncompliance with migrant law, 183
European Union (EU)
Afghanistan informal cooperation with, 148149
ageing populations of Member States, 42, 9496
constitutional crisis, migration as, 43, 139164
crises and political transformation in, 165166
demise of economic model in, 9496
design of rule of law in, 203208
economic growth and labour mobility in, 106107
external factors in law of, 3536
failure legal resilience in, 3941
foundational norms of migration law in, 96101
governance challenges for migration and asylum in, 142149
human rights law and legal resilience in, 3839
Hungarian re-democratisation efforts and, 232233
Italian populism and, 262263
law and legal resilience in, 38
legal resilience in, 41, 176180
local migration requirements vs. migration law, 127133
migrant law enforcement deficit in, 3839, 43, 145147
migration policies in, 2122, 43
Polish migration policies and, 248251
populism and crisis in democracy in, 12
status of values in legal system of, 191194
third country national status in, 82
toolbox for legal resilience in, 167176
EU Treaties framework, sidelining of, 3536
EU-Turkey agreement
emergency framing of migrant crisis and, 3536
ERTA doctrine and, 120121
EU rule of law and, 205206
informal cooperation in, 147149
mixed signals from, 179180
visa-free travel and, 9899
exclusive boundaries
liberal democracies and, 5458
migrants’ rights and, 4950
executive branch of government
anti-concentration principle and aggrandizement of, 2930
Belgian distrust of, 307308
legal resilience and, 3639
extraterritorial cooperation on migration control, admission to territory rights and, 5861
Facility for Refugees in Turkey, 205206
family reunification
Belgian asylum law and, 320322, 324326
migrants’ right to, 6364
Swedish migration restrictions and, 339343
Fawcett, J. E. S., 119
Federal Agency for Care and Support Services (Austria), 286290
Federal Agency for the Reception of Asylum Seekers (Fedasil, Belgium), 323324
federalisation process, Belgian electoral system and, 305307
fertility stimulation, population ageing and, 102103
Fidesz-KDNP party, 197198, 211213
Flemish Agency for Integration and Civic Integration, 326328
flexible solidarity systems, in Regulation on Asylum and Migration Management, 154155
floodgates argument, limits on migrant rights and, 151154
FMS and others, 226
Framework to Strengthen the Rule of Law (European Commission), 172, 174176
France
noncompliance proceedings against, 145147
noncompliance with migrant law and, 144145
terrorist attacks in, 237
Francken, Theo, 313315, 323324
Free Cities Pact, 231234
freedom of movement, norm in EU law of, 97
Freedom of the Press Act (Sweden), 344353
Freedom Party of Austria (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ). See ÖVP-FPÖ coalition (Austria)
free legal assistance, administrative law denial of, 373374
French Revolution, peoplehood in, 8992
FRONTEX, 189190, 201203
Front National (Belgium), 305307
Fundamental Law (Hungary), 215216, 219220
Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression (Sweden), 344353
fundamental rights, Swedish protections of, 350353
Fundamental Rights Agency, 254256
funding conditionality rules, Member State noncompliance and, 182185, 232233
Gagnon, Jean-Paul, 333334
Ganty, Sarah, 189190
Gardbaum, Stephen, 305
Gauja, Anika, 311312
Geddes, Andrew, 304305
generational change, liberalization of immigration policies and, 109
Geneva Convention on Status of Refugees, 219220
German language courses, Austrian barriers to, for asylum seekers, 290291
Germany, noncompliance proceedings against, 145147
Ghezelbach case, 151154
Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, 12
Austria and, 286, 299300
Belgian endorsement of, political fallout over, 312313
Polish rejection of, 248251
“good change” framework, autocratisation of Poland and, 237238
Gorgias from Leontinoi, 83
governance structure of EU, challenges of migration and asylum and, 142149
Government Plenipotentiary for Equal Treatment, 240241
