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Index

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 June 2023

Megan Bradley
Affiliation:
McGill University, Montréal
Cathryn Costello
Affiliation:
University of Oxford
Angela Sherwood
Affiliation:
Queen Mary University of London

Summary

Type
Chapter
Information
IOM Unbound?
Obligations and Accountability of the International Organization for Migration in an Era of Expansion
, pp. 449 - 467
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NC
This content is Open Access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence CC-BY-NC 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/cclicenses/

Index

accountability
IOM. See accountability of IOM
IOs, of. See international organizations (IOs)
legal accountability, 80
meaning of, 24, 85
standards of, 85––86
accountability of IOM, 4, 5, 16, 2627, 37
absence of external accountability mechanisms, 98
accountability deficit, 424425
Accountability to Affected Populations Framework (2020), 99, 112
advocacy NGOs, role of. See advocacy NGOs, role of
constitutional reform, and, 40
difficulties of holding IOM to account, 99––100
employer, accountability of IOM as, 98––99
Ethics and Conduct Office, 99
expansion of IOM, and, 211212
human rights
obligations. See human rights obligations of IOM
humanitarian policy, 323
indirect modes of holding IOM to account, 4041
internal mechanisms, 97––99
IOM purposes and functions, shifting conceptions of, 7778
legal accountability under international law. See responsibility of IOM under international law
Office of the Inspector-General, 98
advocacy NGOs, role of, 420
disengagement of advocacy NGOs from IOM, reasons for, 437446
dependency on IOM as data source and gatekeeper, 445446
institutional developments and diverse accountability standards, 439442
IOM mandate and structure, NGO accountability efforts and, 442444
interactions of advocacy NGOs with IOM, 429437
contrasting engagements with IOM and UNHCR, 431432
modest but increased attention, 432436
reduced attention, 436437
IOM
accountability, 424429
extent of scrutiny, 420424
strengthening contributions to IOM accountability, 446448
Afghanistan
return of Afghans to, 320
Taliban assumption of control, 320
Agreement concerning the Relationship between the United Nations and the International Organization for Migration. See 2016 Agreement
alternatives to detention (ATDs). See detention centres
Amnesty International
Australia’s practice of mandatory detention, 378
concerns about IOM activities, 112
detention of migrants and refugees in Libya, 385
IDPs in Haiti, 258259
importance of, 423
IOM data, use of, 445446
reports under-examining IOM, 431432
scrutiny of IOM, 432436
reduction in, 436437
ARIO, 18, 68, 80, 9497
attribution, 96
AVR, and, 399
elements of internationally wrongful acts, 91, 94
IO accountability for wrongful acts, 84––85
private individuals, and, 95––96
responsibility
division of, 96––97
invoking, 94––96
IOs, of, 20
assisted voluntary return and reintegration (AVRR). See AVR
Australia
offshore processing centres, 26
Australian-funded immigration detention and ATDs in Indonesia, IOM role in, 380384
children, 377
deterrence policies, as, 32
Pacific solution, IOM role in, 144, 360, 378––379
Papua New Guinea judicial decisions, and, 379––380
AVR, 33, 71, 116117, 228, 373, 393, 397419
ATD, AVR as, 370371
AVRR, and, 181, 388
detention, and, 393395
European countries, from, 433
financial incentives, 417
freedom of choice, 405413
lessons from other areas of law, 409413
NA v Finland (ECtHR), 406409
information, 413415, 419
IOM, and, 143144, 399402
assessing success of programmes, 417419
consent and voluntariness as process, 415416
definition of AVR, 402405
IOM Framework for Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration, 401
need for staff training and support, 417
Policy on the Full Spectrum of Return, Readmission and Reintegration (2021), 400
reform, need for, 418419
voluntariness, 116, 401402, 404405
Iraq, 355
Libya, migrants from, 143144
major human rights concerns, 433
migrants’ wish to return, 416417
nature of, 397
soft/disguised deportations, as, 397, 399, 402
VHR, and, 388389
voluntary under compulsion returns, 116
blue-washing, 69, 147, 272, 393
Bosnia and Herzegovina
IOM facilitating out of country voting, 202
migrants in, 251
Brussels Resolution, 7, 46, 5253, 55
ICEM as multi-mandate organization, 55
camps. See cluster approach
children
detention of. See detention centres
IOM priority, as, 347
climate change and migration, 3, 213234
Climate Change, Environment and Migration Alliance (CCEMA), 226227
IOM and climate change, 220233
attempted mandate change, 221225
mandate change, 230233
natural disasters and humanitarian operations, 220221
operational expansion, 227230
secretariat staff led expansion, 225227
Nansen Initiative’s Agenda for the Protection of Cross-Border Displaced Persons in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change, 226, 323
obligations in IOM, 217220
financing, 218220
mandate, 217218
obligations in IOs, 215217
working group on climate change in IASC, 225226
cluster approach, 247, 255, 319, 328, 333334
assisting IDPs outside camps, 348
CCCM, 247, 305
IOM lead role of, 348
UNHCR and IOM as co-leads of, 247, 333
durable solutions, 348
Haiti
camp closures, 348351
