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Index

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 April 2022

Alica Daly
Affiliation:
World Intellectual Property Organization
David Humphreys
Affiliation:
University of Dundee
Julio Raffo
Affiliation:
World Intellectual Property Organization
Giulia Valacchi
Affiliation:
World Intellectual Property Organization

Summary

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NCCreative Common License - ND
This content is Open Access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/cclicenses/

Index

Academic institutions. See Universities and academic institutions
African Regional Industrial Property Organization (ARIPO), 319
Aguamarina, 102
Alcan, 288
Aluminum
in Australia, 308
in Brazil, 205, 206207
environmental impacts, 142
processing stage, 7
“pull effect” of innovation, 11
Anglo American Exploration, 282
Anglo Gold Ashanti, 221
Angola, FDI in, 62
Aplik, 102103
Argentina, mineral trade with Brazil, 207
Artisanal and small-scale miners (ASMs), 45
Austmine, 4
Australia
generally, 323
automation, patent filings and, 44
automation subsector in, 316318
blasting subsector in, 314, 316318
Canadian company patent filings in, 289
clean patents in, 149150
coal imports and exports, 121
collaboration in, 320321, 336338
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), 21, 312314, 320, 322
Cooperative Research Centres (CRCs), 21, 4546, 320323
Deep Exploration Technologies CRC (DET CRC), 321323
Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, 323
environmental impacts of mining industry in, 142
environmental technology, patent filings and, 44
environment subsector in, 316318
exploration, patent filings and, 42
exploration subsector in, 314, 316318
FDI and, 58
German company patent filings in, 309
government support of mining industry in, 178
Greenhouse Gas Technologies CRC (CO2CRC), 321322
importance of mining industry in, 308309
innovation in, 309
innovators, patent filings by, 312313, 334335
Japanese company patent filings in, 309
longer transit distances of mining products and, 121
measurement of environmental policy stringency in, 158
metallurgy subsector in, 314, 316318
METS sector in, 4, 212
Mining and Technology CRC (CMTE), 321322
mining boom in, 311312
mining innovation ecosystem in, 14
mining patents as share of total patents, 39
mining specialization in, 183
mining subsector in, 314, 316318
New South Wales, R&D expenditures in, 329
origin of patent filings in, 333
patent filings in, 213, 309310, 329, 338339
priority countries for patent filings, 317319
processing subsector in, 314, 316318
productivity in, 10
publicly-funded entities in, 320
Queensland, R&D expenditures in, 328, 329
R&D expenditures in, 2728, 89, 108, 309310, 323325, 326327, 338
R&D Tax Incentive(See Australian R&D Tax Incentive)
refining subsector in, 314, 316318
relative specialization index (RSI), 4142, 4950
Reserve Bank of Australia, 311
as source of innovation growth, 3738, 47, 49
statistics on mining industry in, 308309
success of mining industry in, 96
tax incentives in, 22(See also Australian R&D Tax Incentive)
technology protection in, 213
technology specialization in, 314318, 332
time, patent filings over, 310311, 329331
transport-related innovation in, 4244, 135
transport subsector in, 316318
universities and academic institutions, collaboration with, 320
US company patent filings in, 333334, 336
Victoria, R&D expenditures in, 328, 329
Western Australia, R&D expenditures in, 327328, 329
Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 323, 325326
Australian R&D Tax Incentive
generally, 21, 323, 338
company size and, 324325
mining industry and, 323324
by mining industry subdivision, 325326
patent filings and, 326327
by State and Territory, 326329
statistics, 323
Austria
clean patents in, 149150
as source of innovation growth, 38
Automation subsector
in Australia, 316318
in Brazil, 213217
in Canada, 292296
commodity prices and, 189190
innovation in, 34, 49, 128
patent filings and, 35, 44
transport-related innovation and, 134135, 139140
Baker Hughes, 334335
Bankable feasibility studies, 6
Barrick Gold Corporation, 300
Battelle, Gordon, 269
Battelle Memorial Institute, 269272
Bauxite
in Australia, 308
in Brazil, 205206
exploration stage, 7
transport issues, 118
Belgium
automation, patent filings and, 44
as source of innovation growth, 38
Beneficiation, 6
BHP-Billiton. See Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited (BHP-Billiton)
Biotechnology, 102
Blasting subsector
in Australia, 314, 316318
in Canada, 292296
commodity prices and, 189190