Grabowska-Moroz, Barbara, 43, 187208
Grand Chamber judgments
border detention, 124127
Dublin regulation and, 135137
Hungarian asylum cases, 225227
island detention conditions, 127130
Spanish enclaves case, 130133
Greece
Dublin Regulation and, 135137
EU relocation decision and, 134135
noncompliance proceedings against, 145147
noncompliance with CEAS by, 143145
Gregoretti case, 270271
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
EU immigration and, 106107
immigration impact on, 105
Haider, Jörg, 282
Hailbronner, M., 140142
hard on the outside-soft on the inside approach, migrant rights and, 6465
Heimat (home land) rhetoric, Austrian asylum policies and, 283284
Hellström, Anders, 336338
Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights, 255256
Henriksen, E., 103104
Hirsi Jamaa and Others v Italy, 5861
homogeneity, peoplehood and populist concepts of, 8687
Huber, P., 106107
humanitarian assistance
Italian migration law and omission of, 275276
Polish rejection of, 248251
humanitarian visa program, 121124
administrative law and, 371373
Belgian disregard of judicial authority and, 326328
human rights law
absence in Belgium of, 309310
Austrian Constitution and, 296299
Austrian laws as violations of, 286288
autocratisation and oppression of, 219
bounded communities and, 5456n.29
community-transcending validity of, 5558
democratic decay and, 17, 1925, 292
EU rule of law crisis and, 187191
Hungarian asylum system violations of, 224230
justification for restrictive migration measures in, 4243
legal resilience and, 3839
limited scope in EU application of, 191193
Polish abrogation of, 241242, 251256
populism research and, 1419
privileging of state interests over, 39
protection of democracy and, 52n.15
transnationalism and, 53
Humby, Tracy-Lynn, 31
Hungarian Helsinki Committe, 201203
Hungary
anti-migration policies in, 3
assaults on democracy in, 2829
asylum law in, 190191, 195197, 201203, 211235
authoritarian populism in, 12, 1112, 194195, 211213
border detention cases and, 124127
constitutional developments in, 219220
criminalisation of asylum-seekers, migrants and NGOs in, 195197, 201203, 228230
democratic and legal resistance possibilities in, 231234
democratic decay and migrant rights in, 1314, 2223
enforcement deficit in EU law and defiance of, 203208
EU relocation programme challenged by, 134135, 198201
exclusion of asylum access in, 227228
Fundamental Law in, 216218
infringement proceedings against, 169170, 176179, 198199
mass migration crisis and asylum system in, 224227
noncompliance proceedings against, 145147
noncompliance with CEAS by, 143145
ordinary asylum system, 222224
re-democratisation efforts in, 232233
regular migration policy in, 220222
restrictive immigration policies in, 3839
rule of law backsliding and migration crisis rhetoric i, 146147, 194203
supranational remedies for authoritarianism in, 39
transit zones in, 150, 227228
ideational populism, 8
Identitäre Bewegung (Austria), 286
identity politics
citizenship status and, 8485
Otherness and, 6567
plurality vs. unity dichotomy and, 5253
populism and, 1011
Schmittian theory and, 214215
static membership of populism and, 6567
Ilias & Ahmed v. Hungary, 124127, 225227, 233
immigration. See also migration
economic growth linked to, 105108
population ageing and, 102103
immobilisation
border control policies as tool for, 7880
of third country nationals, 99101
inclusion vs. exclusion
family life and, 6364
liberal democracies and, 5458
migrants’ rights and, 4950
from migration to takeover, 6465
India, persecution of Assam migrants in, 8384
individual rights, collective vs. individual dichotomy and, 5152
inequality, ageing and, anti-immigration politics, 108111
informal cooperation
as migrant governance paradigm, 147149
third state cooperation and, 155158
infringement proceedings
convergence of states on, 139162
democracy and rule of law and, 179180
enforcement deficit and absence of, 145147