camp coordination and management, in, 346348
IASC, and, 305, 337
Cluster on Camp Co-ordination and Camp Management (CCCM). See cluster approach
Cold War, end of, 187, 189, 196, 200
Constitution of IOM, 68, 15, 5660, 196197, 300
adoption of first Constitution, 5
constitutional deference to states. See IOM deference to states
constitutional reform, need for, 5, 37, 3940, 7677, 183, 393396
creation outside UN system, 5, 46
deferring status rights questions to host states, 139140
fundamental obligations of IOM to member states, 5758
human rights, and, 101, 106, 305
immunities, 89––90
IOM Council voting requirements, 183
legal personality of IOM, 4, 17, 51
limits of, 17
mandate of IOM. See mandate of IOM
migration decisions within domestic jurisdiction of states, 78, 57, 67, 366
PICMME renamed as ICEM, 5
purposes and functions. See mandate of IOM
UN Charter, and, 67, 97––98, 178181
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), 152, 389
courts
domestic. See domestic courts
ICC. See ICC
ICJ. See ICJ
Covention on the Rights of the Child, 152
COVID-19 pandemic
detention of refugees and migrants, and, 368
IOM Global Strategic Preparedness and response Plan, 210
IOM mapping COVID19-related travel restrictions, 249
securitization of borders, and, 184
critical junctures, 191193
data collection, 3, 143, 235237
510 Data Responsibility Policy of Netherlands Red Cross, 242, 266
biometric data, 235
data responsibility, 236237
‘datafication of migration’ to need for data responsibility in migration and displacement, 238242
DSEG Framework for the Ethical Use of Advanced Data Science Methods in the Humanitarian Sector, 266
DTM, 236, 238, 246256
core humanitarian function, 254256
data collection and quality, 251254
demand-driven and service-oriented nature of, 237
expansion of, 246247
flow monitoring, 247248
IDP figures, 347248
institutional set-up and funding, 249251
key components, 246
nature of, 246, 334
origins and evolution, 247249
surveys, 248
DTM data, political functions of, 256261
‘mobility tracking’ in Haiti, 257259
DTM flow monitoring’ in West and Central Africa, 259261
GCM, and. See GCM
Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC), 244
humanitarian emergencies, 242, 266
ICRC Handbook on Data Protection (2020), 266, 267
IOM Data Protection Manual (2010), 264267
IOM Data Protection Principles (2009), 99, 264265
IOM Internal Displacement Data Strategy (2021), 245, 266, 267
IOM Migration Data Strategy (2020), 245, 266, 267
Joint IDP Profiling Service (JIPS), 245
key service of IOM, as, 235
market for migration and displacement data, IOM and, 242246
Mixed Migration Centre (MMC), 245
OCHA Centre for Humanitarian Data, 245
REACH, 244245
recommendations for reform, 268269
risks and pathologies, 261268
crowding out development-oriented data collectors, 262263
‘erasure’ of populations with enduring needs, 262
feeding into perceptions of migration as threat, 263264
fitness for pupose of IOM’s data protection standards, 264268
insufficient data protection in field settings data, 261262
statistical information about migration, 235
World Bank-UNHCR Joint Data Center on Forced Displacement (JDC), 245
deference. See IOM deference to states
detention centres, 20
Amnesty International report on Libya, 385
asylum seekers, detention of, 372
ATD, and, 372
ATD as obligation or desirable option, 369370
AVR as an ATD, 370371
Australia. See Australia
AVR, and, 370371, 393395
children, 364
alternatives to detention, 368
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), 364
circumstances permitting detention, 364365
constitutional and institutional reform, need for, 393396
detention conditions, 365366, 377378, 392
improving, 368, 372, 382, 395
GCM, and, 372373
international human rights law, detention and, 363366
IOM
bringing centres into line with international standards, 114
Global Compact Thematic Paper on Detention and Alternatives to Detention, 371372
human rights and humanitarianism, 389393
Indonesian detention centres supporting, 114116
normative role on immigration detention, 366367
working in, 101
Libya, 23
offshore processing centres
Australia. See Australia
EU, and. See European Union (EU)
fair status determinations, 144––145
IOM operating, 113114
non-refoulement, and, 145
operational practices of IOM, 104, 373374
Australia, and. See Australia
Australian-funded immigration detention in Indonesia, 380384
detention in Libya, EU containment practices and, 388389
US interdiction and detention in Caribbean, 374376
Papua New Guinea, in. See Australia
refurbishment of, 373, 387
service provision in, 10
states’ detention ‘prerogative’ and IOM, 367369
voluntary humanitarian return’ (VHR), and, 388
displacement
displacement data. See data collection
internal. See internal displacement
natural disasters. See natural disasters
Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM). See data collection
domestic courts, 131134
durable solutions for migration
camp closures, and, 259
complex challenges of supporting, 257
data
constructing disconnected narrative of progress, and, 259
DTMproviding information on IDP’s access to durable solutions, 263
need for comprehensive profiling exercise of IDPs, 348
need for high quality disaggregated data on displaced populations, 263
GCM, and, 138
refugees using migratory pathways for own durable solutions, 298
