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Index

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 December 2021

Michael N. Barnett
Affiliation:
George Washington University, Washington DC
Jon C. W. Pevehouse
Affiliation:
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Kal Raustiala
Affiliation:
University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law

Summary

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Index

Note: Page numbers with the suffix n indicate a footnote and those in bold indicate figures or tables.

actors, 6, 2122, 2627, 164166, 350
Ador, Gustave, 269270
agency, and contingency, 352353
aid, 161, 169, 256257 see also humanitarian assistance
aid workers, 156158, 160, 162163, 172173
aluminum sector, 8485, 9293
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 5152, 60
anarchy, 342343, 343n
anti-terrorism operations, 216, 219, 224, 226230
antitrust laws and cartels, 8485, 9192, 9899
Appia, Louis, 267
arbitration, 104 see also international commercial arbitration (ICA)
armed conflict see conflict management
armed forces see military forces
arms manufacturers, 5253, 56, 63, 65
Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), 5455, 66
Asia-Pacific Partnership, 296
Asian Development Bank, 328329
Australia, firearms laws, 5354, 6162
Bank for International Settlements (BIS), 82
banks see central banks
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS), 97
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), 22, 239, 243, 245
Bourdieu, Pierre, 35, 156, 162, 251
Brazil
arms control, 6566
climate change, 119
and global trade regime, 137138
opinion surveys, 324327, 326
Bretton Woods, 8991, 346
Brexit, 26
BRICS (Brazil/Russia/India/China/South Africa)
and climate change governance, 117
governance representation demands, 313314
informal clubs, 314315
rising power, 19
bureaucracy, 12, 6970, 216218
Bush, George H.W., 293
Bush, George W., 204205
Canada, trade agreements, 140141, 145
capital, 156, 162164
cultural capital, 172173
economic capital, 169170
social capital, 165166, 172
symbolic capital, 170171
capitalism, 20
carbon cap and trade, 14, 126
carbon markets, 111112, 115, 120121, 125126, 298
cartels
definition, 83
destruction, 102104
informal hierarchy, 13
and market stability, 88
postwar, 9195, 98100
US anti-trust laws and cartels, 8485, 9192, 9899
causes of change see drivers of change
Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, 7172
central banks
domestic economic requirements, 98
financial crisis cooperation, 97
and the gold standard, 7983, 8889
government support, 103
interwar era, 8082
networked cooperation, 81, 83, 96, 102
pre-war era, 79
private financial diplomacy, 81
regulatory and independent role, 104
China
carbon market, 115
China–US climate change commitment, 117118
emissions, 113
and global trade regime, 137
health and humanitarian aid, 256
regional trade agreements, 138139
rising power, 19, 314
civilian protection, 223, 224226, 224, 228, 271
clean energy governance
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 111112, 298
consolidation, 291
decentralized and hybrid nature, 37, 289, 295, 302304
definitions, 290
early interest, 290291
entrepreneurship, 37, 298, 303304
expertise, 300, 303
geopolitics, 302303
market mechanisms, 14, 298299
and markets, 298
network-based collaboration, 291, 294298, 295, 304
non-state and sub-state actors, 297298
North–South inequities, 305306
stalemate in climate cooperation, 291, 294
state actors, 293, 300, 305306
transnational initiatives, 295296, 295, 300302
climate change, affects those least responsible, 110
climate change governance
carbon cap and trade, 14, 126
carbon markets, 111112, 115, 120121, 125126
China–US commitment, 117118
drivers for change, 109
emissions reduction targets, 111, 113114, 119, 123, 125126
evaluation, 125
evolving modes of governance, 33, 109111, 115
and experts, 118
Global Environment Facility, 112113, 293
global rationalization, 109, 118121
Green Climate Fund, 112113
market mode of governance, 116
market-based mechanisms, 122
networked governance, 112114, 121
new governance shortcomings, 125126
non-state and subnational actors, 114, 121123, 125
Paris Agreement compared with Kyoto Protocol, 113115 see also Kyoto Protocol (1997); Paris Agreement (2016)
Climate Investment Facility (CIF), 295, 298299
Climate Technology Centre and Network, 298
Cold War, 20, 50, 94, 238
commodity agreements, 9394 see also cartels
Common but differentiated responsibility (CBDR), 116117
communications technology
early costliness and unreliability, 187188
health implications, 250
and the internet, 193194, 197
and new forms of governance, 2425
competition laws, 99 see also cartels
complex governance see hybrid mode of governance
conflict management
Afghanistan experience, 226
An Agenda for Peace (1992), 223
anti-terrorism operations, 219, 224, 226230
civilian protection, 223, 224226, 224, 228, 271
and climate change, 110
and development actors, 283284
diversity of initiatives, 277, 281282
expert professionals, 3536, 217, 219, 222, 229230
governance origins, 266268