innovation in, 34, 184
Borates, innovation and, 12
Botswana
diversification of portfolios in, 8081
FDI in, 62
Brazil
generally, 19
automation, patent filings and, 44
automation subsector in, 213217
Bento Rodrigues accident, 209
Brazilian Development Bank, 225
Brazilian Mineral Production (PMB), 205206
Canadian company patent filings in, 289
clean patents in, 149150
competitiveness of mining industry, 206
concentration in mining industry, 202, 227, 228
costs of transport and, 123124
dam management in, 209
environmental technology, patent filings and, 44
environment subsector in, 213217
exploration, focus on, 228
exploration subsector in, 213217
FDI and, 58
foreign trade, mining industry and, 207
historical background of mining industry, 204205
importance of mining industry in, 202
innovation in, 100103
Innovation Survey (PINTEC), 208, 227
Innovaxxion customers in, 252
Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), 208
institutional collaboration for innovation, 210212, 228
longer transit distances of mining products and, 121
metallic minerals in, 206207
metallurgy subsector in, 213217, 227228
methodology of study, 204
METS sector in, 208, 211212, 213217
Mineral Resources Research Company (CPRM), 100101
Mining Code, 210
Mining Institute (IBRAM), 205
mining patents as share of total patents, 39
mining subsector in, 213217, 227228
Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME), 210
National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CPNq), 225
National Mining Agency (ANM), 210
National Science and Technology System, 225
new deposits, focus on, 228
patent filings in, 204, 213217
processing subsector in, 213217, 227228
productivity growth in, 208209, 227228
Provisional Presidential Decree No. 790 (MP 790), 210
refining subsector in, 213217, 227228
relative specialization index (RSI) in, 4142
Samarco Fundão Dam, 209
social license to operate in, 208209
as source of innovation growth, 3738, 49
State Research Foundations (FAPs), 225
statistics on mining industry, 202, 205206
tax incentives in, 22
technology protection in, 204, 213217
technology transfer in, 204, 217221
transport-related innovation in, 4244
transport subsector in, 213217, 227228
trends in innovation in, 228229
2030 National Mining Plan, 210
underdevelopment of mining industry, 206
universities and academic institutions, collaboration with, 211
Vale S.A. (See Vale S.A.)
Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited (BHP-Billiton), 106107, 215, 221222, 235, 241, 312, 320, 333334
Bureau Van Dijk, 73, 188
Bush, George W., 262
Canada
generally, 2021, 280
Australian company patent filings in, 317
automation, patent filings and, 44
automation subsector in, 292296
blasting subsector in, 292296
Brazil, mineral trade with, 207
Calgary as mining industry cluster, 300, 302
Canada Mining Association, 279
Canada Mining Innovation Council (CMIC), 279, 283284
Canadian Exploration Expense Claims (CEE), 297
challenges to innovation in, 284285
clean patents in, 149150
clusters in mining industry, 300302
collaboration in, 280, 285, 295299, 303
competitiveness of mining industry in, 283
confidential information in, 281282
culture of mining industry in, 284285
Edmonton as mining industry cluster, 300, 302
environmental technology, patent filings and, 44
environment subsector in, 287, 292297, 299
exploration, patent filings in, 42, 292294, 295297, 302
exploration subsector in, 1617, 287, 292297
FDI and, 58
importance of mining industry in, 278
innovation in, 279, 283284, 303
Innovaxxion customers in, 252
Intellectual Property Office (CIPO), 279
interviews in study, 280
maps, use in study, 289292, 293294, 303
metallurgy subsector in, 292296
methodology of study, 304305
METS sector in, 282283, 298299
Mineral Exploration Tax Credit (METC), 297, 298
mining innovation ecosystem in, 14
mining patents as share of total patents, 39
mining subsector in, 287288, 292297
Montreal as mining industry cluster, 300
Natural Resources Canada, 278, 288
oil and gas in, 287
“open innovation” in, 284
Pan-Canadian Mining Research and Innovation Strategy, 283284, 295
patent filings in, 213, 279, 280281, 286291, 303
priority countries for patent filings, 288290
processing subsector in, 292296
Prospectors & Developers Association of Canada, 298
R&D expenditures in, 27, 278279
refining subsector in, 292297, 299
relative specialization index (RSI) in, 4142, 4950, 302, 304305
skills and technology development in, 79
as source of innovation growth, 3738, 47, 49
specialization in mining industry, 292296
statistics on mining industry in, 278
success of mining industry in, 96