Haiti earthquake, and. See Haiti
IASC, and. See IASC
IOM
Haiti, and, 348351
policies and frameworks, 341345
Iraq, and. See Iraq
JIPS, targeted profiling exercises with IDPs and host communities, and, 245
nature of, 340, 348
UN Guiding Principles, 328
advancing pursuit of durable solutions, 340345
durable solutions as goal of, 335, 338341
Haiti, and, 348
Haiti, principles in practice in, 345351
lack of explicit IDP right to return, 331
means of achieving durable solutions, 348
East Timor
IOM in, 201
Ebola crisis. See IOM and Ebola crisis
ECOSOC, 167, 170
specialized agency, as, 167
ethical labor recruitment and IOM, 15, 38, 270297
approach to labor migration by IOM, 274279
case study, 284289
Guatemala-Quebec labour program, 277279
IOM as ‘UN Migration’, 279284
IOM Corporate Responsibility in Eliminating Slavery and Trafficking (CREST) Initiative, 287
IRIS, 29, 272273
abdicating state responsibility to protect migrant workers’ rights, 292294
better direction, 294296
capacity-building, 287
challenges and opportunities for rights-based approach, 289296
GCM Objective 6, and, 283284
Global Policy Network on Recruitment 2020(GPN), 294292
IRIS certification, 287292, 294
IRIS Standard, 283, 286288
Migrant Worker Voice and Engagement, 295296
perils of governance by audit, 289292
reasons for establishing, 272
labor migration governance, IOM and, 273274
Leadership Group for Responsible Recruitment, 287
migration optimists, 270271, 274276
Montreal Recommendations, 294295
European Union (EU)
European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS), 265
externalization practices in Libya, IOM facilitating, 144, 388389
GDPR, 241
Expansion of IOM, See expansion of IOM
evacuations, 62, 181
emergency evacuations, 1, 199, 343
funding, 205
Gulf War, 196, 198
humanitarian evacuations, 63, 196, 198, 205
IDPs, 332
Libya
civil war. See IOM in Libyan civil war
migrant workers, 386
refugees, 387
expansion of IOM, 3
aggressive expansion in 1990s, 11
climate change, and. See climate change and migration
current era of expansion, 89
expansionist ethos of IOM, 2729, 57
Gulf War. See IOM in Gulf War
historical institutionalism, and, 187190
assumptions about IOs and IOM, 193195
humanitarian emergencies. See humanitarian emergencies
implied powers doctrine, and, 18
institutional expansion through precedents, 200202
Libyan civil war. See IOM in Libyan civil war
motive and opportunity for, 194195
2016 Agreement, and, 14
Frontex, 94
pushbacks, 95
GCM, 34, 59, 138139, 148, 162, 280, 308
balancing competing interets, 282
call for better data on human mobility, 235, 243
cooperation, significance of, 138
durable solutions for migration, 138
ethical recruitment, 272, 274, 282284, 295
labour inspectors, 293
expanding IOM’s mandate, 307
human rights and protections, 306308
humanitarian crises, and, 306
IOM designated as lead agency for UNNM, 280
IOM leading role in, 2, 15, 138, 270, 280, 296, 367, 371373, 424
mass migrations prompting adoption of, 282
member states wanting IOM in leading role in negotiations, 12
migration detention, 372373
non-binding nature of, 152, 371
purpose and objectives, 282
refugees
entitled to specific international protection, 306
migratory pathways, and, 298
trafficked persons, 307
UN General Assembly considering institutional architecture for, 183
vulnerabilities in migration, addressing, 306307
Global Administrative Law (GAL), 84
Global Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM). See cluster approach
Global Compact for Migration (GCM). See GCM
Global Compact on Refugees (GCR), 243, 309
Gulf War (1991). See IOM in Gulf War
Haiti, 32, 220
cholera
fear of contracting in camps, 258
response operations in camps, 347
2010 epidemic, 20, 86, 209, 346
data collection, 247
deportations of Haitians, 1, 35
DTM ‘mobility tracking’ in, 257259
Guantanamo Bay, US processing asylum seekers in, 32
IOM history of activities in, 345
UN Guiding Principles in practice, 345351
camp closures, 348351
camp coordination and management, 346348
durable solutions, 348
IOM assistance based on camp residency, discriminatory nature of, 348
IOM immediate response to earthquake, 346
magnitude of earthquake disaster, 345346
health crisis management
COVID-19 pandemic. See COVID-19 pandemic
Ebola crisis. See IOM and Ebola crisis
Health, Border and Mobility Management’ (HBMM), 210, 211
historical institutionalism and IOs, 190195
assumptions about IOs and IOM, 193195
critical junctures and path dependence, 191193
human rights
advocacy NGOs. See advocacy NGOs, role of
due diligence policy for IOM. See human rights due diligence policy for IOM
general principles of law, 110
international law, and. See international law
IOM, and. See human rights obligations of IOM
jus cogens, as, 86
overarching, legitimizing framework for global governance, 72
rights irrespective of legal status, 2
UN Charter, and. See UN Charter
UN General Assembly, and, 180
World Bank, and, 86, 92, 420
human rights due diligence policy for IOM, 23, 137160
cooperation, importance of, 138
IOM and human rights, 141153
controversial practices of IOM, 143148
formalized relationship with UN, impact of, 148153
normative framework of non-normative nature, 141143
IOM Constitution deferring status rights questions to host states, 139140
UN Human Rights Due Diligence Policy, 153159
introduction of, 140
