Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
How Social Movements Die
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 29
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

How do social movements die? Some explanations highlight internal factors like factionalization, whereas others stress external factors like repression. Christian Davenport offers an alternative explanation where both factors interact. Drawing on organizational, as well as individual-level, explanations, Davenport argues that social movement death is the outgrowth of a coevolutionary dynamic whereby challengers, influenced by their understanding of what states will do to oppose them, attempt to recruit, motivate, calm, and prepare constituents while governments attempt to hinder all of these processes at the same time. Davenport employs a previously unavailable database that contains information on a black nationalist/secessionist organization, the Republic of New Africa, and the activities of authorities in the US city of Detroit and state and federal authorities.

Reviews

‘Marshalling insightful analysis, brilliant archival research, and extensive knowledge, Davenport explains the emergence, growth, and demise of social movements. This book is a real gem.’

Scott Gates - Peace Research Institute Oslo and Norwegian University of Science and Technology

‘Through a meticulous analysis of a single case - the Republic of New Africa - Christian Davenport presents us with new theoretical insights into the external forces and internal dynamics that can eventually lead to the demise of a social movement organization that at its inception was at the forefront of a broader movement. His analysis of archival information on both overt and covert forms of state repression as well as his scrupulous analysis of RNA internal documents present us with innovative methods and novel lessons for the study of how social movement organizations emerge and eventually die.’

T. David Mason - University of North Texas

‘Through a fascinating case study of the Republic of New Africa, Christian Davenport brings his expertise on political repression to bear on a question that has, oddly, been largely neglected by scholars: how and why do social movements die? Drawing on unusually rich data that take us inside the thought processes of movement actors as well as their opponents, Davenport offers deep insight into both the rise and demise of social movement organizations.’

Rory McVeigh - University of Notre Dame

'There is a great deal to admire about this book from its astonishingly rich data and thorough analysis to its clear theorizing about an important and nettlesome issue in the study of repression (What are the consequences of repression?) to its call for research on demobilization.'

Source: American Journal of Sociology

'… the book will be useful for scholars interested in demobilization of social movement organizations or the general impact of state repression on movements, organizations, and individuals.'

Ahsan Kamal Source: Oxford University Press Journals: Social Forces

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

  • Introduction
    pp 1-18
References
Allen, Nathalie J., and Meyer, John P.. 1990. “The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to Organization.” Journal of Occupational Psychology 63: 1–18.
Aronson, Eliot, Wilson, Timothy, and Akert, Robin. 2005. Social Psychology, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Arrequin-Toft, Ivan. 2005. How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Barkan, Steven E., Cohn, Steven F, and Whitaker, William H.. 1993. “Commitment Across the Miles: Ideological and Microstructural Sources of Membership Support in a National Antihunger Organization.” Social Problems 40: 362–73.
Barkan, Steven E., Cohn, Steven F, and Whitaker, William H.. 1995. “Beyond Recruitment: Predictors of Differential Participation in a National Antihunger Organization.” Sociological Forum 10: 113–34.
Barron, Barnett. 2004. “Deterring Donors: Anti-Terrorist Financing Rules and American Philanthropy.” International Journal of Not-for-Profit Law 6(2), .
Berman, Eli. 2008. “Can Hearts and Minds Be Bought? The Economics of Counterinsurgency in Iraq.” Working Paper 14606. National Bureau of Economic Research.
Biddle, Stephen. 2008. “The New U.S. Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual as Political Science and Political Praxis – Review Symposium.” Perspectives on Politics 6(2): 347–50.
Blaufarb, Douglas. 1977. The Counterinsurgency Era: US Doctrine and Performance, 1950 to the Present. New York: Free Press.
Bob, Clifford, and Nepstad, Sharon. 2007. “Kill a Leader, Murder a Movement? Leadership and Assassination in Social Movements.” American Behavioral Scientist 50(10): 1370–94.
Bopp, William. 1971. The Police Rebellion: The Quest for Blue Power. Chicago, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Boykoff, Jules. 2006. The Suppression of Dissent: How the State and Mass Media Squelch US American Social Movements. New York: Routledge.
Brandt, Patrick T., Mason, T. David, Gurses, Mehmet, Petrovsky, Nicolai, and Radin, Dasha. 2008. “When and How the Fighting Stops: Explaining the Duration and Outcome of Civil Wars.” Defense and Peace Economics 19(6): 415–34.
Brockett, Charles. 1993. “A Protest-Cycle Resolution of the Repression/Popular-Protest Paradox.” Social Science History 17(3): 457–84.
Brown, Scott. 2003. Fighting for Us: Maulana Karenga, the US Organization, and Black Cultural Nationalism. New York: New York University Press.
Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bueno de Mesquita, Ethan. 2005. “Conciliation, Counterterrorism and Patterns of Terrorist Violence.” International Organization 59(1): 145–76.
Button, James. 1978. Black Violence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Byman, Daniel. 2006. “Do Targeted Killings Work?Foreign Affairs 85(2): 95–111.
Carey, Sabine C. 2006. “The Dynamic Relationship between Protest and Repression.” Political Research Quarterly 59(1): 1–11.