European Commission proceedings, 38
EU rule of law and, 203208
Hungarian criminalisation of asylum assistance, 228230
Hungarian re-democratisation and, 232233
against Hungary, 169170, 176179, 198199, 226227
nuclear option (Article 7 TEU), 171174, 176179, 232233
against Poland, 248251
TEU Article 7 and, 176179
TFEU procedures, 168171
inhumane treatment of asylum seekers, Hungarian migrant policies and, 226227
institutional facts
defined, 7072
legal thinking on, 7273
Instruments of Government (Sweden), 344353
integration norm
in Belgian asylum law, 319320
EU enforcement deficit and viability of, 146147
EU foundation on, 96101
EU migration law and, 2122
labour market integration, 107
migration and asylum governance and, 142149
recent challenges to, 193194
Swedish migration policies and, 339343
International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 265267
International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR), 265267
international law
Austrian constitutional law and, 296299
Italian closed ports policy and, 265267
migration and failure of, 7880
Polish restrictive migration policies and, 248251
international protection of refugees
Austrian restrictions on, 290291
in Belgium, 316318, 323324
in Sweden, 338339
interstate disputes, 170171, 232233
island detention conditions, local migration requirements and, 127130
Italy
admission to territory rulings in, 5861
avoidance of democratic decay in, 25
closed ports policy of, 263267, 269270
constitutional law in, 262263
criminal charges for deprivation of personal liberty, 270271
criminalisation of search and rescue activities by, 270271
Government of change in, 276277
history of migration policies in, 263265
illegitimate deprivation of personal liberty aboard ships by, 270271
Italian “no way” model of populism in, 259279
judicial independence, 274276
legal resilience in, 37
Libyan Memorandum of Understanding with, 263265, 276277
migrant rights, 277279
noncompliance proceedings against, 143147
populism in, 259263, 276277
Security Decree by, 267268
Iuventa case, 273
Jagielski, Mariusz, 2023, 4445, 236258
Japan, ageing population and economic growth in, 103104
Joint Way Forward on Migration Issues, 148149
judicial independence
Austrian asylum law and, 288
Belgian constitutional framework for, 308309
Belgian disregard of, 326328
Belgian resistance to migrants’ rights erosion and, 312328
democratic decay and dismantling of, 17
EU law and, 202n.95
EU rule of law crisis and, 187191
Italian migrant law and, 274276
ÖVP-FPÖ coalition (Austria) attacks on, 292
Polish threat to, 174, 239240
judicial review
EU Common Foreign and Security Policy and Development Cooperation and, 155158
limits on migrant rights and, 151154
jurisdiction thresholds, admission to territory rights and, 5861
Kaczyński, Jarosław, 237240
Kaltwass, Cristóbal Rovira, 8
Kelemen, Daniel, 174176, 183
Khalifa and others v. Italy, 117118, 127130, 270271
Khattabi, Zabia, 309n.43
Kirchmair, Lando, 2324, 37, 45, 280300
Kochenov, Dimitry Vladimirovich, 43, 187208
Konsta, A. M., 214
Koskenniemi, Marti, 5558
Kostakopoulou, Dora, 4950, 5253, 6567, 7273
Kovács, Kriszta, 912, 2223, 44, 211235
Kurz, Sebastian, 281284, 286288
labour force
ageing population and decline in, 102104
Austrian access for asylum seekers reduced, 286288
labour mobility, economic growth and, 101103
Laclau, Ernesto, 86
Lampedusa detention center, EU judgments on, 127130
Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość – PiS) (Poland), 237240
media campaigns by, 247248
restrictive migration policies of, 246247
Lazaridis, G., 214
left-wing populism, 9n.35
Lega (Italy), 259263, 276277
legality, principle of
administrative law and, 365374
Swedish constitutional framework and, 344353
legal resilience. See also resilience
administrative law subversion of, 355376
in Austria, 296299
counter-playbook against democratic decay, 2829
definition and working hypotheses concerning, 2734
domestic sources, 44
