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Figures

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 April 2022

Alica Daly
Affiliation:
World Intellectual Property Organization
David Humphreys
Affiliation:
University of Dundee
Julio Raffo
Affiliation:
World Intellectual Property Organization
Giulia Valacchi
Affiliation:
World Intellectual Property Organization

Summary

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NCCreative Common License - ND
This content is Open Access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/cclicenses/

Figures

  1. 1.1Simplified view of the life of a mine

  2. 1.2Productivity in the Australian and US mining industries

  3. 2.1R&D expenditure in mining in Australia, 1993–2016

  4. 2.2Worldwide mineral exploration expenditure (US $ bn) by commodity, 1994–2017

  5. 2.3Worldwide mining technologies, 1990–2015

  6. 2.4Worldwide mining technologies as share of technologies, 1991–2015

  7. 2.5Patent families potentially related to mining by source

  8. 2.6Simplified view of the lifecycle of a mine

  9. 2.7Mining technologies by subsectors, 1990–2015

  10. 2.8Distribution of mining technologies in subsectors by period, 1990–2015

  11. 2.9Patents families in automation class over time

  12. 2.10Mining production and innovation by country, selected countries

  13. 2.11Mining innovation by top country of origin

  14. 2.12Mining patents share by country, selected countries

  15. 2.13Mining relative specialization index (RSI), selected countries

  16. 2.14RSI by mining sub-sector, selected countries

  17. 2.15Number of mining patents families over the years by type of stakeholder

  18. 2.16Mining Firms by technology, by earliest priority year

  19. 2.17Patent families of mining firms by WIPO technology field

  20. 3.1Ownership profile of (large) mining firms. Largest 100 mining companies based on operating revenues (distribution based on number of firms)

  21. 3.2Recent trends in mining FDI

  22. 3.3Largest investors in mining FDI

  23. 3.4Development impact of mining FDI, multiple dimensions

  24. 3.5An analytical framework

  25. 3.6R&D expenditure of MNEs in UNCTAD top 100 ranking

  26. 3.7The ownership profile of the top 100 applicants of mining patents Number of applications in the period 1990–2015, share to total

  27. 3.8Internationalization of patent activity: evidence from WIPO patent statistics

  28. 3.9Greenfield FDI by type of activity

  29. 3.10Policy recommendations: linking analysis and practice for impact

  30. 4.1Reserves of key minerals by countries’ income level (2015, %)

  31. 4.2Proportion of mineral production (%)

  32. 4.3Number of mining patent families, by country of origin (2004, 2014)

  33. 4.4Mining GVC firms and patents by type of firm and region (2004, 2014)

  34. 5.1Transport in the international mining supply chain

  35. 5.2.Coal and lignite imports and exports 2014

  36. 5.3Average commodity and transportation costs for US coal (2008–14)

  37. 5.4Historical change in transport-related innovation (1900–2015)

  38. 5.5Country of origin of mining transport patents (1990–2015)

  39. 5.6Mining transport patents by transport mode (1970–2015)

  40. 5.7Transport patents in automation

  41. 5.8Transport automation innovation per country

  42. 5.9Where does MTI source technology?

  43. 5.10Which sectors make use of mining transport technologies?

  44. 6.1Number of clean mining patents over time in total sample (left panel) and share of clean patents among all mining patents (right panel)

  45. 6.2Decomposition of the OECD EPS index

  46. 6.3Market and nonmarket EPS

  47. 6.4Mining patenting and lagged EPS

  48. 6.5Mineral price index (MPI)

  49. 7.1Private R&D expenditure in mining and quarrying in EU countries and World Bank Metals and Minerals Price Index

  50. 7.2Mineral exploration expenditure by commodity and nonferrous metals price index

  51. 7.3De-trended Metals and Minerals Price Index and different cycles components

  52. 7.4Number of patent families and R&D expenditure in the mining sector

  53. 7.5Country exposure to mining sector rents

  54. 7.6Mining and METS firms innovation relative specialization, by country and mining technology

  55. 7.7Mining price, quantity and innovation co-evolution (1960–2015)

  56. 7.8Mining price, quantity and innovation cycle decomposition (1960–2015)

  57. 7.9Average marginal effect of long cycle component of price index on innovation with 95% confidence intervals

  58. 7.10Average marginal effect of medium cycle component of price index on innovation with 95% confidence intervals

  59. 7.11Average marginal effect of short cycle component of price index on innovation with 95% confidence intervals

