Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 5
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: May 2010

13 - Child Mental Health in the Aftermath of Disaster:

from Part Four - Special Groups

Summary

This chapter deals with disaster mental health research in children, and systematically examines the extant literature, focusing on methodological issues. Children represent the ideal age group to study in order to gain insight into the etiology of psychopathology in the aftermath of disaster. Any postdisaster child assessment should necessarily involve a two-step process, including a detailed characterization of the child's exposure and the possible related reactions. The chapter proposes a three-category disaster typology based on the distribution of different types of disaster exposures. The chapter focuses on reports of reactions related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children after mass traumatic events, with studies being reviewed within the context of the proposed typology. Psychiatric disorders observed in children after large-scale traumatic events include a range of disorders, with PTSD and depression being the most commonly assessed.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

References

AsarnowJ., GlynnS., PynoosR. S., NahumJ., GuthrieD., CantwellD. P., et al. (1999). When the earth stops shaking: Earthquake sequelae among children diagnosed for pre-earthquake psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1016–1023.
BalabanV., (2006). Psychological assessment of children in disasters and emergencies. Disasters, 30, 178–198.
BulutS., BulutS., & TayliA. (2005). The dose of exposure and prevalence rates of post traumatic stress disorder in a sample of Turkish children eleven months after the 1909 Marmara earthquakes. School Psychology International, 26, 55–70.
ComerJ. S., & KendallP. C. (2007). Terrorism: The psychological impact on youth. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 14, 179–212.
CostelloE. J., ErkanliA., KeelerG., & AngoldA. (2004). Distant trauma: A prospective study of the effects of September 11th on young adults in North Carolina. Applied Developmental Science, 8, 211–220.
DavisL., & SiegelL. J. (2000). PTSD in children and adolescents: A review and analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3, 135–154.
DohrenwendB. P. (2006). Inventorying stressful life events as risk factors for psychopathology: Toward resolution of the problem of intracategory variability. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 477–495.
DuarteC. S., BordinI. A. S, GreenR., & HovenW. C. (2009). Measuring child exposure to violence and mental health reactions in epidemiological studies: challenges and current issues. Cienc. Saude Coletiva, 13, 487–496.
DuarteC.S., Hoven, C.W., WuP., CotelS., MandellD.J., NagasawaM., BalabanV, WernikoffL. & MarkensonD., et al. (2006). Posttraumatic stress in children with first responders in their families. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19, 301–306.
DyregrovA., GjestadR., & RaundalenM. (2002). Children exposed to warfare: A longitudinal study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15, 59–68.
FairbrotherG., StuberJ., GaleaS., FleischmanA. R., & PfefferbaumB. (2003). Posttraumatic stress reactions in New York City children after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 3, 304–311.
FremontW. P. (2004). Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 381–392.
GarrisonC. Z., BryantE. S., AddyC. L., SpurrierP. G., FreedyJ. R., & KilpatrickD. G. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents after Hurricane Andrew. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1193–1201.
GiannopoulouI., StrouthosM., SmithP., DikaiakouA., GalanopoulouV., & YuleW. (2006). Post-traumatic stress reactions of children and adolescents exposed to the Athens 1999 earthquake. European Psychiatry, 21, 160–166.
GodeauE., VignesC., NavarroF., IachanR., RossJ., PasquierC., et al. (2005). Effects of a large-scale industrial disaster on rates of symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorders among schoolchildren in Toulouse. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 159, 579–584.
GoenjianA. K., MolinaL., SteinbergA. M., FairbanksL. A., AlvarezM. L., GoenjianH. A., et al. (2001). Posttraumatic stress and depressive reactions among Nicaraguan adolescents after Hurricane Mitch. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 788–794.
HavenaarJ. M., RumyantzevaG. M., Van den BrinkW., PoelijoeN. W., Van den BoutJ., et al. (1997). Long-term mental health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: An epidemiologic survey in two former Soviet regions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1605–1607.
HorowitzM., WilnerN., & AlvarezW. (1979). Impact of Event Scale – Measure of Subjective Stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41, 209–218.
HovenC. W. (2002). Testimony: The United States Senate, Hearing Before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, (Chair, Hillary Rodham Clinton), Children of September 11: The Need for Mental Health Services, June 10, 2002. Senate Hearing No. 107–540, Document No. 552–070–29–035–4. U.S.Government Printing Office.