in environmental law, 3032
EU rule of law, 203208
EU toolbox for, 167180
external factors in limits on, 3536
harnessing potential for, 3639
informal agreements as threat to, 149
in national case studies, 4142, 44
Poland and absence of, 256258
populist onslaught and, 3334
potentials and limitations of, 2741
scholarly approaches to, 3441
sources of, 3639
Swedish constitutional framework and, 344353
TEU Article 7 and infringement actions, 176179
theoretical and critical perspectives on, 41
legal theory
institutional facts in, 7273
Scandinavian legal realism and, 7376
legislative branch of government
Belgian Constitutional Court and challenges to, 315322
Belgium and power of, 309310
deteriorating quality in Belgium of, 314315
legal resilience and, 3639
transparency in Sweden of, 348349
legislative process, migrant rights and, 73
LePen, Marine, 305307
Leveller movement, 8992
Lex CEU (Hungary), 169170
liberal accumulation logic, EU migration law and, 99
liberal democracy
constitutional law and, 1618
inclusion and exclusion, 5458
inherent tensions in, 5053
populism as threat to, 1516
resilience of, 2829
Libya, Italian Memorandum of Understanding with, 263265, 276277
liminal legality, spaces of, 36
Lind, Anna-Sara, 1012, 22, 2425, 37, 4546, 330354
local migration requirements, EU deference to, 127133
Spanish enclaves case, 130133
Löfven, Stefan, 339343
Loughlin, Martin, 335336
Loxa, Alezini, 2122, 3536, 3839, 43, 139164
Lucia decision (1989), 338339
Maestas, N., 101103, 106107
Mahdi, Sammy, 326
Malta
asylum relocation policies, 276n.47
noncompliance proceedings against, 143147
Marchant, Gary, 31
Mare Ionio case, 274275n.43
Mare Nostrum operation, 265267
Marshall, T. H., 88n.36
Martinico, Giuseppe, 37, 259279
McCrea, Ronan, 159
media
Belgian populist campaigns in, 312313
democratic decay and role of, 1314
Hungarian silencing of, 230234
ÖVP-FPÖ coalition (Austria) attacks on, 292
Polish state control of, 236237, 240, 247248
populist attacks on, 6, 910
state silencing of, 12
Member States
ageing populations in, 42, 9496
convergence of migrant policies in, 139162
enforcement deficit against noncompliance by, 145147
EU constitutional crisis and, 43, 140142
EU political transformation and, 165166
European Commission rule of law review, 174176
flexible solidarity concept and, 154155
governance challenges for migration and asylum and nationalism in, 142149
infringement proceedings against, 176179
interstate disputes, 170171, 232233
limits on migrant rights sought by, 151154
New EU Pact on Migration and Asylum and, 150154
noncompliance with EU migrant law, 143145, 167176
populism and migrant law in, 158164
remedial procedures against noncompliance and, 172174
rule of law crisis in, 187191
withholding of funding for noncompliant states, 182185
Merkel, Angela, 281283
Michalak, Marek, 241242
Michel, Charles, 312313
MIDEM study, 110
migrants’ rights
administrative law and curtailment of, 3941
admission to territory, 5861
Belgian erosion of, 312328
democratic decay separated from, 527
detention and, 6162
EU failure to uphold, 140142
EU governance challenges concerning, 142149
EU migration law and, 112
European case law on, 4243
family life, 6364
historical origins of restrictions on, 2243
Hungarian anti-migration policies and, 3
inclusion and exclusion boundaries in, 42, 4950, 5458
Italian illegitimate deprivation of personal liberty aboard ships as, 270271
law and curtailment of, 7880
legal resilience as protection for, 3639
legal undermining of, 3441
from migration to takeover, 6465
ÖVP-FPÖ coalition (Austria) and, 280300
Polish abrogation of, 240243
populism’s impact on, 12, 527
restrictions on, 2021
sights of contestation, 5865
supranational analysis of, 2122
Swedish policy and erosion of, 330354
transfer decision challenges, 151154
migration. See also immigration
autocratisation in context of, 224230
economic growth linked to, 9496
as EU constitutional crisis, 43, 139164