limitations of, 158159
potential contribution of, 156158
whether applicable to IOM, 154156
human rights obligations of IOM, 2223, 97––98, 101––136, 141153
accountability mechanisms of IOM, 117133
analysis and assessment framework, 118124
domestic courts, 131133
Office of the Inspector General. See Office of the Inspector General
overview, 117118
analysis and assessment framework, 118124
access, 120121
neutrality, 122123
outcomes, 123124
participation, 121122
competences and activities of IOM, 102105
detention centres. See detention centres
due diligence policy, and. See human rights due diligence policy for IOM
failure to recognize human rights, 5
general international law, obligations under, 108111
human rights and IOM Constitution, 106
human rights as explicit part of IOM operations, 304305
integration of protection concerns into field operations, 2
IOM Human Rights of Migrants Policy and Activities (2009), 146
IOM legitimation strategies, and, 6975
IOM papering over rights violations, 10
lack of clarity about extent of, 101––102
lack of obligations, 10
mandate, and, 7
need for accountability, 105117
no formal protection mandate, and, 1819
non-normative status of IOM, and, 16
Policy on the Human Rights of Migrants (2002), 62
potential for human rights violations by IOM, 2, 111117
Australian migrant processing centres, IOM operating, 113114
Indonesian migrant detention operations, IOM supporting, 114116
warnings about human rights impact of IOM’s operations, 112113
prioritizing wealthy states’ interests over individual rights, 10
protection actor, IOM as, 19, 3637, 73
treaty-based human rights obligations, 107108
Human Rights Watch, 384
Australian detention centres, 379
concerns about IOM activities, 112, 147
criticisms of IOM, 144––145
importance of, 423
IOM accountability, 102, 105
IOM data, use of, 445446
observer status with IOM, 144
reports under-examining IOM, 432
scrutiny of IOM, 432436
reduction in, 436437
human trafficking, 17, 61, 409
abuse of a position of power, 411412
abuse of a position of vulnerability, 410412
AVR, and, 402, 403
CoE Trafficking Convention, 410
data collection, 245
GCM, and, 307
ILO prohibiting, 286
IOM, and
Corporate Responsibility in Eliminating Slavery and Trafficking (CREST) Initiative, 287
counter-trafficking, 1, 63, 181, 373
principle of non-penalisation, and, 364
recruitment of labour, and, 285
states’ obligations, 281, 389
Trafficking Protocol, 410
Humanitarian Data Science and Ethics Group (DSEG), 266
humanitarian emergencies
climate change, and, 220221
data, and, 242, 266
Ebola crisis (2014–16). See IOM and Ebola crisis
esprit de corps of IOM staff, 211
Gulf War. See IOM in Gulf War
internal displacement. See internal displacement
IOM work in, 3, 11, 63, 193, 336, 355
Libyan civil war. See IOM in Libyan civil war (2011)
natural disasters. See natural disasters
IASC, 63, 233, 305, 316, 339
CivMil Guidelines, 310, 316, 317
climate migration, and, 225226
cluster approach. See cluster approach
Data Responsibility Working Group, 265
Framework on Durable Solutions for Internally Displaced Persons, 342, 344, 357359
humanitarian protection, 314
humanitarian response role, 13
IOM, and, 175, 221, 305, 313, 317, 328
Operational Guidance on Data Responsibility in Humanitarian Action, 265, 266
protection, concept of, 18
role, 220
ICC
Australian detention centres, 391
cooperation agreement with UN, 163
related organization, as, 13, 164
ICEM, 5, 53 See also IOM
‘European’ in name removed, 6
central objective, 54
Constitution, 54, 55, 58
draft constitution, UN Charter and, 54
expansion of geographic scope and portfolio of services, 6
membership, 54
migration managed respecting sovereign rights, 6
motivations for establishing, 55
multi-mandate organization, as, 55
PICMME renamed as, 5
proposals for constitutional change, 5556
renamed as IMO, 6, 56
ICJ, 17
human rights, 111
IOs, 17, 47, 90
constituent instruments, 50
constitutions, 178179
international legal obligations, methods of incurring, 91
powers to establish internal courts, 135136
states parties, 90
Statute Article 38(1), 110
ICRC, 63, 302, 308, 324, 325
binding humanitarian principles, 301
Handbook on Data Protection (2020), 265, 266
international humanitarian law, champion of, 40, 318
protection mandate for all civilians, 313
IDPs. See internal displacement
ILO, 51, 272
Administrative Tribunal (ILOAT), 98
conventions on migrant work, 280
core labor standards, 286
Fair Recruitment Initiative, 282283
national laws, ILO Constitution and, 8
Principles and Guidelines, 283, 287, 295
immigration detention. See detention centres
implied powers doctrine, 18
IOs, and, 143148
mandate of IOM, and, 5859
Indonesia
Australian-funded immigration detention, 380384
detention centres, 114116
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM), See ICEM; IOM
internal displacement, 3, 321323
Brookings-LSE Project on Internal Displacement, 356
data collection. See data collection
Framework for Addressing Internal Displacement (2017), 338340
Framework on the Progressive Resolution of Displacement Situations (2016), 338, 342343
IDPs, 1, 2, 321323
AVR, and, 400
data collection, and, 237See data collection
definition of, 347
extent of assistance provided by IOM, 326
Haiti earthquake, and. See Haiti
international protection of, 329331
IOM justification for activities with, 331335