hierarchical/networked governance, 15, 268
IO concern, 220221
mandate complexity, 222
military deployment, 216, 227229
non-international armed conflicts, 276277
non-state actors, 216217, 219, 221222, 226
peace building, 223
rights protection, 223225, 224, 270271
UN crisis missions, 223224
Western states, 226228 see also Geneva Conventions; International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); international humanitarian law (IHL); private military and security companies (PMSCs)
Congo, UN peace operation (ONUC), 223
contingency, and agency, 352353
Covid-19
development aid challenges, 174
effect on global health governance, 251, 254
governance limitations, 338339
origins, 243244, 255
pluralization of actors, 350
state centrality, 244
Trump response, 360
WHO role, 243244
cultural capital, 156, 162163, 172173
currencies
fixed exchange rates, 9091
gold standard, 7983, 8889
customary law, 272
Davison, Henry P., 269
De Beers, 84, 99100
decentralization
clean energy governance, 37, 289, 295, 302304
fragile state governance, 227228
growing trend, 302303
and informal governance, 197, 199200, 210
transgovernmental networks, 288289
UN peacekeeping, 227228 see also hybrid mode of governance; network mode of governance
democratization, 102, 315316
demographic change, health implications, 248249
developing countries
clean energy governance, 301
climate regime exemptions, 111, 120
commodity agreements, 9394
and GATT, 132133, 140
network and market power, 137138
and supply chains, 144
and trade negotiations, 132133, 136137 see also Southern actors
development assistance, for health (DAH), 240, 256, 258
diamond cartel, 84, 99100
diplomacy
early communication challenges, 187188
face-to-face, 184, 189n
information needs, 35, 184
permanent missions/delegations, 190, 192
private financial diplomacy, 81
virtual diplomacy, 189n
diplomatic hubs
foreign ministries (FMs), 190, 191, 191, 188192
formal intergovernmental organizations (FIGOs), 189, 188192
Hierarchy plus Networks (HpN) model, 183185, 192194, 197199, 198, 204
hub-and-spokes structure, 188192, 189, 191, 203
League of Nations, 192
disease
Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), 253
Ebola, 242, 254
Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 239242
HIV/AIDS, 239240, 250251, 254
International Health Regulations (IHR), 247, 254
International Sanitary Convention (1892), 236237
malaria and tuberculosis, 240242, 254
outbreak preparedness, 258 see also Covid-19
Doha Round, 20, 2223, 136137
domestic politics, 2526, 149150, 317319, 349
donors, 161, 169170
drivers of change, 6, 1727, 7879, 104, 109, 312319, 348353
Dufour, Guillaume-Henri, 267
Dunant, Henry, 265, 267
Duterte, Rodrigo, 318
Ebola, 242, 254
economic change, 6, 20
economic power, 252
effective governance
changes, 215
complex governance mode, 6769, 68
core functions, 1516
definition, 2728
and ethics, 2831
evaluation, 2728
health governance, 254257
humanitarian governance critique, 167168
and legitimacy, 7072
stakeholder inclusion, 5152, 6870, 252254, 317 see also legitimacy
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 195
electrical equipment sector, 84
electricity, E-7 (Global Sustainable Electricity Partnership), 295
elites
common interests, 161
control of capital, 156, 162164
exclusive clubs, 164166
humanitarian governance, 161162, 166167
opinion surveys, 324327, 326327
emergency aid, 158159, 169 see also humanitarian governance
energy see clean energy governance; oil sector; renewable energy
Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), 292293
environment
common but differentiated responsibility (CBDR), 116117
liberal environmentalism, 122
ozone regime, 120
and trade, 145148 see also clean energy governance; climate change governance
ethics, and effective governance, 2831
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), 34, 92
European Community/Union (EC/EU)
arms control measures, 64
banal authority, 6970
Brexit, 318
and climate change, 119, 126
competition policy, 93
democratic deficit, 316
governance, 1213
humanitarian aid, 161
public trust, 322, 323
renewable energy, 126, 294
Yugoslavia conflict and human rights, 146147
evaluation, climate change governance, 125
experimentalist governance, 124
expertise
aid workers, 160, 162163, 173
clean energy governance, 300, 303
climate change governance, 118
conflict management, 3536, 217, 219, 222, 229230
cultural capital, 156, 162163
as driver of change, 6
global governance, 910
global health, 252
humanitarian governance, 160, 162163, 173
ICRC, 282283
International Energy Agency, 299
international humanitarian law, 282283
PSI’s Operational Experts Group (OEG), 205208
valued over lived knowledge, 24
field theory, 159161
FIGOs see formal intergovernmental organizations (FIGOs)
finance see central banks; currencies
financial crises, 9798
Financial Stability Board, 98, 102
foreign ministries (FMs)
diminished role, 199200, 209210
as diplomatic hubs, 188192, 189, 190, 191, 191
IIGO role, 198199, 204, 204n
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), 324326, 325
formal intergovernmental organizations (FIGOs)