impact on EU democratic values and rule of law, 167176
as institutional fact, 9293
Italian populism and, 259263
legal meaning of, 78
mobility and, 7678
Polish elections and issue of, 237238
Swedish pre-2015 migration policies, 338339
transnationalism and, 53
Migration Court of Appeal (Swedish), 350353
migration crisis
cross-national comparisons of populism and, 1419
emergency framing of rhetoric on, 3536, 4243
EU rule of law resilience and, 203208
as policy or fabrication, 80
migration exceptionalism, 15n.61
migration law
administrative law and, 361365
ageing and, 101103, 111113
border detention and, 124127
colonialism and, 97
convergence of migrant policies and, 139162
criminalisation of asylum assistance under, 195197, 201203, 228230
democratic decay and, 1516
emergency powers and, 134138
enforcement deficit in, 3839, 43, 145147
EU foundational norms in, 96101
EU Member States’ noncompliance with, 143145
Europeanization of, 162164
EU-Turkey agreement and, 205206
Hungarian regular migration policy, 220222
informal cooperation as paradigm in, 147149
Italian populism and, 263265
local requirements deference in, 127133
Member States’ noncompliance with, 143145
non-application in EU of, 120127
in Poland, 244256
population design, 8085
populism and, 158164
populism research and, 1419
repoliticization of, 160161
restrictive migration policies and, 2527, 6869
scholarship on, 45
violations of primary and secondary law, 176179
wave-through policy and, 135137
Migration Partnership Framework, 148149
migratory pressure, regulation in response to, 154155
Mikołajczyk , Barbara, 4445, 236258
Mindus, Pat, 911, 20, 3942
MK and others v. Poland, 224225
M.K. and others v. Poland, 253254
M.N. and Others v. Belgium, 123124, 133
mobility
migration and, 7678
of Western nationals, 99
Moffitt, Benjamin, 333334
money, Scandinavian legal realist metaphor of, 7778
most exceptional circumstances test, family life claims and, 6364
MoVimento 5 stelle (Italy), 259263, 276277
MSS v. Belgium and Greece, 143145
Mudde, Cas, 8, 301302, 333334
Mueller, Jan-Werner, 333336
Mullen, K., 101103, 106107
Müller, Jan-Werner, 10, 8687, 292
multiannual financial framework (MFF), compliance with migrant law tied to, 182185
Multiannual Financial Framework for 2021-2027 183186
Muslim refugees, Polish anti-migrant campaigns against, 247248
Nagy, Boldizsár, 912, 2223, 44, 211235
National Action Programme for Equal Treatment, 240241
national case studies, legal resilience in, 4142, 44
National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television (Poland), 240
nationalism
governance challenges for migration and asylum and, 142149
in Hungarian migration policy, 220222
populism and, 910
restrictive migration policy and, 44
nativist populism, 910
ageing and, 108109
cross-national comparisons of, 1419
N.D. and N.T. v. Spain, 130133, 224225
New EU Pact on Migration and Asylum
development of, 149158
flexible solidarity in, 154155
normalization of noncompliance and, 160161
solidification of asylum, border control and return procedures in, 150154
third state cooperation in, 155158
Next Generation EU recovery fund, 183186
NGOs
criminalisation of asylum assistance by, 195197, 201203, 228230
Italian ban on assistance vessels of, 265267
Polish government attacks on, 242243
resistance to anti-asylum repression, 231234
Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie (N-VA-New Flemish Alliance), 304307, 309n.43
attacks on judicial authority by, 326328
criticism of Global Compact by, 312313
Nilsson, Tom, 336338
Nishimura Ekiu case (US Supreme Court), 97n.2
Noll, Gregor, 2021, 3536, 42, 5456n.29, 5558, 94114, 160161
noncompliance with migrant law
benefits of, for noncompliant states, 179180
CEAS collapse and, 139140
funding sanctions for, 182185
by Member States, 143147
normalization of, 160161
preventive procedures against, 257
remedial procedures against, 172174
systematic noncompliance, 226
non-refoulement principle, 55n.37, 253254