sustainable development in, 278, 279
tax incentives in, 22
technology protection in, 213
Toronto as mining industry cluster, 300
trade secrets in, 281282
transport-related innovation in, 4244
transport subsector in, 292296
universities and academic institutions in, 282
upstream linkages in, 79
Vancouver as mining industry cluster, 300, 302
Capital intensive nature of mining industry, 8, 94
Celedón, Enrique, 253254
Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), 279
Chile
generally, 1920, 232233
Alta Ley program, 1718, 109110, 111, 235
Brazil, mineral trade with, 207
Canadian company patent filings in, 289
case studies, 245246, 250, 254
challenges in mining industry, 234
Chilean Copper Commission (COCHILCO), 236
Cluster Development Program, 110
collaboration in, 234235
correlation between IP protection and innovation in, 231, 232
descriptive statistics, 241, 243
diversification of portfolios in, 81
environmental technology, patent filings and, 44
Expande program, 1920, 110111, 232, 241245, 254
exploration, patent filings and, 42
Fundación Chile, 107, 111
government support of mining industry in, 178
importance of mining industry in, 231, 233
Industrial Mining Suppliers Association (APRIMIN), 236
in-house innovation in, 234235
innovation in, 99100, 101103
linkages in, 234235
machinery and equipment, innovation in, 212
METS sector in, 232, 235237
mining patents as share of total patents, 39
mining specialization in, 183
Ministry of Economy, 110
Ministry of Mining, 110, 235
National Institute of Industrial Property (INAPI), 232, 239, 245, 253254
nonreliance on IP protection in METS sector, reasons for, 246250
patent filings in, 1920, 237240
Production Development Corporation (CORFO), 107, 110, 235, 239
R&D expenditures in, 89, 104, 108
Regional Development Agencies, 110
relative specialization index (RSI) in, 4142, 4950
reliance on IP protection in METS sector, 246247
semi-structured interviews, 242245
skills and technology development in, 79
as source of innovation growth, 3738, 49
specialized suppliers in, 235237
statistics on mining industry, 233
sufficiency of capacity for IP protection, 249250
survey for study, 232, 241245, 254
tax incentives in, 22
total factor productivity (TFP) in, 234
transport-related innovation in, 4244
universities and academic institutions in, 242245, 250, 254
World Class Suppliers (WCS) program(See World Class Suppliers (WCS) program (Chile))
Chile Foundation (FCH), 235, 236
China
automation, patent filings and, 44
Brazil, mineral trade with, 207
Canadian company patent filings in, 289
coal imports and exports, 121
commodity prices in, 146
container technologies in, 134
conveying technologies in, 131
costs of transport and, 123124
environmental technology, patent filings and, 44
exploration, patent filings and, 42
FDI and, 58
global value chains in, 90
longer transit distances of mining products and, 121, 128129
METS sector in, 90
mining patents as share of total patents, 39
MNEs in, 5354, 58, 76
patents in, 16
public research organizations (PROs) in, 46
railway technologies in, 133
R&D expenditures in, 27
relative specialization index (RSI) in, 4142
road transport in, 132
as source of innovation growth, 3638, 47, 49
technological change in, 2122
transport-related innovation in, 18, 4244, 129130, 139
Ciber, 213
Clarivate’s Derwent Innovation database, 304
Clean patents, 143, 144, 147150, 161, 166
Clean technologies, 144
Closure stage, 7
Coal
in Australia, 308
in Brazil, 207
costs of transport, 122123
environmental impacts, 142
imports and exports, 121
“pull effect” of innovation, 11
transport issues, 118
Cobalt in Australia, 338339
Codelco. See National Copper Corporation (Codelco)
Colombia, Canadian company patent filings in, 289
Commodity prices, innovation in mining industry and
generally, 19, 146, 173
by category of mining activity, 188190
correlation of, 184186
counter-cyclical effect, 177, 178179, 197, 198199
data selection, 180186, 197
empirical results, 186196
exploration and, 175
hypotheses regarding, 179180
long-term cycles, effect of, 172, 173174, 187, 194196
methodology of study, 180186
METS sector, mining firms versus, 172, 173, 175178, 179, 184, 185, 188191, 198
mineral rents and, 181182, 184
mining specialization and, 183184
panel estimation, 192194
patent filings and, 182183
pro-cyclical effect, 173, 177178, 179, 188, 194196, 197, 198
R&D expenditures and, 174, 175, 182183
relative specialization index (RSI) and, 184
short-term cycles, effect of, 172, 187
super-cycles, effect of, 172, 173174, 187, 194196
Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD). See Vale S.A.