bureaucratization and formality, 201, 202
changing number, 79, 8, 182
compared with IIGOs, 196, 201, 203, 202
declining role, 183, 209210
as diplomatic hubs, 188192, 189
economies of scale, 190
IIGO interactions, 199
permanent missions/delegations, 190, 192
technical and political information, 35, 184 see also informal intergovernmental organizations (IIGOs); international organizations (IOs)
fragile state governance
Afghanistan, 226
anti-terrorism operations, 219, 224, 226228
civilian protection, 2526, 223, 224, 224226, 228, 271
governance, 214215, 229230
hierarchical/network hybrid governance, 222, 228230
IO jurisdiction, 219221
issue-specific professional networks, 3536, 214217, 219220, 222, 227230
mandate complexity, 222
national state strategies, 219, 221
networked decentralization, 227228
new actors and governance tools, 214216
non-state actors, 221222
rights protection, 223224, 224
shadow of hierarchy, 219
and UN peacekeeping, 219 see also conflict management
France, public trust in the EU, 323
Friends of the Earth, 121
G7/G8, 208209
G20
elite opinion, 324326, 325
financial policy coordination, 98
regional representation, 314
Galapagos Islands, 299300
Gates Foundation (BMGF), 22, 239, 243, 245
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
Article XXIV and Enabling Clause, 139141
and developing countries, 132133, 140
dispute mechanism, 133, 147
hierarchical governance, 131132
legitimacy concerns, 313
negotiations, 2223
Uruguay Round, 136, 139
Gavi (Global Alliance on Vaccines), 23, 239240, 242
Geneva Conventions, 265268, 271272, 281282
Protocols, 270271, 274, 282
geopolitics
in clean energy governance, 302303
in climate change governance, 109, 116118, 294
as driver of change, 6, 1920, 313315, 348349
post-Cold War, 50, 5253, 55
in trade regime, 135139
Germany
Nazi regime cartel agreements, 9192
opinion surveys, 321, 322323, 324327, 326
global economic governance
complex governance, 345
cross-border flow complexity, 101102
democratization, 102
and international markets, 103104
interwar years, 33, 7883, 8889
networked and market governance, 96, 102
normative challenges, 104105
shadow of hierarchy, 103
Global Environment Facility, 112, 293
Global Financing Facility for Women and Children’s Health, 253
Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 239242, 247
global governance
absence of governance, 347348
agency and contingency, 352353
contemporary weaknesses, 4, 338339
core functions, 1516
definition, 13, 10
diversity and complexity, 13, 15, 288, 305, 341342
drivers of change, 6, 1727, 7879, 104, 109, 312319, 350353
fragmentation, 339340
future prospects, 361
norms of governance, 315317, 329
“open system,” 215, 218219
policy problem areas (low-hanging fruit), 2223, 330, 351
postwar ambition and vision, 34, 216217
postwar modernism, 1
power, 251252, 252 see also decentralization; effective governance; modes of governance
global health, 234235
global health governance (GHG)
actor multiplicity, 251252, 350
centralization, 236
complex adaptive system, 245246, 346347
cross-border externalities, 255
definition, 235
effectiveness, 254257
evolution, 36
finance, 239240, 242, 244, 247
and globalization, 248
goal-setting and monitoring, 257
hierarchy elements, 245
International Health Regulations, 247, 254
low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), 240, 242
market elements, 245246
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), 239241
network elements, 235236, 246
non-state actors, 237238, 240, 242
North–South conflicts, 240241
post-1992 expansion, 238241
postwar, 237238
power, 251252, 252
power disparities, 245
pre-war, 236237
and the private sector, 249
public goods provision, 256
stakeholder legitimacy, 252254
state role, 240241, 244
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), 241242, 247, 257258
UN role, 247
universal health coverage (UHC), 245, 257258
global rationalization see rationalization
global supply chain trade, 143145
global value chains, 143145
global warming see climate change; climate change governance
globalization
and domestic discontent, 317319
driver of governance change, 7879, 104, 317319
health challenges, 235, 248
and ICA (international commercial arbitration), 100101
public opposition, 136, 149150
gold standard, 7983, 8889
Gove, Michael, 318
governance theory, changing ideologies, 6
Greece, financial adjustment program, 9798
Green Climate Fund, 112113
Rio Conventions Joint Liaison Group, 112113
Greenhouse Gas Protocol (2010), 125
Greenpeace, 121
gun control see small arms governance
Guterres, Antonio, 338339, 361
Hague Law, 273274
Havana Charter, 140
heads of government (HOGs)
definition, 185n
face-to-face diplomacy, 184
information needs, 184
political interactions, 184185, 198, 198
Proliferation Security Initiative, 207209
transport and communications improvements, 195197
health
challenges, 255, 234
effect of demographic change, 248249
mortality improvements, 240
non-communicable diseases (NCDs), 248249, 258
and technological change, 240, 249250 see also disease; global health governance (GHG)
heuristics, 330332
hierarchical mode of governance