Carson, Clayborne. 1981. In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Churchill, Ward, and Vander Wall, James. 1988. Agents of Repression: The FBI’s Secret War against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement. Boston: South End Press.
Cleage, Albert. 1967. “Organizing for the Black Revolution.” Michigan Chronicle.
Cleage, Albert. 1968. “An Example of Organization.” Michigan Chronicle.
Cohen, Eliot. 2010. Mass Surveillance and State Control: The Total Information Awareness Project. New York: Palgrave.
Collier, Paul. 2003. “The Market for Civil War.” Foreign Policy, May/June, 38–45.
Collier, Paul, and Hoeffler, Anke. 2002. “On the Incidence of Civil War in Africa.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 46(1): 13–28.
Cone, James. 1992. Malcolm and Martin and America: A Dream or a Nightmare. New York: Orbis Books.
Connable, Ben, and Libicki, Martin. 2010. How Insurgencies End. Washington, DC: National Defense Research Institute, Rand.
Conrad, Courtenay Ryals, and Moore, Will H.. 2010. “Who Stops the Torture?American Journal of Political Science 54(2): 459–76.
Council on Foreign Relations. 2002. Terrorist Financing: Report of an Independent Task Force Sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
Cress, Daniel M., and Snow, David A.. 1996. “Resources, Benefactors, and the Viability of Homeless Social Movement Organizations.” American Sociological Review 61: 1089–1109.
Cronin, Audrey. 2006. “How Al-Qaida Ends: The Decline and Demise of Terrorist Groups.” International Security 31(1): 7–48.
Cruse, Harold. 1967. The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual: Historical Analysis of the Failure. New York: William Morrow.
Cunningham, David. 2004. There’s Something Happening Here: The New Left, the Klan, and FBI Counterintelligence. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cunningham, Kathleen. 2011. “Divide and Conquer or Divide and Concede: How Do States Respond to Internally Divided Separatists?American Political Science Review 105: 275–97.
Dalfiume, Richard. 1969. Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces: Fighting on Two Fronts, 1939–1953. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
Davenport, Christian. 1995. “Multi-Dimensional Threat Perception and State Repression: An Inquiry into Why States Apply Negative Sanctions.” American Journal of Political Science 38(3): 683–713.
Davenport, Christian. 1996. “The Weight of the Past: Exploring Lagged Determinants of Political Repression.” Political Research Quarterly 49(2): 377–403.
Davenport, Christian. 1998. “Filling the Gap in Contentious Understanding: The Republic of New Africa and the Influence of Political Repression.” Report SBR-9819274. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.
Davenport, Christian. 2005. “Understanding Covert Repressive Action: The Case of the US Government against the Republic of New Africa.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49(1): 120–40.
Davenport, Christian. 2007. “State Repression and Political Order.” Annual Review of Political Science 10: 1–23.
Davenport, Christian. 2010. Media Bias, Perspective and State Repression: The Black Panther Party. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Davenport, Christian, and McDermott, Rose. 2011. “An Evolutionary Theory of State Repression.” Manuscript.
Davenport, Christian, and Stam, Allan. 2003. “Mass Killing and the Oases of Humanity: Understanding Rwandan Genocide and Resistance.” Report SES-0321518. National Science Foundation.
Davenport, Christian, and Sullivan, Chris. 2014. If You Arrest a Revolutionary, Do You Arrest the Revolution? Resolving the 40 Year Debate about Repression’s Impact on Political Challenges. Manuscript.
Davis, Gerald, McAdam, Doug, Richard Scott, W., and Zald, Mayer, eds. 2005. Social Movements and Organization Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dawson, Michael. 2013. Blacks in and out of the Left. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
della Porta, Donatella. 1995. Social Movements, Political Violence, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Detroit Area People against Racism. 1969. Untitled document. The Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Detroit Courier. 1968. “Mississippi Solon, Cleage, Henry Spark Meeting.” March 30.
Detroit Area People against Racism. 1969. “Efforts Should be Made to Understand Separatists.” April 3.
Detroit News. 1969a. “Goals of RNA Disavowed.” April 18.
Detroit Area People against Racism. 1969b. “Senate Told of the RNA.” June 26.
Detroit Area People against Racism. 1971. “Milton Says He Warned His Brother.” August 19.
Detroit Police Department. 1968. Interoffice memorandum, Detective Division. Record 62. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Detroit Police Department. 1969. Interoffice memorandum, Detective Division. October 26. Record 62. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Detroit Police Department – SIB. 1968. Confiscated RNA document dated October 4. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Detroit Police Department – SIB. 1969. Interoffice memorandum, Detective Division. Record 531. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Detroit Urban League. 1967. The People beyond 12th Street: A Survey of Attitudes of Detroit Negroes after the Riot of 1967. Detroit: Detroit Urban League.
Dillard, Angela. 2003. Faith in the City: Preaching Radical Social Change in Detroit. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
DiMaggio, Paul, and Powell, Walter W. 1983. “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields.” American Sociological Review 48: 147–60.