Confidential information in Canada, 281282
Container technologies, 134
Conveying technologies, 131
Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC), 141, 147148, 310, 314
Copper
in Australia, 308, 338339
in Brazil, 205, 206207
in Chile, 233
environmental impacts, 142
exploration stage, 7
increasing demand for, 1
innovation and, 12
“pull effect” of innovation, 11
transport issues, 118
Copyrights, 280, 281
Corporate Social Responsibility, 109
Creative internationalization, 71, 72, 74
De Beers, 62, 8081
Denmark as source of innovation growth, 38
Development stage, 6
Diamonds, transport issues, 118
Double externality, 144
Drillco Tools, 104105
“Dutch disease,”, 61, 97
Economics of mining industry
capital intensive nature of, 8, 94
local impacts, 89, 94, 95
non-renewability of minerals, 78
price takers, 8, 9495
productivity growth, importance of, 910
uneven geographical distribution of minerals, 8
valuation(See Valuation in mining industry)
Ecosystem. See Mining innovation ecosystem
Elementos Industriales y Tecnologicos, 221
Emerging countries
global value chains in, 89, 90, 9899
importance of mining industry in, 8990
innovation in, 89, 96
mineral reserves in, 92
patent filings in, 90, 93
proportion of mineral production in, 90, 92
Empty running, 139
Enclaves, 97
Energy use in mining, increase in, 2
Environmental impacts of mining industry
generally, 95, 142143
closure stage, 7
increase in, 2
innovation, reduction through, 143
transport-related innovation as driver of, 126
Environmental policy stringency, measurement of
generally, 166167
baseline results, 160162, 171
control variables, 156158
covariates, 156158
descriptive statistics, 158, 170
empirical strategy for, 154158
Environmental Policy Stringency (EPS) index and, 143, 150154, 156, 162166
future research, 166167
market-based versus non-market-based instruments, 162166
mineral price index and, 156157, 158
patent filings and, 155156, 158, 161
robustness checks, 161162, 165
Environmental Policy Stringency (EPS) index, 143, 150154, 156, 162166
Environmental regulation of mining industry
generally, 18, 143, 166167
clean patents and, 143, 144, 147150, 161, 166
clean technologies, 144
effects of, 143
Environmental Policy Stringency (EPS) index, 143, 150154, 156, 162166
future research, 166167
“green” products, limited opportunities for, 146
induced innovation hypothesis and, 144
literature review, 144147
market-based versus non-market-based instruments, 145, 162166
measurement of environmental policy stringency(See Environmental policy stringency, measurement of)
necessity of, 146
taxes, 165
Environmental technology, patent filings and, 35, 44
Environment subsector
in Australia, 316318
in Brazil, 213217
in Canada, 287, 292297, 299
commodity prices and, 189190
innovation in, 34
EPO. See European Patent Office (EPO)
Eurasian Patent Organisation (EAPO), 319
Europe. See also specific country
R&D expenditures in, 2526, 27
as source of innovation growth, 47
European Patent Office (EPO)
Canadian company patent filings and, 289
enforceability of patents, 319
PATSTAT database, 71, 73, 147, 262263, 280, 304, 310, 329, 332, 338
Exclusive operation rights, 4647
Exploration companies, 4
Exploration stage, 5
Exploration subsector
in Australia, 314, 316318
in Brazil, 213217
in Canada, 1617, 287, 292297
Canadian patent filings in, 292294, 295297, 302
commodity prices and, 175, 189190
exclusive operation rights and, 4647
innovation in, 1213, 28, 34, 49, 184
patent filings and, 35, 42
R&D and, 1213
Exports
coal, 121
contribution of mining industry to, 3
Exsa, 103
FDI. See Foreign direct investment (FDI)
Federal University of Minas Gerais, 211
Federico Santa María Technical University (UTSFM), 252
Finland
METS sector in, 19
patent filings in, 237239
as source of innovation growth, 38
Fluorspar, innovation and, 12
Foreign direct investment (FDI). See also specific country
generally, 17, 5253
contribution of mining industry to, 3
cross-border investment, 5558
decline in, 55
defined, 52
development and, 5863
diversification of portfolios recommended, 8081
economic impact of, 6062
empirical assessment of technological impact, 67
environmental impact of, 62
framework for analysis of technological impact, 6566
global mining players, attracting recommended, 7778
greenfield investment, 5558, 7475
growth in investors, 58
importance to technological development, 7576
marginal nature of mining FDI, 5758
MNEs(See Multinational enterprises (MNEs))
political impact of, 6263
R&D-intensive FDI, 66, 7475, 76
skills and technology development, promoting recommended, 7980
social impact of, 6263
social license to operate and, 6263
spillovers(See Spillovers)
upstream linkages, promoting recommended, 7879
Fourth Industrial Revolution, 2122, 3536
France
measurement of environmental policy stringency in, 158
mining patents as share of total patents, 39
mining specialization in, 183
as source of innovation growth, 38
General Electric, 334335
General Purpose Technology, 139140
Geoambiente, 101103
Germany
automation in, 135
Canadian company patent filings in, 289
METS sector in, 19
as source of innovation growth, 3738
Givens, Rick, 269
Glencore, 300
Globalization, effect on transport-related innovation, 129130
Global supply chains, 7