Bretton Woods institutions, 8991
cartels, 8485
characteristics, 46, 1213
compared with markets and networks, 3031
dis/advantages, 3031, 67
fragile states, 215216
global governance, 346, 343
global health governance, 245
humanitarian governance, 155
informal arrangements, 13
IOs, 13, 217218
military forces, 12
regional trade arrangements, 141, 149
shadow of hierarchy see shadow of hierarchy
small arms, 55, 61, 67
trade governance, 130135
trade governance under threat, 134, 148149 see also hybrid mode of governance; market mode of governance; network mode of governance
Hierarchy plus Networks (HpN) model, 183185, 192194, 197199, 198, 204
HIV/AIDS, 239240, 250251
hub-and-spokes structure, 188192, 189, 191, 203 see also diplomatic hubs
human rights
civilian protection, 223, 224, 224226, 228, 271
in conflict management, 223224, 224, 224226, 270271, 274275
incremental adaptation, 346
networks of governance, 15
in trade negotiations, 145146
Yugoslavia conflict, 146147
humanitarian assistance, 161, 256257
humanitarian governance
accountability, 170
actors, 160162
criticisms and challenges, 157, 167168, 174175
donors, 161
durable inequality, 157, 167168, 173
elite actors, 156, 161164
expertise, 160, 162163, 173
field theory, 159161
finance, 169170
hierarchy characteristics, 155
historical origins, 157158
Humanitarian Club exclusivity, 3435, 155156, 166167
Humanitarian Club network/hierarchy characteristics, 156157
localization efforts, 168, 170171, 174
market mechanisms, 155
military aid, 161
network characteristics, 155
post-Cold War development, 158159
principles, 159, 170171
rationalization and legitimacy, 160, 352
reporting and monitoring, 169170
role differentiation, 160162
rules for legitimate action, 160
and social capital, 165166, 172
and symbolic capital, 170171
UN agencies, 158, 161162, 167168 see also Southern actors
humanitarian imperative, 159
hybrid mode of governance
clean energy, 37, 289, 302304
climate change governance shortcomings, 125126
contemporary, 344345
diversity and path dependence, 358360
effective governance, 6769, 68
effectiveness of lower bureaucratic levels, 6970
four modes, 354356, 355
fragile states, 222, 228230
global economy, 345
global governance, 13, 15, 341342
global health, 36, 245246, 268, 271, 346347
Hierarchy plus Networks (HpN) model, 183185, 192194, 197199, 198, 204
international humanitarian law (IHL), 36, 268, 271, 356
legitimacy, 7172
pathways to integration, 356358
pragmatic conception, 4950, 6768, 68
private military and security companies (PMSCs), 4852, 5661, 6768, 72
ICA see international commercial arbitration (ICA)
ICRC see International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
ideologies of governance, 23, 5657, 221222
IHL see international humanitarian law (IHL)
IIGOs see informal intergovernmental organizations (IIGOs)
implementation of rules, core governance function, 1516
inclusivity, and legitimacy, 2930
India
and global trade regime, 137
renewable energy, 119
informal intergovernmental organizations (IIGOs)
advantages over FIGOs, 202204, 210
effect on small states, 210
enabled by transport and communications improvements, 195197
flexibility and speed of action, 201202
growing demand, 186187
Hierarchy plus Networks (HpN) model, 183185, 192194, 197199, 198, 204
information gathering, 35, 184
proliferation, 182, 197 see also formal intergovernmental organizations (FIGOs); international organizations (IOs)
information, diplomatic needs, 35, 184
intellectual property (IP) rules, 137, 241
Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries, 94
International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA), 5355, 62
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Arbitration Court, 87
International Code of Conduct Association (ICoCA), 6061, 6869, 7172, 283
International Coffee Agreement, 99
International Coffee Organization (ICO), 94
international commercial arbitration (ICA)
demand from international business, 8889
domestic arbitration courts, 8687
early history, 8586
enforcement challenges, 8788
growth under globalization, 100101
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Arbitration Court, 87
interwar, 8588
networked governance, 101
New York Convention (1958), 9596, 100
postwar, 9596, 100101
shadow of hierarchy, 9596, 103
transnational identity, 103
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
armed conflict initiatives, 269270
authority, 279280
and expert communities, 282283
guardian and promoter of IHL, 36, 265, 271272
interwar expansion, 268269
National Societies, 265, 267268, 278
private military and security companies initiative, 5152, 5760, 7172
resilience, 265266
rival American Federation proposal, 269
UN Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), 161162
International Conference on Firearms Legislation (ICFL), 6263
International Criminal Court (ICC), 283, 324326, 325
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), 275276
International Energy Agency (IEA), 292, 299
Renewable Energy Unit, 295
Working Party on Renewable Energy Technologies, 292
international humanitarian law (IHL)