Donner, Frank. 1980. The Age of Surveillance: The Aims and Methods of America’s Political Intelligence System. New York: Knopf.
Donner, Frank. 1990. Protectors of Privilege: Red Squads and Police Repression in Urban America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Downton, James, and Wehr, Paul. 1991. “Peace Movements: The Role of Commitment and Community in Sustaining Member Participation.” Research in Social Movements, Conflict, and Change 13: 113–34.
Downton, James, and Wehr, Paul. 1997. The Persistent Activist: How Peace Commitment Develops and Survives. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Dryden, Charles. 2003. A-Train: Memoirs of a Tuskegee Airman. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Earl, Jennifer. 2003. “Tanks, Tear Gas and Taxes: Toward a Theory of Movement Repression.” Sociological Theory 21(1): 44–68.
Earl, Jennifer, and Soule, Sarah A.. 2006. “Seeing Blue: Going Behind the Baton to Explain Policing at Public Protest Events.” Mobilization 11(2): 145–64.
Earl, Jennifer, and Soule, Sarah A.. 2010. “The Impacts of Repression: The Effect of Police Presence and Action on Subsequent Protest Rates.” Research in Social Movements, Conflicts, and Change 30: 75–113.
Earl, Jennifer, Soule, Sarah A., and McCarthy, John D.. 2003. “Protest under Fire? Explaining Protest Policing.” American Sociological Review 69: 581–606.
Edmondson, Amy. 1999. “Psychology Safety and Learning Behavior in Work Teams.” Administrative Science Quarterly 44(2): 350–83.
Edwards, Robert, and Marullo, Sam. 1995. “Organizational Mortality in Declining Social Movements: The Demise of Peace Movement Organizations in the End of the Cold War Era.” American Sociological Review 60: 908–27.
Edwards, Robert, and McCarthy, John. 2004. “Resources and Social Movement Mobilization.” In The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, ed. Snow, David A., Soule, Sarah A., and Kriesi, Hanspeter, 116–52. London: Blackwell.
Einwohner, Rachel. 2003. “Opportunity, Honor and Action in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943.” American Journal of Sociology 109, no. 3: 650–75.
Elsbach, Kimberly, and Sutton, Robert. 1992. “Acquiring Organizational Legitimacy through Illegitimate Actions: A Marriage of Institutional and Impression Management Theories.” Academy of Management Journal 35(4): 699–738.
Farley, Reynolds, Danziger, Sheldon, and Holzer, Harry J.. 2000. Detroit Divided. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Fearon, James. 1991. “Counterfactuals and Hypothesis Testing in Political Science.” World Politics 43, no. 2: 169–95.
Ferree, Myra. 2005. “Soft Repression: Ridicule, Stigma, and Silencing in Gender-Based Movements. In Repression and Mobilization, ed. Davenport, Christian, Johnston, Hank, and Mueller, Carol, 138–54. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Fine, Sidney. 2000. Expanding the Frontiers of Civil Rights: Michigan, 1948–1968. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.
Finkle, Lee. 1973. “The Conservative Aims of Militant Rhetoric: Black Protest during World War II.” The Journal of American History 60, no. 3: 692–713.
Fitzsimmons, Michael. 2008. “Hard Hearts and Open Minds? Governance, Identity and the Intellectual Foundations of Counterinsurgency Strategy.” Journal of Strategic Studies 31(3): 337–65.
Foucault, Michel. 1995. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage.
Francisco, Ron. 1996. “Coercion and Protest: An Empirical Test in Two Democratic States.” American Journal of Political Science 40(4): 1179–1204.
Francisco, Ron. 2004. “After the Massacre: Mobilization in the Wake of Harsh Repression.” Mobilization 9(2): 107–26.
Frey, R., Dietz, T., and Kalof, L.. 1992. “Characteristics of Successful American Protest Groups: Another Look at Gamson’s Strategies of Social Protest.” American Journal of Sociology 98: 368–87.
Galaskiewicz, Joseph. 1984. “Interorganizational Relations.” Annual Review of Sociology 11: 281–304.
Gamson, William. 1975. The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood, NJ:Dorsey Press.
Gamson, William A., and Meyer, David S.. 1996. “Framing Political Opportunity.” In Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings, ed. McAdam, Douglas, McCarthy, John, and Zald, Mayer, 275–90. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gartner, Scott Sigmund, and Regan, Patrick M.. 1996. “Threat and Repression: The Non-Linear Relationship between Government and Opposition Violence.” Journal of Peace Research 33(3): 273–87.
Gates, Scott. 2002. “Recruitment and Allegiance: The Microfoundations of Rebellion.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 46(1): 111–30.
Giugni, Marco. 1998. “Was It Worth the Effort? The Outcomes and Consequences of Social Movements.” Annual Review of Sociology 98: 371–93.
Goldstein, Robert Justin. 1978. Political Repression in Modern America from 1870 to the Present. Boston: GK Hall.
Goldstone, Jack. 1980. “The Weakness of Organization: A New Look at Gamson’s The Strategy of Social Protest.” American Journal of Sociology 85: 1017–42.