Global value chains
generally, 1718, 8889, 112
defined, 97
demand-side incentive to innovation, 99101
diversification of, 99
in emerging countries, 89, 90, 9899
governance of, 9798
innovation and, 49, 9899
in Latin America, 1718, 90, 98, 112
lead firms, 97
local suppliers and, 103106
patent filings across, 34, 49, 90
supply-side incentive to innovation, 101103
upgrading of, 99
Globerman, Steven, 64
Gold
in Australia, 308
in Brazil, 206207
environmental impacts, 142
exploration stage, 7
transport issues, 118
Goldcorp, 302
Government agencies in mining innovation ecosystem, 14
Gravel, environmental impacts, 142
Gypsum, environmental impacts, 142
Halliburton, 334, 335
Health and safety in mining industry
generally, 257, 258
fatalities in US, 257, 259, 261
improvements in US, 257
legislation in US, 259262
mine barrier survival system, 269272
MINER Act of 2006 and(SeeMine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act of 2006 (US))
patents and, 257258
refuge chambers, 267268, 276
“through-the-earth” (TTE) wireless communications, 267268, 270273, 276
transport-related innovation and, 125
High Service (Chilean company), 101
Holmes, Joseph A., 259260
Human Development Index (HDI), 5860
iFlux (Innovaxxion), 251252
Imperial Oil, 287
Inco Limited, 147, 221222, 225227, 287288, 298299
India
automation, patent filings and, 44
FDI and, 58
relative specialization index (RSI) in, 4142
as source of innovation growth, 3738
Indonesia
coal imports and exports, 121
as source of innovation growth, 3738
Induced innovation hypothesis, 144
Industrial designs, 246247, 248250, 279, 280, 281, 304
Industrial Revolution, 126
Industry 4.0, 2122, 3536
Innovation in mining industry
generally, 1617
in automation subsector, 34, 49, 128
biotechnology, 102
in blasting subsector, 34, 184
characteristics of, 146
commodity prices and(See Commodity prices, innovation in mining industry and)
cost reduction and, 146
by country, 3638
defined, 9094
demand-side incentive to innovation, 99101
in emerging countries, 89, 96
environmental impacts reduced through, 143
in environment subsector, 34
in exploration subsector, 1213, 28, 34, 49, 184
global value chains and, 34, 9899
governments, role of, 22
historical background, 11
importance of, 2, 21, 22
increase in, 25, 2630, 47
induced innovation hypothesis, 144
lifecycle of mines, across, 34
in metallurgy subsector, 34
by METS sector, 146
mining innovation ecosystem, 1314(See also Mining innovation ecosystem)
mining operation countries, correlation with, 3844, 49
mining patents as share of total patents, 39
in mining subsector, 34, 128
by MNEs, 66, 69, 76
new deposits, 1213, 28
new materials, 102
new products and variations, 12
“open innovation,” 284
organizational innovation, 13
patent filings as proxy indicator of, 16, 2830, 119, 182183, 264, 285286, 303
patents and, 16
in processing subsector, 34
process innovation, 13
productivity growth and, 11
“pull effect,” 11
in refining subsector, 34, 49
relative specialization index (RSI) and, 3942, 4950
supply-side incentive to innovation, 101103
technological change, impact of, 2122, 4749
technology flows and, 15
tools and machinery, 103
traditionally less innovative, mining industry as, 25, 174175, 234
transport-related innovation(See Transport-related innovation in mining industry)
types of innovation, 1213
Innovaxxion, 102103, 251252
INPADOC patent families, 304, 310, 332, 338
Intellectual property (IP)
copyrights, 280, 281
industrial designs, 246247, 248250, 279, 280, 281, 304
patents(See Patents)
trademarks, 20, 246247, 248250, 279, 281
trade secrets, 20, 30, 246, 248249, 281282, 286
utility models, 31, 213, 246247, 304
Intelligent skids (RIVET), 252254
International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM)
on corporate structure of mining industry, 4
on mineral-driven economies, 3
International Labour Organization, 257
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 156157, 158
International Patent Classification (IPC), 141, 147148, 290292, 293294, 303, 310, 314
Iraq as source of innovation growth, 3738
Iron
in Australia, 308, 311
in Brazil, 205207
environmental impacts, 142
“pull effect” of innovation, 11
transport issues, 118
Israel, patent filings in, 44
Italy as source of innovation growth, 38
Japan
automation in, 135
Brazil, mineral trade with, 207
Canadian company patent filings in, 289
clean patents in, 149150
METS sector in, 19
mining specialization in, 183
railway technologies in, 133
relative specialization index (RSI) in, 42
road transport in, 132
as source of innovation growth, 3638, 49
transport-related innovation in, 129
Kaolin, innovation and, 12
Kazakhstan as source of innovation growth, 3738
Kennecott, 146147
Kinross, 221
Komatsu, 221
Komatsu do Brasil, 221
Korea, Republic of, 38
automation, patent filings and, 44
automation in, 135
clean patents in, 149150
environmental technology, patent filings and, 44
exploration, patent filings and, 42
innovation in, 1617
mining specialization in, 183
relative specialization index (RSI) in, 4950
road transport in, 132
as source of innovation growth, 38, 49
transport-related innovation in, 4244, 129
Kuwait as source of innovation growth, 3738
Landmark (US company), 334
Latin America. See also specific country