IOM policy and activities (2002), 335336
IOM providing humanitarian assistance to, 220, 234, 321
IOM’s largest group of beneficiaries, as, 7
no specific legal status, 329
Ukraine, 1
vulnerability of, 327
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), 255, 356
IOM Internal Displacement Data Strategy (2021), 245, 266, 267
major global challenge, as, 331
natural disasters, and. See natural disasters
UN Guiding Principles, and. See UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and IOM
UN High Level Panel on Internal Displacement, 309, 332
call for better data, 235, 243
internal policies of IOM
assessment of, 63
legal perspectives, 6469
guides, manuals and toolkits, 63
internal funding rules, 63
internal rules, internal policies as, 67
legitimation through internal policy-making, 6975
MCOF (2012). See MCOF
MiGOF (2015). See MiGOF
policies implemented on an on-going basis, 6061
policies, frameworks and guidelines, table of, 78
Policy on the Human Rights of Migrants (2002), 61
Protection Portfolio – Crisis Response, 63
shifting conceptions of IOM’s purpose and obligations, 6063
time-bound strategic planning frameworks, 61
wide dissemination of policies, need for, 77
internally displaced persons (IDPs). See internal displacement
International Atomic Energy Agency, 13, 164
International Committee of the Red Cross. See ICRC
International Court of Justice (ICJ). See ICJ
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), 152, 364
International Criminal Court (ICC). See ICC
International Labour Organization (ILO). See ILO
international law
derived responsibility, 114115
general principles of law, 110
human rights law
customary human rights law, 109110
immigration detention, 363366
NGOs, and. See advocacy NGOs, role of
obligations under, 108111
IOM, and. See responsibility of IOM under international law
IOs, and. See international organizations (IOs)
sources, 110
UDHR rights as part of, 111
International Law Commission (ILC) Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations (ARIO). See ARIO
International Organization for Migration (IOM). See IOM
international organizations (IOs)
accountability, 2427, 8086
administrative precepts, application of, 84
difficulties of holding IOs to account, 99––100
individuals and third parties, 82
internal reforms and, 2526
IOs causing damage without violating obligations, 86
limitations on, 5
meaning of, 85
members controlling IOs, 8182
misconduct, difficulties with, 86
problems in addressing, 8284
standards of, 85––86
tropes underlying the law, 87––89
ultra vires actions, 81
vacuum around organizations and members, 8082
wrongful acts, 89––93
constituent instruments, 50
constitutions
definition of, 48
reflecting binding nature of international norms, 8
cooperation, 137
dependence on donor funds, 9
historical institutionalism, and. See historical institutionalism and IOs
ideal type of IO, 103104
ILC Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations. See ARIO
immunities, 25, 82, 89, 96, 134135
implied powers doctrine, and, 143148
international law
general rules applying to IOs, 49
human rights obligations under, 108111
international obligations of, 2021
IOs as subjects of, 17
internationally wrongful acts, 89––93
attribution, 93
basis of obligations, 91––93
derived responsibility, 114115
general rules of international law, 92––93
immunities, 89––90
internal instruments reflecting international law, 92
internal mechanisms, 91
IOs and courts/tribunals, 90
treaties, 91––92
IOM as an IO, 45, 51
IOM having legal personality, 4, 17, 51
pressures and incentives, 70
subject of international law, IOM as, 17
jus cogens, and, 49, 390, 393
legal accountability, meaning of, 80
legitimation strategies, 7072
nature of, 193194
normative functions, 15
obligations in IOs, 215217
related organizations, examples of, 13
rights and duties, sources of, 4748
rules, nature of, 4849, 64
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 213
International Recruitment Integrity System (IRIS). See ethical labor recruitment and IOM
International Refugee Organization (IRO), 5152
internationally wrongful acts. See international organizations (IOs)
IOM
accountability. See accountability of IOM
administration, 65
Department of Migration Management (DMM), 71, 112
Department of Operations and Emergencies (DOE), 71, 112, 201, 249
Emergency Response Unit (ERU), 200
Ethics and Conduct Office, 99
Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC), 244
Health, Border and Mobility Management’ (HBMM), 210, 211
Humanitarian Evacuation Cell, 203, 206
Institutional Law and Programme Support Division of the Office of Legal Affairs, 265
Migration Protection and Assistance Division, 16
Office of the Inspector General. See Office of the Inspector General
Standing Committee on Programmes and Finance, 49, 65
budget, 1, 8
dependent on earmarked funds to finance activities, 104
donor funds, 9, 73, 180, 188, 205, 218219
DTM as major source of revenue, 250251
financing, 218220
humanitarian action, and, 7
Migration Emergency Funding Mechanism, 205
small core budget, 188
climate change and migration. See climate change and migration
cluster approach, and. See cluster approach
Constitution. See Constitution of IOM
Council. See IOM Council
creation, reasons for, 56
data collection. See data collection