admission to territory and, 5861
Italian closed ports policy, 265267
Swedish administrative independence and, 344353
Swedish migrant rights policy and, 330
Norway
noncompliance proceedings against, 145147
noncompliance with migrant law and, 144145
N.S. and others case, 143145
nuclear option (TEU Article 7), 171174, 176179, 232233
objectivity, principle of, Swedish constitutional framework and, 344353
old-age dependency ratio, net migration demands and, 107108
Ombudsman on the Rights of Persons Deprived of Personal Liberty (Italy), 270271
onset resilience, 2728
Open Arms litigation, Italian closed ports policy and, 269271, 274275n.43
Orbán, Victor
anti-migrant propaganda machine of, 197199
authoritarian regime of, 23, 211213
as authoritarian role model, 259263
criminalisation of asylum assistance under, 195197
crisis of migration framework used by, 44, 213, 216218
infringement proceedings against Hungary and, 169170
othering of migrants
Austrian asylum law and, 299300
Hungarian restrictive migration policy and, 195197, 211213
ÖVP-FPÖ coalition (Austria), 2324, 45, 280300
asylum abuse prevention rhetoric of, 286288
political legacy of, 299300
populism and, 292
restriction of migrant rights by, 281290
restrictions on international protections for refugees, 290291
zero asylum seekers proposals and, 286
ÖVP-Green Party coalition (Austria), 288290, 294296, 299300
Partito democratico (Italy), 261, 276277
Pawlak, Mikołaj, 241242
Pazé, Valentina, 8687, 9192
Pech, Laurent, 191193
People-as-a-part, 7072, 8592
People-as-a-whole, 7072, 8592
peoplehood
political concepts of, 85
populism’s view of, 7072
personal freedom, right to, Italian violation of, 270271
peuple constitué, democratic decay and concept of, 8992
PG case, 222224
Platjouwe, Froukje, 3234
pluralism
democratic decay and criticism of, 9192
populism and, 8n.34
plurality vs. unity dichotomy, liberal democracy and stress of, 5253
Poland
accession to EU, 238240
access to territory in, 252254
asylum and migration law in, 244256
authoritarian populism in, 13
constitutional principles in, 238240
current political and social situation in, 256258
democratic decay in, 1314, 2023, 2829, 237240, 243244
detention in, 254256
EU relocation programme challenged by, 198201
governance restructuring in, 240241
human rights issues in, 241242, 251256
infringement proceedings against, 169170, 176179
judicial independence threatened in, 174
lack of EU solidarity and international cooperation in, 248251
migrant rights in, 1314, 1823, 4445, 237238
noncompliance proceedings against, 146147
political narrative of migration in, 245248
populist government in, 237238, 243244
post-Cold War migrant law in, 238240
rule of law problems in, 146147
supranational remedies for authoritarianism in, 39
Ukrainian migrants in, 244245
xenophobia in, 247, 251252
policy incoherence, in EU migrant law, 159
poliicy responsiveness of mainstream parties, Belgian resistance to populism and, 311312
polis, Aristotle’s concept of, 8687
political strategy
EU migration policy and, 195197
EU relocation programme resistance and, 198201
populism as, 8n.34
political thought, peoplehood and populism in, 8687
Politics (Aristotle), 87
PopSovism (populism and sovereignism), 9n.36
population design
defined, 8081n.22
historical uses of, 8283
migrant policy and, 8085
populism
administrative law and, 365374
ageing population and, 102
age of, 12
in Austria, 292294
in Belgium, 301329
contestation about, 712
cross-national comparisons of, 1419
definitions of, 714, 5053, 334336
democratic decay and migration interrelationship with, 527
democratic ideals and static membership in, 6567
EU migration and asylum law and, 158164
European demographic change and, 111113
Europeanization and, 162164
homogeneity fictions and, 10n.39
ideational approach to, 8
inclusion and exclusion boundaries exploited in, 42, 4950
in Italy, 259263, 276277
liberal democracies and, 51
nationalism and/or xenophobia and, 910
ÖVP-FPÖ coalition (Austria), 280300