Goldstone, Jack, and Tilly, Charles. 2001. “Threat (and Opportunity): Popular Action and State Response in the Dynamics of Contentious Action.” In Silence and Voice in the Study of Contentious Politics, ed. Aminzade, Ronald R., Goldstone, Jack A., McAdam, Doug, Perry, Elizabeth J., Sewell, William H., Tarrow, Sidney, and Tilly, Charles, 179–93. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goodman, James. 1994. Stories of Scottsboro. New York: Pantheon Books.
Goodwin, Jeffrey. 2001. No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movements, 1945–1991. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grady-Willis, Winston. 1998. “The Black Panther Party: State Repression and Political Prisoners.” In The Black Panther Party (Reconsidered), ed. Jones, Charles, 363–90. Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.
Grant, William. 1970. “Integration’s Last Hurrah: ‘Where Did Everyone Go To?’The New Republic, September 12.
Greenhalgh, L. G. 1983. “Organizational Decline.” Research in the Sociology of Organizations 2: 231–76.
Group on Advanced Leadership. 1964. Untitled document. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Group on Advanced Leadership. 1965. “Who We Are.” Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Gunaratna, Rohan. 2000. “The Lifeblood of Terrorist Organizations: Evolving Terrorist Financing Strategies.” In Countering Terrorism through International Cooperation, 187–211. Vienna: United Nations.
Gupta, Devashree. 2002. “Radical Flank Effects: The Effect of Radical-Moderate Splits in Regional Nationalist Movements.” Prepared for the Conference of Europeanists, Chicago.
Gupta, Dipak, and Venieris, Y. P.. 1981. “Introducing New Dimensions in Macro Models: The Sociopolitical and Institutional Environments.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 30(1): 31–58.
Gurr, Ted. 1970. Why Men Rebel. New York: Paradigm.
Gurr, Ted, and Moore, Will. 1997. “Ethno-political Rebellion: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the 1980s with Risk Assessments for the 1990s.” American Journal of Political Science 41(4): 1079–103.
Haines, Herbert H. 1984. “Black Radicalism and the Funding of Civil Rights, 1957–1970.” Social Problems 32(1): 31–43.
Hannan, Michael, and Carroll, Glenn. 1992. Dynamics of Organizational Populations: Density, Legitimation, and Competition. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hannan, Michael, and Freeman, John. 1989. Organizational Ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hannan, Michael, Polos, Laszlo, and Carroll, Glenn. 2007. Logics of Organization Theory: Audiences, Costs and Ecologies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Henderson, Errol. 1997. “The Lumpenproletariat as Vanguard? The Black Panther Party, Social Transformation, and Pearson’s Analysis of Huey Newton.” Journal of Black Studies 28(20): 171–99.
Henrickson, Wilma Wood, ed. 1991. Detroit Perspectives: Crossroads and Turning Points. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.
Henry, Milton. 1970. “Transcript, Milton Henry Oral History Interview by James M. Mosby Jr.” RJB 699, Ralph J. Bunche Oral History Collection, Howard University. .
Hess, David, and Martin, Brian. 2006. “Repression, Backfire and the Theory of Transformative Events.” Mobilization 11(2): 249–67.
Hibbs, Douglas. 1973. Mass Political Violence: A Cross-National Causal Analysis. New York: John Wiley.
Hill, Lance. 2006. The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Hirsch, Eric. 1986. “The Creation of Political Solidarity in Social Movement Organizations.” The Sociological Quarterly 27(3): 373–87.
Hirsch, Eric. 1990. “Sacrifice for the Cause: Group Processes, Recruitment, and Commitment in a Student Social Movement.” American Sociological Review 55(2): 243–54.
Hirschman, Albert. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty; Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Humphreys, Macartan. 2005. “Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Uncovering the Mechanisms.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49(4): 508–37.
Humphreys, Macartan, and Weinstein, Jeremy. 2007. “Demobilization and Reintegration.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 51(4): 531–67.
Inman, Molly, and Davenport, Christian. 2012. “The State of State Repression Research.” Terrorism and Political Violence 24(4): 1–16.
Jaeger, David, and Daniele Paserman, M.. 2009. “The Shape of Things to Come? On the Dynamics of Suicide Attacks and Targeted Killing.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 4: 315–42.
Jeffries, Lance, ed. 2007. Black Power in the Belly of the Beast. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Jenkins, Craig. 1983. “Resource Mobilization Theory and the Study of Social Movements.” Annual Review of Sociology 9: 527–53.
Jenkins, Craig. 1998. “Channeling Social Protest: Foundation Patronage of Contemporary Social Movements.” In Private Action and the Public Good, ed. Powell, Walter and Clemens, Elisabeth, 206–16. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Jenkins, Craig, and Ekert, Craig. 1986. “Channeling Black Insurgency: Elite Patronage and Professional Social Movement Organizations in the Development of the Black Movement.” American Sociological Review 51(6): 812–29.
Jenkins, Craig, and Perrow, Charles. 1977. “Insurgency of the Powerless: Farm Worker Movements (1946–1972).” American Sociological Review 42: 249–68.