decentralized structure, 9, 14, 21, 29, 142, 177, 227, 250, 264, 268, 273, 300, 303, 442
deference to states. See IOM deference to states
detention centres, and. See detention centres
Ebola crisis, and. See IOM and Ebola crisis
establishment and constitutional development, 5, 5056
expansion of. See expansion of IOM
GCM, and. See GCM
Haiti, and. See Haiti
human rights
blue-washing, 69, 147, 272, 393
due diligence policy. See human rights due diligence policy for IOM
obligations. See human rights obligations of IOM
IDPs, and. See internal displacement
immunities, 89––90, 131133
individuals, responsibilities to, 4
institutional change, 37
institutional culture, 2729, 143
reforms, and, 77
internal displacement, and. See internal displacement
internal policies. See internal policies of IOM
international law, and. See responsibility of IOM under international law
international norms, and, 3235
IO, IOM as. See international organizations (IOs)
Iraq, and. See Iraq
labor recruitment. See ethical labor recruitment and IOM
leading agency in UN system on migration issues, as, 14
mandate. See mandate of IOM
membership of, 1, 73
migration, and. See migration
national authorities, working with, 23
nature of, 7, 194195, 299303
national prioritization and development actors, 308309
normative obligations, 10
obligations, 1624
human rights. See human rights obligations of IOM
international legal obligations, 2123
legal obligations, 1618
political and legal perspectives, 4750
states’ obligations, and, 1920
organizational reform, 15, 4041, 200202, 225
origins, 56
projectization model. See projectization model
protection actor, as, 19, 3637, 73
purposes and functions. See mandate of IOM
service provider, IOM as. See mandate of IOM
UN, relationship with. See UN and IOM
UNHCR, and. See UNHCR
IOM and Ebola crisis, 190, 206210
extensive activities of IOM, 207209
flexible crisis management capabilities, IOM recognized for, 207
Humanitarian Border Management’ (HBM) framework, use of, 207
UNMEER, 207, 209
IOM as a related organization, 1, 5, 1016, 38, 73, 302, 304308, 437 See also 2016 Agreement
calls for IOM mandate to be revised, 113
discussions leading to related organization status, 1112
Human Rights Due Diligence Policy, binding nature of, 154, 155
meaning of ‘related organization’, 1213, 163166
IOM Council, 14
amendment of the Constitution, 183
budget, 444
competence to establish judicial organs, 135
Ebola crisis, and, 209
governing body of IOM, as, 49
human rights of migrants, 146
humanitarian mandate, and, 58, 77
immunities, call for, 132
internal rules, creation of, 65
MCOF. See MCOF
Migration Emergency Funding Mechanism, 205
non-normative role of IOM, 174
observer status, 430
policies and frameworks, 18, 19, 61, 65, 68
power to establish human rights court, whether, 135
2016 Agreement, and, 21, 22, 169, 175, 177, 178
Working Group on institutional arrangements, establishment of, 168
IOM deference to states, 2, 35, 45, 51, 68, 309, 393, 431
human rights, and, 72
migration decisions within domestic jurisdiction of states, 78, 57, 67, 366
national immigration systems, and, 393, 395
national prioritization and development actors, 308309
need to reconsider, 363
‘projectized’ structure, and, 2
IOM Humanitarian Policy (2012), 146
IOM Humanitarian Policy-Principles for Humanitarian Action (2015), 33, 297, 302303, 306, 307, 309324, 326360, 425
accountability of IOM, 323
diaspora populations, linking with, 315316
displacement situations, 320323
engagement with parties to conflict, 316
field operations leading to, 303
humanitarian crises, 313314
humanitarian protection and partnerships, 314315
impartiality, 311312
independence, 312313
internal displacement, 321323
IOM mandate, 318320
MCOF, and, 317
movement, focus on, 310311
promoting durable solutions, 341
IOM in Gulf War, 189, 195202, 206
crisis managment tasks, IOM fulfilling, 189190
evacuations, 196, 198, 199
Gulf War as blueprint for institutional expansion, 190
short and long term institutional consequences of, 200202
understanding IOM Gulf War operations, 196200
IOM in Libyan civil war, 190, 202206
evacuations
funding issues, 205
Humanitarian Evacuation Cell, 203204
key coordinator, IOM as, 204
support for migrants, provision of, 204
UNHCR, improved partnership with, 204
Iraq
DTM as primary means to track displacement movements, 355
durable solutions
factors complicating search for, 352354
IDPs intentions shifting, 354
local integration, 356357
returns, and, 355356
extensive internal displacement in, 351352
IASC Framework on Durable Solutions for Internally Displaced Persons, 357359
IOM, and, 357359
IOM-GU study, 357
leading role in addressing internal displacement, 354
jus cogens, 17, 68
human rights as, 86
IOs, and, 49, 390, 393
nature of, 93
non-refoulement, 49, 86, 94
Kosovo
Human Rights Advisory Panel, 90
IOM in, 201
Libya
civil war (2012). See IOM in Libyan civil war
detention centres, 1
EU containment practices, IOM role in, 388389
evacuations
migrant workers, 386
refugees, 387
migrants, IOM and, 23
mandate of IOM, 68, 17, 5760, 217218 See also internal policies of IOM
accountability, advocacy NGOs and, 442444
attempted mandate change, 221225
calls for mandate to be revised, 113
flexibility making it attractive to states, 104
GCM expanding, 307
gulf between what IOM can and must do, 7, 5859
human rights, and, 7