global value chains in, 1718, 90, 98, 112
importance of mining industry in, 90
lack of local knowledge in, 89
Lead
in Australia, 308
in Brazil, 205
Lifecycle of mines
generally, 32
closure stage, 7
development stage, 6
exploration stage, 5
innovation across, 49
patent filings across, 34, 49
processing stage, 67
Lithium
in Australia, 338339
innovation and, 12
“pull effect” of innovation, 11
Local impacts of mining industry, 89, 94, 95
London Metals Exchange, 180
Manganese
in Australia, 338339
in Brazil, 205, 206207
transport issues, 118
Maritime technologies, 133134
McGill University, 4546
Metallurgy subsector
in Australia, 314, 316318
in Brazil, 213217, 227228
in Canada, 292296
commodity prices and, 189190
innovation in, 34
Metso, 221
METS sector. See Mining, Equipment, Technology and Services (METS) sector
MetsTao Brasil, 221
Mexico
automation, patent filings and, 44
Canadian company patent filings in, 289
Innovaxxion customers in, 252
as source of innovation growth, 3738
Micomo, 101
Mine barrier survival system, 269272
Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act of 2006 (US)
generally, 20, 258
case studies, 269273, 276
data selection and processing, 258, 262264
effects on health and safety, 275276
enactment of, 262
evidence in study, 258, 265266, 276
graphical evidence, 266268, 276
mine barrier survival system and, 269272
patent filings and, 266268
refuge chambers and, 267268, 276
regression analysis and, 273275, 276
text-based similarity analysis, 271274, 276
“through-the-earth” (TTE) wireless communications and, 267268, 270273, 276
MINER Act of 2006 (US). See Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act of 2006 (US)
Mineral-driven economies, 3
Mining, Equipment, Technology and Services (METS) sector. See also specific topic or country
generally, 4
collaboration with, 95
commodity prices and, 172, 173, 175178, 179, 188191, 198
innovation by, 146
in mining innovation ecosystem, 1314
Mining industry. See also specific topic
artisanal and small-scale miners (ASMs), 45
corporate structure of, 4
diversity of, 2
economics of(See Economics of mining industry)
exploration companies, 4
health and safety in(See Health and safety in mining industry)
informal mining industry, 45
innovation in(See Innovation in mining industry)
METS sector(See Mining, Equipment, Technology and Services (METS) sector)
production-focused companies, 4
scope of, 2
transport-related innovation in(See Transport-related innovation in mining industry)
valuation in(See Valuation in mining industry)
Mining innovation ecosystem, 1314
complexity of, 4547
government agencies in, 14
innovation-related institutions in, 14
METS sector in, 1314
public research organizations (PROs) in, 14, 46, 50
universities and academic institutions in, 14, 4546, 50
Mining subsector
in Australia, 314, 316318
in Brazil, 213217, 227228
in Canada, 287288, 292297
commodity prices and, 189190
innovation in, 34, 128
Mitsubishi, 213
MNEs. See Multinational enterprises (MNEs)
Multinational enterprises (MNEs)
generally, 52
creative internationalization, 71, 72, 74
development and, 60
growth in, 58
innovation by, 66, 69, 76
investment and, 53
non-mining MNEs compared, 5456
operational internationalization, 7072, 7374
patent filings by, 69
prominence of, 5354
R&D by, 66, 67, 6869, 76
technology diffusion and, 66, 6970, 76
National Copper Corporation (Codelco)
collaboration and, 235
Expande program and, 241
innovation at, 240
as state-owned company, 233
transfer of IPRs and, 237
World Class Suppliers (WCS) program and, 106107
Neptuno, 102103, 104
Netherlands
Brazil, mineral trade with, 207
as source of innovation growth, 38
Nickel
in Australia, 338339
in Brazil, 206207
environmental impacts, 142
Niobium
in Australia, 207
in Brazil, 205, 206207
in Canada, 207
Nippon Steel, 213
Nobel, Alfred, 11
Non-renewability of minerals, 78
Noranda Limited, 4546, 298299
Norway as source of innovation growth, 3738, 49
Novawest, 282
Oil and gas
in Canada, 287
transport issues, 118
“Open innovation,” 284
Operational internationalization, 7072, 7374
Orbis database, 73, 188
Organizational innovation, 13
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
on Chile, 234
clean patents and, 144
Environmental Policy Stringency (EPS) index, 143, 150154, 156, 162166
environmental regulation of mining and, 18
on mining industry, 145
Outokumpu, 146147
Panama Canal, 134
Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), 226227, 289, 329
Patents. See also specific country
analysis of spillovers using patent statistics, 73
automation, patent filings and, 35, 44
clean patents, 143, 144, 147150, 161, 166
commodity prices, patent filings and, 182183
environmental technology, patent filings and, 35, 44
exploration, patent filings and, 35, 42
filings related to mining industry, 3132
global value chains, patent filings across, 34, 49, 90
governments, role of, 22
health and safety and, 257258
increase in, 26, 2830
innovation and, 16
lifecycle of mines, patent filings across, 34, 49
limitations of data, 286
measurement of environmental policy stringency and, 155156, 158, 161
mining patents as share of total patents, 39
MNEs, patent filings by, 69
non-mining-related patent filings, 47
profits, correlation of patent filings with, 285286