Johnson, Ollie. 1998. “Explaining the Demise of the Black Panther Party: The Role of Internal Factors.” In The Black Panther Party (Reconsidered), ed. Jones, Charles, 391–414. Baltimore: Black Classic Press.
Jones, Charles. 1988. “The Political Repression of the Black Panther Party 1966–1971: The Case of the Oakland Bay Area.” Journal of Black Studies 18(4): 415–34.
Jordan, Jenna. 2010. “Leadership Decapitation and Organizational Resilience.” Paper prepared for presentation at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, New Orleans.
Joseph, Jeremy. 2007. “Mediation in War: Winning Hearts and Minds Using Mediated Condolence Payments.” Negotiation Journal, July, 219–48.
Joseph, Peniel, ed. 2006. The Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights-Black Power Era. New York: Routledge.
Joseph, Peniel,. 2007. Waiting ‘til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America. New York: Holt Paperbacks.
Kalyvas, Stathis. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil Wars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kelley, Robin. 2002. Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination. Boston: Beacon Press.
Khawaja, Marwan. 1993. “Repression and Popular Collective Action: Evidence from the West- Bank.” Sociological Forum 8: 47–71.
Klandermans, Bert. 1984. “Mobilization and Participation: Social-Psychological Expansions of Resource Mobilization Theory.” American Sociological Review 49: 583–600.
Klandermans, Bert. 1993. “A Theoretical Framework for Comparisons of Social Movement Participation.” Sociological Forum 8(3): 383–402.
Klandermans, Bert. 1997. The Social Psychology of Protest. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Koehler, John. 1999. Stasi: The Untold Story of the East German Secret Police. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Koopmans, Ruud. 1993. “The Dynamics of Protest Waves: West Germany, 1965 to 1989.” American Sociological Review 58(5): 637–58.
Koopmans, Ruud. 2004. “Protest in Space and Time: The Evolution of Waves of Contention.” In The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, ed. Snow, David A., Soule, Sarah A., and Kriesi, Hanspeter, 19–46. London: Blackwell.
Koopmans, Ruud. 2005. “The Missing Link between Structure and Agency: Outline of an Evolutionary Approach to Social Movements.” Mobilization 10(1): 19–33.
Koopmans, Ruud, and Statham, Paul. 1999. “Political Claims Analysis: Integrating Protest Event and Political Discourse Approaches.” Mobilization 4(2): 203–21.
Kurzman, Charles. 1996. “Structural Opportunity and Perceived Opportunity in Social-Movement Theory: The Iranian Revolution of 1979.” American Sociological Review 61: 153–70.
Lahoud, Nelly. 2010. The Jihadis’ Path to Self-Destruction. New York: Columbia University Press.
Larson, Jeff, and Soule, Sarah. 2009. “Sector Level Dynamics and Collective Action in the United States, 1965–1975.” Mobilization 14(3): 293–314.
Lee, Chris, Maline, Sandra, and Moore, Will H.. 2000. “Coercion and Protest: An EmpiricalTest Revisited.” In Paths to State Repression: Human Rights and Contentious Politics in Comparative Perspective, ed. Davenport, Christian A., 125–44. Boulder, CO: Rowman and Littlefield.
Lee, Rensselaer. 2002. “Terrorist Financing: The U.S. and International Response.” Report for Congress. .
Lichbach, Mark. 1987. “Deterrence or Escalation? The Puzzle of Aggregate Studies of Repression and Dissent.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 31: 266–97.
Lichbach, Mark. 1995. The Rebel’s Dilemma. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Lichbach, Mark, and Gurr, Ted. 1981. “The Conflict Process – a Formal Model.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 25(1): 3–29.
Lipset, Seymour, and Marks, Gary. 2001. It Didn’t Happen Here: Why Socialism Failed in America. New York: W. W. Norton.
Loveman, Mara. 1998. “High-Risk Collective Action: Defending Human Rights in Chile, Uruguay, and Argentina.” American Journal of Sociology 104: 477–525.
Loyle, Cyanne, Sullivan, Chris, and Davenport, Christian. 2012. “The Coercive Weight of the Past: Temporal Dependence in the Conflict-Repression Nexus.” International Interactions 38(4): 1–17.
Lumumba, Chokwe. 1980. “Statement in Support of Present Leadership of Provisional Government, Dara Abubakari President.” Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Lyall, Jason. 2006. “Pocket Protests: Rhetorical Coercion and the Micropolitics of Collective Action in Semiauthoritarian Regimes.” World Politics 58: 378–412.
Lyall, Jason, and Willson, Isaiah. 2008. “Rage against the Machines: Explaining Outcomes in Counterinsurgency Wars.” International Organizations 63: 67–106.
Martin, Andrew, and Dixon, Marc. 2010. “Changing to Win? Threat, Resistance, and the Role of Unions in Strikes, 1984–2002.” American Journal of Sociology 116(1): 93–129.
Marx, Gary. 1974. “Thoughts on a Neglected Category of Social Movement Participant: The Agent Provocateur and the Informant.” American Journal of Sociology 80(2): 402–42.