achievements, 280281
customary law, 272
definition, 265
diversity of initiatives, 277, 281282
and expert communities, 282283
Hague Law (military necessity), 273274
hierarchy/network hybrid model, 36, 265, 268, 271, 356
humanitarian diplomacy, 279
humanization trends, 273275
ICRC development process, 271272
implementation, 283
International Conferences, 272273
international criminal justice, 275276, 283
legitimacy, 282
military training and awareness, 277
national committees, 278
origins, 266268, 280
shadow of hierarchy, 279280
and the UN, 270271
weapons regulation, 278 see also Geneva Conventions
international markets, 103104
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Bretton Woods agreements, 8991
conditionality, 103104
elite opinion, 324326, 325
financial crisis management, 9798
legitimacy concerns, 313314
postwar ambition, 34
reforms, 314, 329
voting reform, 328
international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), 158, 160, 162, 169170
International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO), 22
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 5152
international organizations (IOs)
bureaucracy, 216217
changing number, 79, 8, 182
clean energy initiatives, 296
complexification, 288, 305
creation, 1
decentralized governance, 288289
early communications, 187188
expansion of mandates, 288
funding reductions, 215
geopolitical shifts, 313315
governance norms, 315317
governance theories, 217218
hierarchical mode, 13, 217218
hub-and-spokes structure, 188192, 189, 191, 203
legitimacy concerns, 312319
and new actors, 21
as open systems, 218219
reforms, 314, 316, 328329
resilience, 327332
secretariats, 189190, 194, 199
surveys of elite opinion, 321, 324327, 326327
surveys of public opinion, 319324, 321, 323
transitory monopoly, 77
Western bias, 313
withdrawal threats, 319 see also formal intergovernmental organizations (FIGOs); informal intergovernmental organizations (IIGOs)
International Peace (stability) Operations Association, 59
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
hybrid network, 36, 268, 271
International Conferences, 271272
National Societies, 265, 267268, 278 see also International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), 291, 300
International Save the Children Union, 269
International Tin Council (ITC), 9394
International Trade Organization (ITO), 92, 131132, 140, 143
internet, 193194, 197
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), 324326, 325
Iraq war, private military and security companies, 5657
Japan
cartels, 93
opinion surveys on UN, 321, 322
Kimberley Process (KP), 100, 324326, 325
KPMG, 221
Kyoto Protocol (1997), 295
carbon markets, 111112, 120121
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 111112, 298
common but differentiated responsibility (CBDR), 116117
compared with Paris Agreement, 113115
developing country exemption, 111, 116
emissions targets, 111, 119
energy sector reforms, 293294
entry into force, 117
failure, 109, 120121, 123
and Russia, 116117
US refusal to ratify, 111, 116, 294
weaknesses, 119120
labor rights, 145146
landmines, 15, 278
Le Pen, Marine, 318
League of Nations, 80, 192, 269270, 339
legitimacy
centrality to global governance, 2829
concerns, 312319
definition, 2829, 311312
democratic standards, 315316
and effective governance, 7072
elite opinion surveys, 324327, 325327
ethics of government, 2829
EU public trust, 322, 323
of global governance, 2930
global health governance (GHG), 252254
globalization discontent, 317319
heuristic dynamics, 330332
humanitarian governance, 160
hybrid governance mode, 6972
inclusivity, 2930
international humanitarian law (IHL), 282
and IO reforms, 314, 316, 328329
IOs versus new forms of governance, 324327, 326
limitations of new governance modes, 329330
network modes of governance, 31
norms of governance, 315317, 329
output legitimacy, 2829, 315
private military and security companies (PMSCS), 7172
process legitimacy, 2829
rational-legal authority, 24, 351
resilience of traditional governance modes, 37, 327332
stakeholder inclusion, 5152, 6870, 252254, 317
UN public trust, 320322, 321 see also hierarchical mode of governance; market mode of governance; modes of governance; network mode of governance
Lieber, Francis, 267
Local Government for Sustainability (ICLEI), 295
London Court of Arbitration, 8687
low-hanging fruit (policy problem areas), 2223, 330, 351
malaria, 240242, 254
Mali, 219
market mode of governance
characteristics, 46, 1314
clean energy, 14, 298299
climate change governance, 116
dis/advantages, 31, 343344
examples, 14
global health, 245246, 249
humanitarian governance, 155
interwar era, 33, 78, 8889
Paris Agreement activity, 114115
private security providers, 52
shadow of hierarchy, 1617
trade regime, 133134 see also carbon markets; hierarchical mode of governance; hybrid mode of governance; network mode of governance
Maunoir, Théodore, 267
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), 279
medicines, intellectual property (IP) rules, 241
mercenaries, 5051 see also private military and security companies (PMSCs)