humanitarian mandate, 58, 145148
implied powers doctrine, migrant protection and, 5859
multi-mandate actor, IOM as, 7, 46, 4950, 55, 63, 71
no formal protection mandate, 2, 4, 10, 1819, 104, 142143, 305306
original mandate, 1, 5
permissive nature of, 7, 58, 331332, 334335
political and legal perspectives, 4750
protection of migrants, 6769
purposes and functions, 13, 67, 5758, 141142
historical institutionalism, and, 187190
shifting conceptions of, 6063, 7678, 180181
service provider, IOM as, 7, 76, 104, 139, 142143, 160, 218
MCOF, 23, 62, 145, 205206, 211, 310, 313, 317, 328, 336338, 343
centrepiece of IOM emergency responses, as, 205
goals of, 62, 336
IOM and human rights, 146147
local integration, 341342
return and resettlement, focus on, 342
underpinned by ‘migration crisis approach’, 336
MiGOF, 23, 62
foundational principles, 62
migrants and refugees
detention centres. See detention centres
GCM, and. See GCM
IOM
broad operational definition of migrants and refugees, 7, 332
exercising compulsory powers over migrants, 104105
Human Rights of Migrants Policy and Activities (2009), 146
labour recruitment. See ethical labor recruitment and IOM
MICIC, 35, 211
New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants (2016), 148, 307
post-crisis support for, 7
protection by IOM. See mandate of IOM
pushbacks. See pushbacks
refugees
entitled to specific international protection, 306
GCM, and, 298, 306
normative base for, 280
principle of non-penalisation, and, 364
returns, 101
assisted voluntary returns (AVR). See AVR
home countries’ unwillingness to readmit, 138
refoulement, and. See refoulement
unstable situations, to, 10, 45
voluntary under compulsion, 105, 116
rights and wellbeing, 2, 30, 34, 280
vulnerable migrants, 364
Migrants in Countries in Crisis Initiative (MICIC), 35, 211
migration
climate change, and. See climate change and migration
data collection. See data collection; data collection
durable solutions. See durable solutions for migration
GCM, and. See GCM
importance of states cooperation, 138
IOM
approach to global migration, 270271
controlling migration, 10, 270
IOM as ‘UN Migration’, 279284
Migration Data Strategy (2020), 266, 267
migration management, 9
migrants. See migrants and refugees
migration optimists, 270271, 274276
perceived migration crisis gaining steam, 11
perceptions of migration as threat, 263264
states’ restrictive migration management goals, IOM enabling, 4, 34
UN High Level Dialogues on Migration and Development, 281282
Migration Crisis Operational Framework 2012 (MCOF). See MCOF
Migration Government Framework 2015 (MiGOF). See MiGOF
Mozambique
Cyclone Idai, IOM responding to, 334
IOM’s field presence, 202
natural disasters. See also internal displacement; humanitarian emergencies
cluster approach, and, 305, 317
disaster risk reduction, 232
donor funding, IOM activities and, 228
DTM, use of, 246
Haiti earthquake. See Haiti
Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-15), 232, 337
IOM, and, 225
expertise in response to natural disasters, 227
helping persons displaced internally or across borders, 195, 321334
humanitarian operations, 220221
Humanitarian Principles and policy, 321, 323
Nansen Initiative’s Agenda for the Protection of Cross-Border Displaced Persons in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change, 233, 322
protection frameworks for people displaced across borders, 234
Sendai Framework, 322
UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, and, 321
UNHCR mandate not applying to cross-border displacement, 322
non-governmental organizations (NGOs). See advocacy NGOs, role of
non-normative, 1416
non-refoulement, 157
AVR, and, 418
internal refoulement, 330
jus cogens, as, 49, 86, 94
offshore asylum determination policies, 145
pushbacks, 94
Obligations. See obligations
OCHA, 332
Centre for Humanitarian Data, 245
Data Responsibility Guidelines, 267
data responsibility, concept of, 236
humanitarian work, principles guiding, 301302
Oslo Guidelines, 310, 316, 317
supporting IOM’s related organization status, 14
Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). See OCHA
Office of the Inspector General, 124131
access, 127128
assessment of, 131
jurisdiction, 124
neutrality, 129130
outcome, 130131
participation, 128129
process and procedures, 125
workload, 125126
offshore proceessing. See detention centres
Philippines
IOM Manila’s success promoting labour stream, 277
Typhoon Haiyan, IOM responding to, 334
PICMME, 5, 51, 180 See also IOM
Brussels Resolution establishing, 52
functions under Brussels Resolution, 5253, 145
mandate, extension of, 53
membership, 52
renamed as ICEM, 5, 53
taking over IRO’s operational activities and assets, 52
projectization model, 810, 14, 21, 45, 51, 188, 273
donor funds, and, 9
nature of, 9
Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of Migrants from Europe (PICMME). See PICMME
pushbacks, 94
Frontex, and, 95
non-refoulement, and, 94
refoulement, 117
assisted returns, and, 437
meaning of, 116
prohibition against. See non-refoulement
returns from detention, and, 389
voluntary under compulsion returns, 116
refugees. See migrants and refugees
related organizations
examples of, 13
functional parts of the UN system, as, 13
IOM, as. See 2016 Agreement; IOM as a related organization
legally distinct from UN, 13
meaning of ‘related organization’, 1213