Marx, Gary. 1979. “External Efforts to Damage or Facilitate Social Movements: Some Patterns, Explanations, Outcomes and Complications.” In The Dynamics of Social Movements: Resource Mobilization, Social Control, and Tactics, ed. Zald, Mayer and McCarthy, John. Cambridge, MA: Winthrop.
Mason, T. David, and Krane, Dale. 1989. “The Political-Economy of Death Squads: Toward a Theory of the Impact of State-Sanctioned Terror.” International Studies Quarterly 33(2): 175–98.
McAdam, Doug. 1982. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930–1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McAdam, Doug. 1986. “Recruitment to High-Risk Activism: The Case of Freedom Summer.” American Journal of Sociology 92: 64–90.
McAdam, Doug, and Richard Scott, W.. 2005. “Organizations and Movements.” In Social Movements and Organizational Theory, ed. Davis, Gerald F. et al., 4–40. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy, John, and Zald, Mayer. 1977. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.” American Journal of Sociology 82: 1212–39.
McKinley, William. 1993. “Organizational Decline and Adaptation: Theoretical Controversies.” Organization Science 4(1): 1–9.
McLaughlin, Theodore, and Pearlman, Wendy. 2012. “Out-Group Conflict, In-Group Unity? Exploring the Effect of Repression on Movement Fragmentation.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 56(1): 41–66.
Meyer, John, and Allen, Nathalie. 1991. “A Three Component Conceptualization of Organizational Commitment.” Human Resource Management Review 1: 61–89.
Meyer, John, and Rowan, Brian. 1977. “Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony.” American Journal of Sociology 83: 340–63.
Michigan Chronicle. 1968a. “Black Government Parley Called.” March 23.
Meyer, John, and Rowan, Brian. 1968b. “Separatists Plan Convention Here.” March 2.
Meyer, John, and Rowan, Brian. 1968c. “Black Separatists Set Up Government.” April 6.
Michigan State Police. 1968. Surveillance record 370. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Minkoff, Debra. 1993. “The Organization of Survival: Women’s and Racial-Ethnic Voluntarist and Activist Organizations, 1955–1985.” Social Forces 71(4): 887–908.
Minkoff, Debra. 1999. “Bending with the Wind: Strategic Change and Adaptation by Women’s and Racial Minority Organizations.” American Journal of Sociology 6: 1666–1703.
Mishra, Aneil. 1996. “Organizational Responses to Crisis: The Centrality of Trust.” In Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research, ed. Kramer, Roderick and Tyler, Tom, 261–87. London: Sage.
Moore, Will. 1998. “Repression and Dissent: Substitution, Context, and Timing.” American Journal of Political Science 42(3): 851–73.
Moore, Will. 2000. “The Repression of Dissent: A Substitution Model of Government Coercion.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 44: 107–27.
Morris, Aldon. 1981. “Black Southern Sit-In Movement: An Analysis of Internal Organization.” American Sociological Review 46: 744–67.
Morris, Aldon. 1984. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Free Press.
Muller, Edward. 1985. “Income Inequality, Regime Repressiveness and Political Violence.” American Sociological Review 50: 47–61.
Myers, Daniel. 1997. “Racial Rioting in the 1960s: An Event History Analysis of Local Conditions.” American Sociological Review 62(1): 94–112.
Nepstad, Sharon. 2004. “Persistent Resistance: Commitment and Community in the Plowshares.” Social Problems 51(1): 43–60.
Now!. 1965. “Community News.” Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Obadele, Imari. 1968. War in America: The Malcolm X Doctrine. Detroit, MI: The Malcolm X Society.
Obadele, Imari. 1969. Letter in response to Ocean Hill–Brownsville investigation. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Obadele, Imari. 1970a. Revolution and Nation-Building: Strategy for Building the Black Nation in America. Detroit, MI: House of Songhay.
Obadele, Imari. 1970b. “Come to the Land.” Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Obadele, Imari. 1970c. Untitled manuscript. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Obadele, Imari. 1971. “Directive to Expedite Success of the Revolution.” Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Obadele, Imari. 1972. Letter to membership. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Obadele, Imari. 1975. Foundations of the Black Nation. Detroit, MI: House of Songhay.
Obadele, Imari. 1982. The Malcolm Generation and Other Stories. Philadelphia: House of Songhay.
Obadele, Imari. 1984. Free the Land! The True Story of the Trials of the RNA-11 in Mississippi and the Continuing Struggle to Establish an Independent Black Nation in Five States of the Deep South. Washington, DC: House of Songhay.
Obadele, Imari. 1991a. America the Nation-State: The Politics of the United States from a State-Building Perspective. Baton Rouge, LA: House of Songhay.
Obadele, Imari. 1991b. The Macro-Level Theory of Human Organization. Baton Rouge, LA: House of Songhay.
Obadele, Imari, and Carson, Sonny. 1969. “The Situation in Ocean Hill–Brownsville.” Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Oberschall, Anthony. 1973. Social Movements. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Oliver, Pamela, and Myers, Dan. 2002. “The Coevolution of Social Movements.” Mobilization 8(1): 1–24.
Olivier, Johan L. 1991. “State Repression and Collective Action in South Africa, 1970–1984.” South African Journal of Sociology 22: 109–17.
Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Olzak, Susan, and Ryo, Emily. 2007. “Organization Diversity, Vitality and Outcomes in the Civil Rights Movement.” Social Forces 85(4): 1561–91.
O’Neill, Bard. 2005. Insurgency and Terrorism: From Revolution to Apocalypse. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.
Opp, Karl-Dieter, and Gern, Christiane. 1993. “Dissident Groups, Personal Networks, and Spontaneous Cooperation: The East German Revolution of 1989.” American Sociological Review 58(5): 659–80.
Opp, Karl-Dieter, and Roehl, Wolfgang. 1990. “Repression, Micromobilization, and Political Protest.” Social Forces 69(2): 521–47.
Ortiz, David. 2007. “Confronting Oppression with Violence: Inequality, Military Infrastructure and Dissident Repression.” Mobilization 12(3): 219–38.
Passy, Florence, and Giugni, Marco. 2000. “Life-Spheres, Networks, and Sustained Participation in Social Movements: A Phenomenological Approach to Political Commitment.” Sociological Forum 15(1): 117–44.
Pearlman, Wendy. 2008–9. “Spoiling Inside and Out: Internal Political Contestation and the Middle East Peace Process.” International Security 33(3): 79–109.
Pearson, Christine M., and Clair, Judith A.. 1998. “Reframing Crisis Management”. Academy of Management Review 23(1): 59–76.
Pierskalla, Jan. 2009. “Protest, Deterrence and Escalation: The Strategic Calculus of Government Repression.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 54(1): 117–45.
Pieth, Mark. 2006. “Criminalizing the Financing of Terrorism.” Journal of International Criminal Justice 4(5): 1074–93.
Pinard, Maurice. 1971. The Rise of a Third Party. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Piven, Fox, and Cloward, Richard. 1979. Poor People’s Movements. New York: Vintage.
Piven, Fox, and Cloward, Richard. 1993. Regulating the Poor. 2nd ed. New York: Vintage.
Plain Dealer. 1968. “Black Nation Draft Constitution.” April 1.
Podair, Jerold. 2002. The Strike That Changed New York. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Poletta, Francesca. 2002. Freedom Is an Endless Meeting: Democracy in American Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Pratkanis, Anthony, and Greenwald, Anthony. 1989. “A Sociocognitive Model of Attitude Structure and Function.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 22: 245–85.
Price, Bryan. 2010. “Removing the Devil You Know: An Empirical Analysis of Leadership Decapitation and Terrorist Group Duration.” Paper at presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, New Orleans, LA.
Radical Information Project. 1969. Anonymous police report. University of Michigan.
Radical Information Project. 2010. “Telegram from Milton Henry to Michigan Governor, Dated 1967.” University of Michigan. .
Rasler, Karen. 1996. “Concessions, Repression, and Political Protest in the Iranian Revolution.” American Sociological Review 61: 132–52.
Reddick, Lawrence. 1953. “The Relative Status of the Negro in the American Armed Forces.” The Journal of Negro Education 22(3): 380–87.
Republic of New Africa. 1968a. “Objectives of Government through 30 October 1968.” Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Republic of New Africa. 1968b. “The Birth of Our Nation.” Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Republic of New Africa. 1969. Untitled document. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Republic of New Africa. 1970. “A Short History – The Republic of New Africa.” Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Republic of New Africa. 1971. Directive 00006. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Republic of New Africa – Council of Political Policy and Action. 1969. Untitled document. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Robinson, Sandra, Dirks, Kurt, and Ozcelik, Hakan. 2004. “Untangling the Knot of Trust and Betrayal.” In Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Dilemmas and Approaches, ed. Kramer, Roderick and Cook, Karen, 327–41. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Series on Trust.
Ron, James. 2005. “Paradigm in Distress? Primary Commodities and Civil War.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49(4): 443–50.
Ruef, Martin. 2000. “The Emergence of Organizational Forms: A Community Ecology Approach.” American Journal of Sociology 106: 658–714.
Salanova, Marisa, and Llorens, Susana. 2008. “Current State of Research on Burnout and Future Challenges.” Papeles del Psicologo 29(1): 59–67.
Sales, William. 1999. From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. Boston: South End Press.
Sambanis, Nicholas. 2004. “What Is Civil War? Conceptual and Empirical Complexities of an Operational Definition.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 48(6): 814–58.
Scherer, K. R. 2001. “Appraisal Considered as a Process of Multilevel Sequential Checking.” In Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory, Methods, Research, ed. Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A., and Johnstone, T., 92–120. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schertzing, Phillip. 1999. “Against All Enemies and Opposers Whatever: The Michigan State Police Crusade against the Un-Americans, 1917–1977.” PhD diss., Michigan State University.
Schrecker, Ellen. 1998. Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. New York: Little, Brown.
Shellman, Stephen. 2006. “Process Matters: Conflict and Cooperation in Sequential Government-Dissident Interactions.” Security Studies 15(4): 563–99.
Sherrill, Robert. 1968a. “…We Also Want Four Hundred Billion Dollars Back Pay: Separatism Command.” Esquire, January.
