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  • Print publication year: 2021
  • Online publication date: April 2021

Chapter 2 - Evaluation of Candidates for Sperm Retrieval

from Part I - Introduction


There are a variety of management options for male infertility patients. Often, assisted reproductive technology allows for successful pregnancies and live births using an ejaculated semen sample. If the etiology of the infertility precludes a satisfactory ejaculated semen sample, sperm retrieval may be required. Determining if a patient is a candidate for sperm retrieval involves a thorough history and physical exam, semen analysis, endocrine evaluation and, likely, genetic assessment. Men who are candidates for sperm retrieval may be azoospermic or anejaculatory. Understanding the etiology of azoospermia is critical to determining the most effective sperm retrieval approach.

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