migration, and climate change, 110
military aid, 161
military forces
in conflict management, 216, 227229
hierarchical organization, 12
military training and awareness, 277 see also private military and security companies (PMSCs)
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), 239241
modes of governance
complex see hybrid mode of governance
drivers of change, 6, 1727, 7879, 104, 109, 312319, 350353
evaluation, 67
hierarchical see hierarchical mode of governance; shadow of hierarchy
Hierarchy plus Networks (HpN) model, 183185, 192194, 197199, 198, 204
historical changes, 345347
hybrid see hybrid mode of governance
ideal-typical analysis, 1012
identification of voids, 347348
interwar era, 33, 78, 8889
limitations of new modes, 329330
market see market mode of governance
network see network mode of governance
resilience of traditional modes, 37, 327332
response to events, 229
three types, 46, 15, 340344
monitoring, 1516, 146, 169170, 216217, 257, 282283
Montreux Document, 58
moral power, 252
Moynier, Gustave, 267, 269
National Rifle Association (NRA), 5354, 62, 6566
National Societies (ICRC), 265, 267268, 278
nationalism, 26
negotiation forum, core governance function, 1516
neoliberalism, 20, 249
network mode of governance
characteristics, 46, 1415
clean energy governance, 291, 294298, 295, 304
climate change, 112113
decentralization, 288289
definition, 14
developing states, 137138
dis/advantages, 31, 344
fragile state governance, 3536, 217, 222, 227230
global health, 235236, 246
Hierarchy plus Networks (HpN) model, 183185, 192194, 197199, 198, 204
humanitarian governance, 155
increase, 8, 9, 15
international commercial arbitration (ICA), 101
interwar era, 33, 7983, 8889
power, 252
private security firms, 61
and rationalization, 352
regional trade possibilities, 149
shadow of hierarchy, 1617
small arms, 5354, 64
trade governance, 34, 145, 149 see also hierarchical mode of governance; hybrid mode of governance; market mode of governance
networks
International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA), 5355, 62
issue-specific professional networks, 214216, 219220 see also transgovernmental networks (TGNs)
New York Convention (1958), 9596, 100
new-new trade theory, 144
Nightingale, Florence, 267
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
changing technologies, 2425
climate change, 121
conflict prevention and management, 217
humanitarian agencies, 158159
increase, 8, 9
and international humanitarian law (IHL), 279
localization efforts, 168
trade regime, 142143
weapons regulation, 278 see also international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs); Southern actors
non-state actors
clean energy, 295297
climate change, 114, 121123, 125
conflict management, 216, 222
in fragile states, 221222
PSI participation, 207
TGN participation, 194195
trade governance, 130, 142143, 145147
weapons regulation, 278
WHO Framework of Engagement with Non-State Actors (FENSA), 243, 253
norms of governance, 315317, 329
nuclear non-proliferation, 186, 278
Nuclear Security Summits, 195196
Obama, Barack, 117118
oil crisis (1970s), 292
oil sector
Achnacarry Agreement, 8485
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 9495
US, 85
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 93
Development Assistance Committee (DAC), 221, 226
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 9495
Oxfam, 162, 221
ozone regime, 120
Paris Agreement (2016)
2 degree goal, 123, 125126
carbon markets, 125126
challenges and uncertainty, 109110, 125126, 303
cities initiatives, 114
compared with Kyoto Protocol, 113115
experimentalist governance, 124
flexibility, 34
market activity, 114115
Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), 113114, 119
network approach, 114
new governance shortcomings, 125126
Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action (NAZCA), 114, 122123, 125
optimism over intergovernmental process, 123125
path dependence, 358360
permanent missions/delegations, 190, 192
Philippines, opinion surveys, 324327, 326
PMSCs see private military and security companies (PMSCs)
political information, 35, 184
populist nationalism, 149150, 317319, 349, 360
power
accountability and fairness, 30, 7172
of capital, 156, 162
corporate power and self-governance, 8889
developing country networks, 137138
effects of informal international governance, 210211
and global governance changes, 1920
global governance complexity, 252, 251252
hybrid governance mode, 7172
Northern dominance, 244
of regulatory state, 91, 102, 104 see also elites; geopolitics; Southern actors
private actors, 22
private military and security companies (PMSCs), 5661
conflict management, 216
corporate agency, 56
historical changes, 50
hybrid mode of governance, 4852, 5661, 6768, 68, 72
increase, 51, 56
International Code of Conduct Association (ICoCA), 6061, 6869, 7172, 283
International Code of Conduct (ICoC), 5152, 58, 7072
international standards, 60
Iraq war concerns, 5657
legitimacy of governance process, 7172
long-term prospects, 70
Montreux Document, 5152, 5760, 68
multi-stakeholder agreements, 5152