proportion of mining companies filing, 47
proxy indicator of innovation, patent filings as, 16, 2830, 119, 182183, 264, 285286, 303
spillovers, patent licensing and, 6465
transport-related innovation, patent filings and, 35, 4244, 119, 126129, 138
PatentsView, 263
PATSTAT database (EPO), 71, 73, 147, 262263, 280, 304, 310, 329, 332, 338
Peru
Brazil, mineral trade with, 207
innovation in, 99100, 103
Innovaxxion customers in, 252
La Rinconada mine, 99100
R&D expenditures in, 104
Petro Canada, 287
Phosphate, environmental impacts, 142
Poland as source of innovation growth, 38
Potassium in Brazil, 207
Power Train Technologies, 101, 104
Price takers, 8, 9495
Processing stage, 67
Processing subsector
in Australia, 314, 316318
in Brazil, 213217, 227228
in Canada, 292296
commodity prices and, 189190
innovation in, 34
Process innovation, 13
PROCHILE, 236
Production-focused companies, 4
Productivity growth
importance of, 910
innovation and, 11
Public finances, contribution of mining industry to, 3
Public research organizations (PROs) in mining innovation ecosystem, 14, 46, 50
“Pull effect” of innovation, 11
Qatar as source of innovation growth, 3738
Railway technologies, 132133
R&D. See Research and development (R&D)
Rare earth elements
in Australia, 308
innovation and, 12
“pull effect” of innovation, 11
transport issues, 118
Refining subsector
in Australia, 314, 316318
in Brazil, 213217, 227228
in Canada, 292297, 299
commodity prices and, 189190
innovation in, 34, 49
Refuge chambers, 267268, 276
Relative specialization index (RSI), 3942, 4950, 184, 302, 304305
Research and development (R&D). See also specific country
commodity prices and, 174, 175, 182183
exploration stage and, 1213
increase in expenditures, 2628
by MNEs, 66, 67, 6869, 76
R&D-intensive FDI, 66, 7475, 76
spillovers, R&D collaboration and, 6465
traditionally less R&D-intensive, mining industry as, 145
Resemin, 103, 104
Reserves, establishing, 56
Resources, establishing, 5
Reuther, Jim, 269
Rio Tinto, 215, 288, 312, 320, 333334
RIVET (Chilean company), 252254
Road transport, 131132
RoXplorer (DET CRC), 322323
Russian Federation
automation, patent filings and, 44
Brazil, mineral trade with, 207
container technologies in, 134
environmental technology, patent filings and, 44
exploration, patent filings and, 42
mining patents as share of total patents, 39
relative specialization index (RSI) in, 4142
road transport in, 132
as source of innovation growth, 3638, 49
transport-related innovation in, 4244, 129
Safety in mining industry. See Health and safety in mining industry
Sand
in Australia, 308
environmental impacts, 142
Sandvik AB, 335
Saudi Arabia as source of innovation growth, 3738
Savery, Thomas, 126
SBVS Mine Engineering, 221
Schlumberger, 336
Shell, 287
Singapore, patent filings in, 44
Socio-economic impacts of mining industry, 95
South Africa
Canadian company patent filings in, 289
costs of transport and, 123124
FDI in, 62
government support of mining industry in, 178
machinery and equipment, innovation in, 212
mining patents as share of total patents, 39
mining specialization in, 183
relative specialization index (RSI) in, 4142
as source of innovation growth, 3738, 49
South American Management (SAMSA), 241, 245
South Korea. See Korea, Republic of
Soviet Union, public research organizations (PROs) in, 46. See also Russian Federation
Spain as source of innovation growth, 37
Spillovers
generally, 52
absorptive capacity and, 63
creative internationalization, 71, 72, 74
empirical studies, 6465
literature on, 64
operational internationalization, 7072, 7374
patent licensing and, 6465
patent statistics, analysis using, 73
R&D collaboration and, 6465
technology diffusion and, 66, 6970, 76
theoretical background, 6365
transport-related innovation and, 136138
Steel in processing stage, 7
Stolar, Inc., 270273
Stolarczyk, Larry, 270
Stone, environmental impacts, 142
Sweden
automation, patent filings and, 44
as source of innovation growth, 38
Switzerland
METS sector in, 38
as source of innovation growth, 38
Tanzania, FDI in, 62
Tax incentives
in Australia, 22(See also Australian R&D Tax Incentive)
in Brazil, 22
in Canada, 22
in Chile, 22
Technological Revolution, 126
Technology flows, innovation and, 15
Technology transfer
in Brazil, 204, 217221
Vale S.A. and, 221
Teck Resource Limited, 302
Terex Cifali, 213
Tesco, 287
“Through-the-earth” (TTE) wireless communications, 267268, 270273, 276
Tin in Brazil, 206207
Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX), 278
Trademarks, 20, 246247, 248250, 279, 281
Trade secrets, 20, 30, 246, 248249, 281282, 286
Transport-related innovation in mining industry
generally, 18, 34, 119
automation, 134135, 139140
challenges in, 140
container technologies, 134
control technologies, 134135
conveying technologies, 131
cost as factor, 121124
distance reduction as driver of, 125
efficiency as driver of, 125
empty running, 139
environmental impact as driver of, 126
focus of analysis, 118119
future trends, 140
General Purpose Technology, 139140
globalization, effect of, 129130
historical background, 117118
importance of, 118, 139
Industrial Revolution and, 126
knowledge flow and, 136138
longer transit distances of mining products and, 121
maritime technologies, 133134