HovenC. W., DuarteC. S., LucasC. P., MandellD. J., CohenM., RosenC., et al. (2002). Effects of the World Trade Center Attack on NYC public school students: Initial report to the New York City Board of Education. New York: Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health-New York State Psychiatric Institute and Applied Research and Consulting, LLC, New York City.
HovenC. W., DuarteC. S., LucasC. P., WuP., MandellD. J., GoodwinR. D., et al. (2005). Psychopathology among New York City public school children six months after September 11. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 545–552.
HovenC. W., DuarteC. S., & MandellD. J. (2003). Children’s mental health after disasters: The impact of the World Trade Center attack. Current Psychiatry Reports, 5, 101–107.
HovenC. W., MandellD. J., & DuarteS. C. (2003). Mental Health in NYC Public School Children Post 9/11: an Epidemiological Investigation. In S. W. Coates, J. L. Rosenthal, & D. S. Schechter (eds.), September 11: trauma and human bonds. Analytic Press. Hillsdale, N.J.
HovenC. W., MandellD. J., DuarteC. S., WuP., & GiordanoV. (2006). An epidemiological response to disaster: the post 9/11 psychological needs assessment of New York City public school students. In Y. Neria, R. Gross, & R. D. Marshall (eds.), 9/11: mental health in the wake of terrorist attacks. Cambridge University Press,.
KiliçE. Z., OzguvenH. D., & SayilI. (2003). The psychological effects of parental mental health on children experiencing disaster: The experience of Bolu earthquake in Turkey. Family Process, 42, 485–495.
KilpatrickD. G., RuggieroK. J., AciernoR., SaundersB. E., ResnickH. S., & BestC. L. (2003). Violence and risk of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse/dependence, and comorbidity: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 692–700.
KitayamaS., OkadaY., TakumiT., TakadaS., InagakiY., & NakamuraH. (2000). Psychological and physical reactions on children after the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake disaster. The Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences, 46, 189–200.
La GrecaA. M. (2006). School-based studies of children following disasters. In F. Norris, S. Galea, M. J. Friedman, & P. Watson (Eds.), Methods for disaster mental health research. New York: Guilford Press.
La GrecaA. M. (2007). Understanding the psychological impact of terrorism on youth: Moving beyond posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 14, 219–223.
La GrecaA. M., SilvermanW. K., VernbergE. M., & PrinsteinM. J. (1996). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress in children after Hurricane Andrew: A prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 712–723.
La GrecaA. M., SilvermanW. K., & WassersteinS. B. (1998). Children’s predisaster functioning as a predictor of posttraumatic stress following Hurricane Andrew. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 883–892.
LenguaL. J., LongA. C., SmithK. I., & MeltzoffA. N. (2005). Pre-attack symptomatology and temperament as predictors of children’s responses to the September 11 terrorist attacks. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 631–645.
LoniganC. J., ShannonM. P., FinchA. J., Jr., DaughertyT. K., & TaylorC. M. (1991). Children’s reactions to a natural disaster: Symptom severity and degree of exposure. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 13, 135–154.
LucasC. P., ZhangH. Y., FisherP. W., ShafferD., RegierD. A., NarrowW. E., et al. (2001). The DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Efficiently screening for diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 443–449.
MaunderR. G., LanceeW. J., RourkeS., HunterJ. J., GoldbloomD., BaldersonK., et al. (2004). Factors associated with the psychological impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome on nurses and other hospital workers in Toronto. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 938–942.
NickellL. A., CrightonE. J., TracyC. S., Al EnazyH., BolajiY., HanjrahS., et al. (2004). Psychosocial effects of SARS on hospital staff: Survey of a large tertiary care institution. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 170, 793–798.
OhanJ. L., MyersK., & CollettB. R. (2002). Ten-year review of rating scales. IV: Scales assessing trauma and its effects. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1401–1422.
PfefferbaumB., DoughtyD. E., ReddyC., PatelN., GurwitchR. H., NixonS. J., et al. (2002). Exposure and peritraumatic response as predictors of posttraumatic stress in children following the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. Journal of Urban Health, 79, 354–363.
PfefferbaumB., GurwitchR. H., McDonaldN. B., LeftwichM. J., SconzoG. M., MessenbaughA. K., et al. (2000). Posttraumatic stress among young children after the death of a friend or acquaintance in a terrorist bombing. Psychiatric Services, 51, 386–388.
PfefferbaumB., NixonS. J., KrugR. S., TivisR. D., MooreV. L., BrownJ. M., et al. (1999). Clinical needs assessment of middle and high school students following the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1069–1074.