power brokers, 7172
pragmatic governance solution, 4950
regulation, 33
Swiss government role, 5152, 5761, 68, 7172
US government bureaucracy, 69
US support for ICoC, 5859
private sector, 249
problem identification, core governance function, 1516
Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)
adaptability and flexibility, 206
HOG political commitment, 207209
minimal bureaucracy, 205, 207
Operational Experts Group (OEG), 205208
political/technical symbiosis, 35, 208209
speed of establishment, 204205
Statement of Interdiction Principles, 205, 209
technical and operational orientation, 206207
public opinion see surveys
race, 172, 174
rationalization
climate change governance, 109, 118121
definition, 118, 351352
driver of governance changes, 2324, 351352
humanitarian governance, 160, 352
regional trade agreements
as alternative bargaining forums, 137139
in case of multilateral arrangements failure, 136, 139
China’s strategy, 138139
considered after failure of Doha, 20
dis/advantages, 30, 141142
GATT’s permissive rules, 139141
hierarchical nature, 141, 149
mega-regional agreements, 149
network possibilities, 149
non-trade issue networks, 34, 145, 149
stumbling block to multilateralism, 130, 141142
regulatory state, 91, 102, 104
renewable energy
China, 118
EU, 126, 294
IEA, 292, 295
India, 119
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), 291, 300
RE 100, 114
REN 21, 297
UN Conference, 292
rights protection, 223224, 224, 225226 see also human rights
Rio Conventions, Joint Liaison Group, 112113
Rockefeller Foundation, 237, 245
Roosevelt, Theodore, 195
Russia
Kyoto Protocol, 116117
opinion surveys, 321, 322, 324327, 326
security cooperation
anti-terrorism operations, 219, 224, 226228
in trade negotiations, 145146, 148
shadow of hierarchy
concept, 1617
fragile state governance, 219, 229230
global economic governance, 103
health sector, 245
humanitarian governance, 156157
international commercial arbitration (ICA), 9596, 103
international humanitarian law (IHL), 279280
peacekeeping operations, 219
small arms, supply, 5253, 56, 61
small arms governance, 5255, 6167
anti-control coalitions, 5354, 6263, 6566
Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), 5455, 66
competing networks, 6364
continuing problems, 4950
Control Arms campaign, 5455
corporate agency, 56
hierarchical mode of governance, 49, 55, 67
industry representatives excluded, 69
International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA), 5355, 62
International Conference on Firearms Legislation (ICFL), 6263
network efforts, 5354, 64
pro-regulation advocates, 5354, 6162, 64, 66
regulation, 33
Swiss Initiative, 5152, 5758
UN interest, 62
UN Program of Action (PoA), 54, 64, 66
US gun groups, 5354, 6263, 6566
US support for controls, 64
Wassenaar arrangement, 64
World Forum on the Future of Sport Shooting Activities (WFSA), 5354, 6263
Smith and Wesson, 63, 69
social capital, 156, 162, 165166, 172
South Africa
opinion surveys, 324327, 326
private security firms, 57
Southern actors
capacity building needs, 170
and Covid-19, 174
exclusion from governance, 29
exclusion from Humanitarian Club, 157, 166167, 170171
financial inequalities, 162, 169170
Muslim identity, 169
and race, 172, 174 see also developing countries
stakeholders, 5152, 6870, 252254, 317
states
domestic politics, 2526, 149150, 317319, 349
hierarchical organization, 12
ideal types, 1011
increasing numbers, 21
rising powers, 19, 117, 314, 329, 349
small states, 210
UN opinion surveys, 321, 322
supply chain trade, 143145
surveys
elite opinion, 324327, 325327
heuristic dynamics, 330332
public opinion, 319324, 321, 323
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
clean energy, 295, 301302
health governance, 241242, 257258
Switzerland
arms control, 64
military and security services initiative, 5152, 5761, 68
symbolic capital, 156, 162163, 170171
Syria, chemical weapons, 257
Tadić (ICTY), 275276
technical information, 35, 184
technological change
communications technology, 2425, 187188, 193194, 197, 250
and health, 240, 249250
and new forms of governance, 6, 2425, 356
telegraphy, 187188
telephones, 188
terrorism, anti-terrorism operations, 219, 224, 226230
TGNs see transgovernmental networks (TGNs)
trade agreements
free trade agreements (FTAs), 142
NAFTA/new NAFTA, 145146
Preferential Trading Arrangements (PTAs), 135136
public opposition, 149150
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), 149150
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 149150 see also regional trade agreements
trade governance
complex governance, 34
geopolitics, 135139
global value chains, 143145
hierarchical nature, 130135
hierarchical nature under threat, 134, 148149
interwar era, 133134
market/non-market interwar policies, 133134
network mode, 34, 145, 149
non-state actors, 130, 142143, 145147
non-trade issues, 34, 143145, 147148
regionalism and institutional design, 139141
and supply chain trade, 143145
tariff collection, 134 see also regional trade agreements
trade negotiations
and developing countries, 132133, 136137
Doha Round, 20, 2223, 136137
