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Appendix - Appendices

from 6 - Environmental Regulations in the Mining Sector and Their Effect on Technological Innovation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 April 2022

Alica Daly
Affiliation:
World Intellectual Property Organization
David Humphreys
Affiliation:
University of Dundee
Julio Raffo
Affiliation:
World Intellectual Property Organization
Giulia Valacchi
Affiliation:
World Intellectual Property Organization

Summary

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NCCreative Common License - ND
This content is Open Access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/cclicenses/
Appendix
Table 6A

Summary statistics of key variables

1) All sample, MA transformed variables

VariableObsMeanStd. Dev.MinMax
Clean mining patents69417341803099
EPS level6301.420.790.373.89
EPS growth5980.060.08−0.140.43
GHG emissions per capita6302.230.600.333.41
Total mining patents69434729527080633
Mining exports (percent of exports)6160.040.050.010.36
Mining imports (percent of imports)6180.030.010.010.14
Mineral price index630552534103
Growth of GDP per capita5640.020.02−0.040.08
Market EPS level6080.910.6003.54
Market EPS growth5540.100.21−0.331.16
Nonmarket EPS level6081.971.130.335.33
Nonmarket EPS growth6300.030.07−0.330.33
Source: Author’s calculations.

2) Baseline estimation sample, logged MA transformed variables

VariableObsMeanStd. Dev.MinMax
Clean mining patents503267628.175305414
Logged EPS5030.270.583448−0.98082921.35342
EPS growth5030.060.088846−0.14898990.436715
GHG emissions per capita5032.240.6214790.34307553.418411
Non-environmental patents5035.681.9281790.998577410.14555
MPI growth5030.070.131274−0.10678370.362375
Mineral exports5030.040.05680.00310.364131
Mineral imports5030.0460.0201410.01170660.141764
Mineral rents5030.000.00933200.065297
Source: Author’s calculations.

Table 6B Robustness best of baseline estimation, using further lags and moving-average definition

VARIABLES(1)(2)(3)
Level of EPS, logged t-2−3.895***
(0.719)
Level of EPS, logged t-32.232***
(0.758)
Level of EPS, logged t-41.751
(1.074)
Percentage change in EPS, t-23.553***
(0.655)
Percentage change in EPS, t-31.537
(0.970)
Percentage change in EPS, t-4−0.0536
(0.131)
Percentage change in EPS (MA-2)0.348***
(0.124)
Level of EPS, logged (MA-2)0.0898
(0.187)
Percentage change in EPS (MA-4)0.142
(0.112)
Level of EPS, logged (MA-4)0.0898
(0.228)
Other controlsYesYesYes
Year fixed effectsYesYesYes
Observations518535435
Number of countries293028
Source: Author’s calculations.

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