mobility of mining output and, 119121
operational time as driver of, 125
other transport-related innovation compared, 118
patent filings and, 35, 4244, 119, 126129, 138
railway technologies, 132133
relevance of, 126129
road transport, 131132
safety as driver of, 125
spillovers and, 136138
Technological Revolution and, 126
working conditions as driver of, 125
Transport subsector
in Australia, 316318
in Brazil, 213217, 227228
in Canada, 292296
commodity prices and, 189190
innovation in(See Transport-related innovation in mining industry)
TSX-Venture Exchange, 278
Tungsten in Brazil, 205
Uneven geographical distribution of minerals, 8
United Kingdom
Canadian company patent filings in, 289
FDI and, 58
as source of innovation growth, 3738
Warren Spring Laboratory, 46
United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 52, 5456, 79
Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), 61
United States
Aracoma Alma Mine disaster, 261, 270
Australian company patent filings in, 309, 317
automation, patent filings and, 44
automation in, 135
Brazil, mineral trade with, 207
Bureau of Mines, 46, 259260
Canadian company patent filings in, 288290
coal, costs of transport, 122123
container technologies in, 134
Darby Mine disaster, 261
Department of Interior, 259260, 261
Department of Labor, 261
employment in mining industry in, 258259
Energy Information Administration (EIA), 122123
environmental technology, patent filings and, 44
exploration, patent filings and, 42
fatalities in mining industry in, 257, 259, 261
Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of, 1969, 260261
Federal Coal Mine Safety Act of, 1952, 260
Federal Metallic and Nonmetallic Mine Safety Act of, 1966, 260
Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of, 1977, 261
importance of mining industry in, 258
improvements in health and safety in, 257
Innovaxxion customers in, 252
legislation regarding health and safety in, 259262
machinery and equipment, innovation in, 212
maritime technologies in, 133134
measurement of environmental policy stringency in, 158
METS sector in, 19
MINER Act of 2006(See Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act of 2006 (US))
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), 261, 270, 274
mining patents as share of total patents, 39
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 261, 262, 269, 270, 271274, 276
Occupational Safety and Health Act of, 1970, 261
Office of Mine Safety and Health, 262
Ohio Underground Mine Task Force, 269
Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), 258, 263, 267, 270
patent filings in, 237239, 264265
productivity in, 10
R&D expenditures in, 27
relative specialization index (RSI), 4142, 4950
Sago Mine disaster, 261, 269, 270
Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (HELP) Committee, 261262
as source of innovation growth, 3638, 47, 49
Speculator Mine, 257
transport-related innovation in, 4244, 129
United States Steel Company, 205
Universities and academic institutions. See also specific university or institution
Australia, collaboration in, 320
Brazil, collaboration in, 211
in Canada, 282
in Chile, 242245, 250, 254
in mining innovation ecosystem, 14, 4546, 50
University of British Columbia, 288
University of Manchester, 320
University of Queensland, 320
University of Sydney, 320
Upstream linkages, 7879
Uranium
in Australia, 308
environmental impacts, 142
“pull effect” of innovation, 11
Utility models, 31, 213, 246247, 304
Vale S.A.
generally, 19, 202
Ferrous Metals Technology Center (CTF), 224
founding of, 221222
Inco Limited, acquisition of, 287288
innovation at, 100101, 222224
institutional collaboration for innovation, 211, 224227
Logistic Engineering Center (CEL), 224
methodology of study, 204
Mineral Development Center (CDM), 224
partnerships with, 225
patent filings by, 213215, 225227, 228, 229
renaming of, 221
technology transfer and, 221, 227
universities and academic institutions and, 4546
Vale Canada Limited, 287288, 300
Vale Institute of Technology (ITV), 224
Valuation in mining industry
generally, 23
exports, contribution of mining industry to, 3
foreign direct investment (FDI), contribution of mining industry to, 3
public finances, contribution of mining industry to, 3
value adding, 3
Venezuela as source of innovation growth, 3738
Verti, 102
Waste in mining, increase in, 2
WIPO. See World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
World Bank
on Brazilian mining industry, 206
Development Indicators, 181
Metals and Minerals Price Index, 172173, 175, 180, 197
World Class Suppliers (WCS) program (Chile)
generally, 1718, 106
analysis, 108109
collaboration and, 235
Corporate Social Responsibility and, 109
development of, 106107
Expande program and, 241
implementation of projects, 107108
innovation and, 236
patent filings, 108
performance, 108109
selection of projects, 107
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
clean patents and, 143, 166
Mining Database, 141, 304
non-mining-related patent filings and, 47
patent filings database, 16, 20, 69, 119, 172173, 257258, 262264, 271, 275276, 303
Statistics Database, 147
Yamana Gold, 221
Zambia, FDI in, 7778
Zinc
in Australia, 308
in Brazil, 206
innovation and, 12
transport issues, 118