  60. 8.1Leading producing companies in Brazil (2015)

  61. 8.2Innovative activities developed by extractive companies and degree of importance

  62. 8.3Mining patents, by type of applicant (2000–15)

  63. 8.4Mining patent applicants, by mining technology groups

  64. 8.5Mining patents filed by METS, by country of origin (2000–15)

  65. 8.6Leading METS applicants (2000–15)

  66. 8.7Leading applicants among mining firms (2000–15)

  67. 8.8Leading contractors (2000–15)

  68. 8.9Leading suppliers, by country of provision of the contract (2000–15)

  69. 9.1Types of firms surveyed by products supplied

  70. 9.2Sales (frequency distribution, excluding the largest four firms)

  71. 9.3Employees (frequency distribution, excluding the largest four firms)

  72. 9.4Type of innovation

  73. 9.5Do IP registration costs affect protection decisions in Chile?

  74. 9.6Does your firm have trade secrets?

  75. 9.7IP instruments of apparent interest to potential exporters

  76. 10.1US mining employment (1900–2017)

  77. 10.2Fatalities in US mining (1900–2017)

  78. 10.3USPTO-granted patents in mineral mining (three-year moving average by filing year)

  79. 10.4USPTO-granted patents in mineral mining separated into safety-related and non-safety-related groups (three-year moving average by filing year)

  80. 10.5USPTO-granted patents in mineral mining for refuge chambers and TTE communications

  81. 10.6Schematic diagram of a wall-to-wall barrier in a passageway of a mine

  82. 10.7Through-the-earth (TTE) emergency tracking and communication system

  83. 10.8Distributions of similarity scores for NIOSH granted patents in four mutually exclusive groups (mineral mining, safety-related mineral mining, TTE communications and refuge chambers)

  84. 11.1Canadian patenting activity in the mining sector between 1990 and 2015

  85. 11.2Top Canadian mining firms and METS and their associated mining sector category, 1990–2015

  86. 11.3Priority country share for top Canadian mining firms and METS

  87. 11.4Priority country share for all Canadian mining firms and METS

  88. 11.5All mining patent families assigned to Canadian mining firms and METS

  89. 11.6Canadian patenting activity by mining category between 1990 and 2015

  90. 11.7Relative Specialization Index (RSI)

  91. 11.8Patent families assigned to Canadian assignees in the exploration category

  92. 11.9Collaborations and their distribution by mining sector category between 1990 and 2015

  93. 11.10Collaboration map involving mining firms and METS

  94. 11.11Canadian mining industry clusters

  95. 11.12Geographical clusters of inventive activity in Canada

  96. 12.1Patent families of Australian origin, by priority year, 1997–2015

  97. 12.2Top Australian patent filers

  98. 12.3Australian entities who file patents, by entity type

  99. 12.4Patent filings by Australians, by mining technology

  100. 12.5Patent filings by Australians, by mining technology, by priority year, 1997–2015

  101. 12.6Jurisdictions in which Australian innovators seek patent protection

  102. 12.7Australian patent filing collaboration by entity type

  103. 12.8Top Australian collaborators in patent filings

  104. 12.9Australian patent filings by CRCs

  105. 12.10Mining sector expenditure in the R&D Tax Incentive, 2000–1 to 2015–16

  106. 12.11Mining sector companies by entity size, 2000–01 to 2015–16

  107. 12.12Comparison of mining sector industry subdivision trends under the R&D Tax Incentive by industry subdivision, 2000–1 to 2015–16

  108. 12.13.Mining sector R&D expenditure and patent filings for R&D Tax Incentive companies, 2000–01 to 2015–16

  109. 12.14Mining sector performance under the R&D Tax Incentive by State and Territory, 2000–1 to 2015–16

  110. 12.15Patent filings into Australia, by priority year, 1997–2015

  111. 12.16RBA Index of Commodity Prices, 1997–2015

  112. 12.17Mining sector profits as a share of nominal GDP, 1997–2015

  113. 12.18Australian investment in mining as a percentage of GDP, 1997–2015

  114. 12.19Patent filings into Australia by mining technology

  115. 12.20Patent filings into Australia by applicant origin

  116. 12.21Top applicants filing patents into Australia in the mining sector

  117. 12.22International collaboration on patent filings into Australia in the mining sector

  118. 12.23Collaboration on patent filings into Australia in the mining sector by technology

  119. 12.24Collaboration on patent filings into Australia by technology by country

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