intellectual property (IP) rules, 241
Uruguay Round, 136, 139
transgovernmental initiatives (TGIs), 8
transgovernmental networks (TGNs)
central banks, 81
clean energy, 295, 295296, 300302
decentralized technical collaboration, 183n
effect on small states, 210
growing demand, 186187
Hierarchy plus Networks (HpN) model, 183185, 192194, 197199, 198, 204
limitations, 329330
new communication technologies, 194195
PSI’s Operational Experts Group (OEG), 205208
technical interactions, 185, 198, 198200
transport technologies, 195197
Trump, Donald, 23, 26, 318, 360
tuberculosis, 240242, 254
2 degree target, 113114, 123, 125126
UN
humanitarian governance, 161162, 167168, 158
“In Larger Freedom” (2005), 339
and international humanitarian law (IHL), 270271, 279
opinion surveys, 320322, 321, 324326, 325
postwar ambition, 34
rights protection, 223224, 224, 225226, 270271
small arms concerns, 62
UN AIDS programme, 239, 247
UN Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), 5455, 66
UN Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons (2001), 54
UN Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, 292
UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 93
UN Development Programme, 226
Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, 220
UN Emergency Force (UNEF), 222223
UN Environment Programme (UNEP), 123, 296297
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 111, 295
Global Environment Facility, 112, 293
governance, 329
Green Climate Fund, 112, 301
sustainable energy omitted, 293
Technology Mechanism, 298 see also Kyoto Protocol (1997); Paris Agreement (2016)
UN Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP), 297
UN General Assembly Resolutions
human rights in armed conflict, 270271
small arms, 62
sustainable energy, 301302
UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, 5152
UN Health High-Level Meetings, 247
UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 224226
UN Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), 161162
UN International Convention Against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries, 5051
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), 161162, 224225
UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 224226
UN peace operations
crisis missions, 223224, 227228, 270
military deployment, 227229
peacebuilding, 221
stabilization, 216, 227228
summary, 222226
UN departments, 219
UN Emergency Force (UNEF), 222223
UN Program of Action on Small Arms (PoA), 54, 64, 66
UN Secretariat, 199, 223
UN Security Council (UNSC)
crisis missions, 223224
elite opinion, 324326, 325
permanent seats, 322
rising powers, 329
voting rights, 314
UN Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL), 291, 295, 301302
UN Working Group on mercenaries, 60
United Kingdom
Brexit, 26
humanitarian aid, 161
private security firms, 57
public trust in the EU, 323
United States
antitrust laws and cartels, 8485, 9192, 9899
arms manufacturers, 63, 65
China–US climate change commitment, 117118
Clean Power Plan, 117118
climate change and the Kyoto Protocol, 111, 116, 294
and global health, 238, 245
global power, 19
gun groups, 5354, 6263, 6566
humanitarian aid, 161
Iraq war private security concerns, 5657
Mexican tuna ban, 147
military and security governance, 51
New York Court of Arbitration, 8687
oil sector, 85
opinion surveys, 321, 322, 324327, 326
presidential transport, 195
private financial diplomacy, 81
private security firms, 5659, 61
small arms controls, 6366, 69
trade agreements, 132, 140141, 145
WHO withdrawal, 243, 258
Uruguay Round, 136, 139
vaccines, 239240
Varoufakis, Yanis, 318
warfare see conflict management; international humanitarian law (IHL); private military and security companies (PMSCs)
Washington Consensus, 20
Wassenaar arrangement, 64
weapons of mass destruction (WMD), 186, 204205 see also Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)
Wilson, Woodrow, 195, 269
wind power, 299300
World Bank
Bretton Woods agreements, 8991
Climate Investment Facility (CIF), 295, 298299
elite opinion, 324326, 325
Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), 292293
and fragile states, 220221
global health issues, 238239, 245
legitimacy concerns, 313314
postwar ambition, 34
UN Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), 161162
World Forum on the Future of Sport Shooting Activities (WFSA), 5354, 6263
World Health Organization (WHO)
budget, 247
bureaucracy, 247
constitution, 236237
and Covid-19, 243244
director-general (DG), 243
disease preparedness, 258
elite opinion, 324326, 325
Framework of Engagement with Non-State Actors (FENSA), 243, 253
mandate, 36, 238, 240, 242, 258
paralysis and decline, 238, 240
reforms, 242243
role, 36, 238, 258
state authority, 247
universal health coverage (UHC), 245, 257258
US criticism and withdrawal, 238, 243, 258, 318
World Trade Organization (WTO)
and China, 138
and developing countries, 132133
dispute mechanism, 133
Doha Round, 20, 2223, 136137
elite opinion, 324326, 325
intellectual property (IP) rules, 241
reform, 328329
World Wildlife Fund, 121
Xi Jinping, 117118
Yugoslavia conflict, 146147, 275276