PfefferbaumB., NixonS. J., TivisR. D., DoughtyD. E., PynoosR. S., GurwitchR. H., et al. (2001). Television exposure in children after a terrorist incident. Psychiatry, 64, 202–211.
PfefferbaumB., NixonS. J., TuckerP. M., TivisR. D., MooreV. L., GurwitchR. H., et al. (1999). Posttraumatic stress responses in bereaved children after the Oklahoma City bombing. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1372–1379.
PfefferbaumB., NorthC. S., FlynnB. W., UrsanoR. J., McCoyG., DeMartinoR., et al. (2001). The emotional impact of injury following an international terrorist incident. Public Health Reviews, 29, 271–280.
PfefferbaumB., PfefferbaumR. L., GurwitchR. H., NagumalliS., BrandtE. N., RobertsonM. J., et al. (2003). Children’s response to terrorism: A critical review of the literature. Current Psychiatric Reports, 5, 95–100.
PfefferbaumB., SealeT. W., McDonaldN. B., BrandtE. N., Jr., RainwaterS. M., MaynardB. T., et al. (2000). Posttraumatic stress two years after the Oklahoma City bombing in youths geographically distant from the explosion. Psychiatry, 63, 358–370.
PfefferbaumB., StuberJ., GaleaS., & FairbrotherG. (2006). Panic reactions to terrorist attacks and probable posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19, 217–228.
PineD. S., CostelloJ., & MastenA. (2005). Trauma, proximity, and developmental psychopathology: The effects of war and terrorism on children. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30, 1781–1792.
ProctorL. J., FauchierA., OliverP. H., RamosM. C., RiosM. A., & MargolinG. (2007). Family context and young children’s responses to earthquake. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 941–949.
PynoosR. S., FrederickC., NaderK., ArroyoW., SteinbergA., EthS., et al. (1987). Life threat and posttraumatic stress in school-age children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 1057–1063.
PynoosR. S., SteinbergA. M., OrnitzE. M., & GoenjianA. K. (1997). Issues in the developmental neurobiology of traumatic stress. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821, 176–193.
ReynoldsD. L., GarayJ. R., DeamondS. L., MoranM. K., GoldW., & StyraR. (2008). Understanding, compliance and psychological impact of the SARS quarantine experience. Epidemiology and Infection, 136, 997–1007.
SaylorC. F., CowartB. L., LipovskyJ. A., JacksonC., & FinchA. J., Jr. (2003). Media exposure to September 11: Elementary school students’ experiences and posttraumatic symptoms. American Behavioral Scientist, 46, 1622–1642.
ShafferD., FisherP., LucasC. P., DulcanM. K., & Schwab-StoneM. E. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): Description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 28–38.
ShalevA. Y., Tuval-MashiachR., & HadarH. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of mass trauma. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65(Suppl. 1), 4–10.
SteinbergA. M., BrymerM. J., DeckerK. B., & PynoosR. S. (2004). The University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index. Current Psychiatric Reports, 6, 96–100.
SteinbergA. M., BrymerM. J., SteinbergJ. R., & PfefferbaumB. (2006). Conducting research with children and adolescents after disaster. In F. Norris, S. Galea, M. J. Friedman, & P. Watson (Eds.), Methods for disaster mental health research. New York: Guilford Press.
StoppelbeinL., & GreeningL. (2000). Posttraumatic stress symptoms in parentally bereaved children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1112–1119.
StrandV. C., SarmientoT. L., & PasqualeL. E. (2005). Assessment and screening tools for trauma in children and adolescents: A review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 6, 55–78.
SwensonC. C., SaylorC. F., PowellM. P., StokesS. J., FosterK. Y., & BelterR. W. (1996). Impact of a natural disaster on preschool children: Adjustment 14 months after a hurricane. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 122–130.
TerrL. C., BlochD. A., MichelB. A., ShiH., ReinhardtJ. A., & MetayerS. A. (1997). Children’s thinking in the wake of Challenger. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 744–751.
TerrL. C., BlochD. A., MichelB. A., ShiH., ReinhardtJ. A., & MetayerS. (1999). Children’s symptoms in the wake of Challenger: A field study of distant-traumatic effects and an outline of related conditions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1536–1544.
ThabetA. A., & VostanisP. (2000). Post traumatic stress disorder reactions in children of war: A longitudinal study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 291–298.
VernbergE. M., SilvermanW. K., La GrecaA. M., & PrinsteinM. J. (1996). Prediction of posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after hurricane Andrew. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 237–248.
WeemsC. F., PinaA. A., CostaN. M., WattsS. E., TaylorL. K., & CannonM. F. (2007). Predisaster trait anxiety and negative affect predict posttraumatic stress in youths after hurricane Katrina. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 154–159.
WickramaK. A., & KasparV. (2007). Family context of mental health risk in Tsunami-exposed adolescents: Findings from a pilot study in Sri Lanka. Social Science and Medicine, 64, 713–723.