nature of status, 13, 163166
responsibility of IOM under international law, 79100 See also international organizations (IOs)
ARIO, 9497
difficulties of holding IOM to account, 99––100
grounding assesments of IOM in international law, 3032
immunities of IOM, 89––90
internationally unlawful acts, 8993
IOM mechanisms, 9799
legal accountability, meaning of, 80
tropes underlying the law, 8789
vacuum assumption, 8086
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), 243, 282
trafficking. See human trafficking
2016 Agreement, 1, 1016, 49, 64, 308
adoption of, 161
Art 2(5), effects of, 175178
background, 148
critical part of IOM’s evolving legal order, as, 65
IOM as member of UN teams and governance bodies, 13
IOM conducting activities in accordance with UN Charter, 14, 2123
1996 Agreement, and, 171175
non-normative role of IOM, 1416, 40, 67, 145
reasons for, 166171
UN Charter, and. See UN Charter
ultra vires, 81
UN and IOM, 5 See also 2016 Agreement
Art 2(5) of 2016 Agreement, effect of, 175178
comparison of 1996 and 2106 Agreements, 171175
debate over IOM joining UN, 11
disconnect between UN and IOM, addressing, 181184
IOM creation outside UN system, 4, 10
IOM obtaining observer status in UN General Assembly, 11
legal relationship, changes in, 161184
1996 cooperation agreement, 11, 168, 171175
reasons for new agreement between, 166171
related organization, IOM as. See IOM as a related organization
UN-related status, nature of, 163166
UN Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF), 251
UN Charter
assigning responsibility for peace and security to Security Council, 81
Constitution of IOM, and, 178181
draft ICEM constitution, 54
human rights, and, 300, 301, 306
purposes of the UN, 175
related organizations, 13, 163
specialized agencies, 12, 166168
2016 Agreement, and, 2123, 67, 97––98, 107108, 147, 148153, 302, 304
effects of Art 2(5), 175178
UN Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB), 13, 169, 171, 175
UN General Assembly, 167, 170
CGM, and, 183
human rights, and, 180
humanitarian assistance, 301302
IOM obtaining observer status, 11
Resolution on the Humanitarian Principles, 305
UDHR, and, 111
UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, 287
UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and IOM, 298, 321322, 326360
durable solutions for migration. See durable solutions for migration
Haiti, and. See Haiti
IDPs
international protection of, 329331
IOM justification for activities with, 331335
IDPs, definition of, 347
IOM policies and Guiding Principles, 335345
explicit engagement, 335340
Iraq, and. See Iraq
origins of Guiding Principles, 329330
putting Guiding Principles into practice, 345359
special needs, persons with, 347
widespread endorsement of Guiding Principles, 330331
UN High Commisioner for Refugees. See UNHCR
UN High Level Panel on Internal Displacement, 243See internal displacement
UN High Level Panel on the Post-2015 Development Agenda (2013), 242
UN Human Rights Due Diligence Policy, 92, 140 See also human rights due diligence policy for IOM
UN Human Rights Up Front Initiative, 23
UN Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC). See IASC
UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER), 207, 209
UN Network on Migration (UNNM), 1, 280
IOM as lead agency for, 280, 296
prioritizing rights and wellbeing of migrants, 280
UN Peacebuilding Fund, 251
UN Principles on Personal Data Protection and Privacy, 265
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, 12, 156
UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants, 12
UNHCR, 32, 41, 52, 101, 139, 179, 188, 219, 326
accountability, 26
advocacy NGOs, scrutiny by, 421, 431432
cluster approach. See cluster approach
co-lead of CCCM, 333
creation of, 52
funding, 180, 300
Global Trends Report, 256
Humanitarian Evacuation Cell, 203, 206
humanitarian principles, applying, 319
IOM
improved partnership with, 204
UNHCR supporting IOM’s related organization status, 14
working with, 11, 179
protection mandate, 8, 19, 36, 40, 104, 305, 318, 329
refugee mandate not applying to cross-border natural disaster displacement, 322
refugees, meaning of, 319
Statute (1950), 305, 309
World Bank-UNHCR Joint Data Center on Forced Displacement (JDC), 245
United Kingdom
Department for International Development (DFID), 219
Ebola crisis, and, 208
influential IOM donor, as, 206
Voluntary Assisted Return and Reintegration programme, 408
voluntary departures from UK, 407408
United States (US)
Brussels Resolution, 52
Ebola crisis, 206, 209
Gulf War, IOM involvement in, 198199
Haiti, and, 52, 257258
ICEM membership, and, 54
influential IOM donor, as, 206
interdiction and detention in Caribbean, 374376
IRO, and, 5152
origins of IOM shaped by US interests, 6
PICMME membership, and, 52
protection for IDPs displaced by natural disaster across international borders, 232233
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 (UDHR), 111, 152, 301
voluntary humanitarian return (VHR), 388389
World Bank, 41, 80
development projects, effects of, 89
human rights, and, 86, 92, 420
Inspection Panel, 135, 183
loans and grants, 92, 308
World Bank-UNHCR Joint Data Center on Forced Displacement (JDC), 245
World Health Organization (WHO), 12, 80
Ebola crisis, and, 207, 209
World Trade Organization (WTO), 164
related organization, as, 13