Sherrill, Robert. 1968b. “Whitey’s Reaction: From a Grudging Yes to an Oh, No, No, No to the Usual Confusion” Esquire, January.
Simon, Marc. 1994. “Hawks, Doves and Civil Conflict Dynamics: A ‘Strategic’ Action- Reaction Model.” International Interactions 19(3): 213–39.
Smith, Ernest. 1963. “Why an All Black Party?” Freedom Now Party. Radical Information Project, University of Michigan.
Snow, David A., Zurcher, Louis A., and Ekland-Olson, Sheldon. 1980. “Social Networks and Social Movements: A Microstructural Approach to Differential Recruitment.” American Sociological Review 45: 787–801.
Soule, Sarah A., and King, Brayden. 2008. “Competition and Resource Partitioning in Three Social Movement Industries.” American Journal of Sociology 113(6): 1568–1610.
Spreen, Johannes, and Holloway, Diane. 2005. Who Killed Detroit? Other Cities Beware!Lincoln, NB: iUniverse.
Suchman, Mark. 1995. “Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches.” Academy of Management Review 20(3): 571–610.
Sugrue, Thomas. 2005. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Steedly, Homer, and Foley, John. 1979. “The Success of Protest Groups: Multivariate Analyses.” Social Science Research 8: 1–15.
Stryker, Sheldon. 2000. “Identity Competition: Key to Differential Social Movement Participation.” In Self, Identity, and Social Movements, ed. Stryker, Sheldon, Owens, Timothy, and White, Robert, 21–40. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1994. Power in Movement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, Verta. 1989. “Social Movement Continuity: The Women’s Movement in Abeyance.” American Sociological Review 54: 761–75.
Thompson, Heather. 2004. Whose Detroit? Politics, Labor, and Race in a Modern American City. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Tilly, Charles. 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution. New York: Paradigm Press.
Tilly, Charles. 2000. “Processes and Mechanisms of Democratization.” Sociological Theory 18: 1–16.
Tilly, Charles. 2005. Trust and Rule. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tilly, Charles. 2006. Regimes and Repertoires. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Turrini, Joseph. 1999. “Phooie on Louie: African American Detroit and the Election of Jerry Cavanaugh.” Michigan History Magazine, November/December, 11–17.
Tyson, Timothy. 1999. Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of Black Power. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Umoja, , A. O. 2013. We Will Shoot: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement. New York: New York University Press.
U.S. Department of Justice. 1968. Untitled memo regarding the RNA. June 13. The Radical Information Project, The University of Michigan.
U.S. Department of Justice. 1969. “Mass Media, a Racist Institution: Coverage of the New Bethel Incident by the Detroit News and the Detroit Free Press, March 20–April 3, 1969.” Ferndale, MI: Detroit Area People against Racism.
Van Deburg, W. L. 1992. New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965–1975. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Walter, Barbara F. 2006. “Building Reputation: Why Governments Fight Some Separatists but Not Others.” American Journal of Political Science 50(2): 313–30.
Weber, Max. 1946. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Weede, Erich. 1987. “The Rise of the West to Eurosclerosis: Are There Lessons for the Asian-Pacific Region?Asian Culture Quarterly 15(1): 1–14.
Weinstein, Jeremy. 2005. “Resources and the Information Problem in Rebel Recruitment.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49(4): 598–624.
Weinstein, Jeremy. 2007. Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weitzel, William, and Jonsson, Ellen. 1989. “Decline in Organizations: A Literature Integration and Extension.” Administrative Science Quarterly 34(1): 91–109.
White, Robert. 1989. “From Peaceful Protest to Guerrilla War: Micromobilization of the Provisional Irish Republican Army.” American Journal of Sociology 94(6): 1277–302.
Widick, B. J. 1972. Detroit: City of Race and Class Violence. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.
Williams, Robert. 1962. Negroes with Guns. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.
Wood, Elisabeth. 2003. Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Woodard, Komozi. 1999. A Nation within a Nation: Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) and Black Power Politics. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Woodard, Komozi. 2003. Freedom North: Black Freedom Struggles outside the South, 1940–1980. New York: Palgrave.
X, Malcolm. 1964. “The Ballot or the Bullet.” Speech delivered in Cleveland, Ohio. .
Zald, Mayer, and Ash, Roberta. 1966. “Social Movement Organizations: Growth, Decay and Change.” Social Forces 44: 327–41.
Zeile, Rachel. 2006. “Now We Have a Nation: The Republic of New Africa and Black Separatism in Detroit, 1968–1971.” Honors thesis, Dartmouth College.
Zwerman, Gilda, and Steinhoff, Patricia. 2005. “When Activists Ask for Trouble: State-Dissident Interactions and the New Left Cycle of Resistance in the United States and Japan.” In Repression and Mobilization, ed. Davenport, Christian, Johnston, Hank, and Mueller, Carol, 85–107. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Zwerman, Gilda, Steinhoff, Patricia, and della Porta, Donatella. 2000. “Disappearing Social Movements: Clandestinity in the Cycle of New Left Protest in the U.S., Japan, Germany and Italy.” Mobilization 5(1): 85–104.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.