peoplehood as viewed by, 7072, 8592
in Poland, 237238, 243244
restrictive migration policies and, 2527, 44, 356361
restrictive migration policy and, 356361
Schmitt’s influence on, 216224
in Sweden, 330333, 336338
Swedish migration policy and, 339343
populism simplicter, 910
pouvoir constituant, people as, 8992
Powell, D., 101103, 106107
power, politics as struggle for, 9192
pre-entry screening, introduction of, 150154
preventive procedures against noncompliance, 172
privacy rights, Belgian asylum law and, 316318
procedural guarantees, migrant law and role of, 154
Procedure Directive (PD) (EU), 219220, 222227
proportionality test
administrative law and, 369371
family life right, 6364
human rights and, 55n.38
proportional representation, Belgian electoral system and, 305307
protectionism
migration law and, 97n.2
restrictive migration policy and, 44
public information, alternative spheres of, 231234
public servant ideal
Swedish administrative independence and, 344353
Swedish legal resilience and, 37
Rackete, Carola, 269270, 274277
radical-right movement, democratic decay and, 3
Radio Free Europe, 231234
Rantos, ‘AG,’ 201203
reception conditions
Belgian asylum laws on, 323324
Hungarian violations involving, 225227
Member States noncompliance with, 146147
Reception Conditions Directive (RCD), 287n.48
Belgian detention legislation and, 316318
Belgian reception legislation and, 323324
Hungarian violations of, 225227
Member States noncompliance with, 146147
Reding, Viviane, 194195
reform blocage, Noll’s concept of, 9496, 113114
refoulement, Italian migration policy and, 259263
refugee status procedures, in Hungary, 222224
Regulation on Asylum and Migration Management, 151, 154
flexible solidarity system in, 154155
third state cooperation and, 155158
Reinfeldt, Fredrik, 339343
relative disadvantage, ageing populations and, 110
Relocation and Resettlement Programme (EU), 134135, 198201, 248251
relocation programme (European Commmission), 198201
remedial procedures against noncompliance, 172174
resilience. See also legal resilience
ecological definition of, 3032
Resolution on the Establishment of an EU Mechanism on Democracy, the Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights, 174176
restrictive migration policy
administrative law and, 361365
as authoritarian instrument, 211213
in Belgium, 301303, 313314
bounded communities and, 5458
cross-national comparisons of, 2527
democratic decay, 356361
democratic decay and, 2021, 2527
economic growth and impact of, 106107
EU constitutional crisis and, 139140
of EU Member States, 140142
human rights law demands for justification of, 42
law scholars’ reaction to, 6869
legal curtailment of restrictions, 3441
legality and discretion and, 365374
legal resilience against, 3334
national case studies in, 44
ÖVP-FPÖ coalition (Austria) and, 281290
political scale of values, 6567
populism and, 356361
resistance in Belgium to, 312328
in Sweden, 338339
Vlaams Belang party advocacy for, 303305
Return Directive, noncompliance with, 146147
return procedures, in New EU Pact on Migration and Asylum, 150154
right-wing populism, 910
cross-national comparisons of, 1419
Roma crisis, rule of law backsliding and, 194195
Ruhl, J. B., 32
rule of law
authoritarian populism and, 356361
Belgian constitutional order and, 311312
crisis in Member States of, 187191
de lege lata and de lege ferenda and, 180186
EU constitutional crisis over migration and, 139140
EU legal resilience and, 203208
EU reinforcement of, 43
European Commission review cycle for, 174176
funding conditionality tied to, 183186
Hungarian interpretation of, 197199
liberal democracy and, 5053
Member States’ disrespect for, 167176
problems in Hungary and Poland with, 146147
Saadi v. United Kingdom, 6162
Sadurski, Wojciech, 292
Sajó, András, 197198
Salvini, Matteo, 259263, 270271, 277279
Schengen Border Code
establishment of, 98
noncompliance with, 144147
Schepple, Kim Lane, 169170, 181