1. , , , . Ectopic pregnancy. In: Operative obstetrics. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lang; 1995. pp. 437–56.
2. , , , . Treatment of unruptured ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate: a UK experience. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000;79:790–2.
3. , , . Ectopic pregnancy. BMJ. 2000;320:916–19.
4.Department of Health. Report on confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom 1988–1990. London: HMSO; 1994:61–7.
5.Department of Health. Report on confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom 1991–1993. London: HMSO; 1996:68–73.
6. , , . The influence of demographic change and cumulative risk of pelvic inflammatory on the change of ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiol Infect. 1997;119:49–52.
7. , , , , , , . Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: a comprehensive analysis based on a large case-control, population-based study in France. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157:185–94.
8. Infections and infertility. Prim Care Update Ob Gyns. 2000;7:200–6.
9. , , , , . Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. A population based study. JAMA. 1988;259:1823–7.
10. , , . Incidence, trends, and risk factors of ectopic pregnancy in a population of women. BMJ. 1981;282:15–18.
11. , , , , . Rate of hospitalization for gynecologic disorders among reproductive-age women in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 1995;86:764–9.
12. , , , , . Recurrent chlamydial infections increase the risks of hospitalization for ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;176:103–7.
13. , , , , , , , . The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in fresh tissue specimens from patients with ectopic pregnancy or tubal factor infertility as determined by PCR and in-situ hybridisation. J Med Microbiol. 2001;50:902–8.
14. . Influence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis on pregnancy outcome, infant health, and lifelong sequelae in infected offspring. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;16:847–64.
15. Jr, Jr, . Sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility: an epidemiologic update. Epidemiol Rev. 1990;12:199–220.
16. , , , , , , , , . The impact of a comprehensive chlamydia prevention program in Wisconsin. Fam Plann Perspect. 1995 May-Jun;27(3):108–11.
17. , , , , . Screening for chlamydial infections and the risk of ectopic pregnancy in a county in Sweden: ecological analysis. BMJ. 1998;316:1776–80.
18. , . Role of previous ectopic pregnancy in altering the presentation of suspected ectopic pregnancy. J Reprod Med. 2003;48:133–6.
19. Conservative versus radical surgery for tubal pregnancy. A review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1996;75:8–12.
20. , , . Ectopic pregnancy. Lancet. 1998;351:1115–20.
21. , , , , , . The risk of ectopic pregnancy after tubal sterilization. U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:762–7.
22. , , . IUD use and the risk of ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Contraception. 1995;52:23–34.
23. , , , , , , . Risk factors for extrauterine pregnancy in women using an intrauterine device. Fertil Steril. 2000;74:899–908.
24. , , Jr, . Contraception and ectopic pregnancy risk. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;163:1120–3.
25. , , . Ectopic pregnancy in the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterinesystem (LNG-IUS) user: atypical presentation. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;22:567–8.
26. , , . Levonorgestrel-releasing and copper-releasing (Nova T) IUDs during five years of use: a randomized comparative trial. Contraception. 1994;49:56–72.
27. , , . Ectopic pregnancy with levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system. Br J Fam Plann. 1998;24:85–6.
28. , , . Ectopic pregnancy with a translocated Mirena intrauterine system. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2002;28:95–6.
29. Risks and benefits, advantages and disadvantages of levonorgestrel-releasing contraceptive implants. Drug Saf. 2003;26:303–35.
30. B, Stepien A, Ziecik AJ. Effect of estradiol and progesterone on oviductal LH-receptors and LH-dependent relaxation of the porcine oviduct. Theriogenology. 2000;53:659--72.
31. S, Richardson MC, Anthony FW, Mukhtar D, Cameron IT. Progesterone inhibits insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) production by explants of the Fallopian tube. Mol Hum Reprod. 2004;10:935--9.
30. , , , 3rd. An ectopic pregnancy in the upper retroperitoneum following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Obstet Gynecol. 1991;78:544–6.
33. , , , . Cornual pregnancies in patients with prior salpingectomy undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril.1996;65:659–60.
34. , , , . Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1995;12:594–8.
35. , , . Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in assisted reproduction. Fertil Steril. 1999;71:282–6.
36. , , . Broad ligament twin pregnancy following in vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod. 1999;14:852–4.
37. , , , , , , , . Ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET): the possible role of the ET technique. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1993;10:302–4.
38. , , , . Embryo transfer technique as a cause of ectopic pregnancy in in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 1993;60:919–21.
39. , , , , . Ovarian pregnancy associated with microscopic decidualized endometriosis of the ovary: report of a case. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 1998;24:45–8.
40. Tubal ectopic pregnancy: a pathophysiological explanation involving endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:1688–91.
41. , , , , . Maternal cigarette smoking and the risk of tubal pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;15;133:332–7.
42. , , , , , . The effect of cigarette smoking, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, and vaginal douching on ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1992;79:85–90.
43. , , , , , . Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;178:493–8.
44. DES exposure: implications for childbearing. Int J Childbirth Educ. 1992;7:21–8.
45. Ectopic pregnancy: symptoms, diagnosis and management. Nurs Times 2004;100:32--3.
46. BC, Dart RG, Moskos M, Kuligowska E, Chun B, Adel Hamid M, Northern K, Schmidt J, Kharwadkar A. Ectopic pregnancy: prospective study with improved diagnostic accuracy. Ann Emerg Med. 1996;28:10--7.
47. , , , , . First-trimester rapid semiquantitative assay for urine pregnanediol glucuronide predicts gestational outcome with the same diagnostic accuracy as serial human chorionic gonadotropin measurements. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;170:1822–5.
48. , , , , , , . Accuracy of single measurements of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, human chorionic gonadotropin, and progesterone in the diagnosis of early pregnancy failure. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002;100:174–80.
49. , , , , , , , . Fertility after conservative and radical surgery for tubal pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 1998a;13:1804–9.
50. , , , , . Serum inhibin levels are lower in ectopic than intrauterine spontaneously conceived pregnancies. Fertil Steril. 1996;65:667–9.
51. , , , . Normal early pregnancy: serum hCG levels and vaginal ultrasonography findings. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990;97:899–903.
52. , , . Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound above and below the beta-hCG discriminatory zone. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;94:583–7.
53. , , . Discriminatory hCG zone: its use in the sonographic evaluation for ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1981;58:156–61.
54. , , , . Suspected ectopic pregnancy. What to do when human chorionic gonadotropin levels are below the discriminatory zone. J Reprod Med. 1995;40:525–8.
55. Current challenges in the assessment and management of patients with bleeding in early pregnancy. Emerg Med. 2003;25:219–22.
56. , , , , , . Sonographic detection of echogenic fluid and correlation with culdocentesis in the evaluation of ectopic pregnancy. Am J Roentgenol. 1998;170:1299–302.
57. , , , . Management of suspected ectopic pregnancy. Impact of new diagnostic tools in 686 consecutive cases. J Reprod Med. 1996;41:724–8.
58. , , , , . Conservative laparoscopic treatment of 321 ectopic pregnancies. Fertil Steril. 1986;46:1093–7.
59. The laparoscopic treatment of ectopic pregnancy: the long road of acceptance. Gynaecol Endos. 1996;5:65–8.
60. , , , Use of laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy in the UK: a national survey. Gynaecol Endos. 1999;8:81–4.
61. , , , , , . Operative laparoscopy versus laparotomy for the management of ectopic pregnancy: a prospective trial. Fertil Steril. 1992;57:1180–5.
62. , , , , . Laparoscopic surgery in ectopic pregnancy. A randomized trial versus laparotomy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1991;70:343–8.
63. , , . Fertility outcome after conservative surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy evaluated in a randomized trial. Fertil Steril. 1992;57:998–1002.
64. , , , , . A cost-effectiveness study of a randomised trial of laparoscopy versus laparotomy for ectopic pregnancy. Lancet. 1995;6;345:1139–43.
65. , . Ectopic pregnancy: an update. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2004;16:289–93.
66. , , . Reproductive outcome after 143 laparoscopic procedures for ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1993;81:710–15.
67. , , , , , , . Fertility after ectopic pregnancy: first results of a population-based cohort study in France. Hum Reprod. 1996;11:99–104.
68. , , , , . The accuracy of single serum progesterone measurement in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 1998b;13:3220–7.
69. , , , . Improved fertility following conservative surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy. BJOG. 2003;110:765–70.
70. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy. J Med Philos. 2001;26:61–74.
71. , . Medical management of ectopic pregnancy – the role of methotrexate. J Emerg Med. 1997;15:177–82.
72. , . A 6-year clinical trial of methotrexate therapy in the treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1998;79:167–71.
73. , , , , . Analysis of three hundred fifteen ectopic pregnancies treated with single-dose methotrexate. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;178:1354–8.
74. , , , . A randomised trial comparing single-dose systemic methotrexate and laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of unruptured tubal pregnancy. BJOG. 2001 Feb;108:192–203.
75. , , , , , , , , , , , ; GROG. Medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial comparing methotrexate-mifepristone and methotrexate-placebo. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod. 2004;33:391–400.
76. , , , , . Methotrexate treatment of unruptured ectopic pregnancy: a report of 100 cases. Obstet Gynecol. 1991;77:749–53.
77. , , . Current status of management of ectopic pregnancy. Gynaecol Endos. 1999;8:73–9.
78. , , , , . Human chorionic gonadotrophin and progesterone levels in pregnancies of unknown location. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004;86:351–7.
79. , , , , , . Expectant management of tubal ectopic pregnancy: prediction of successful outcome using decision tree analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2004;23:552–6.
80. , Risk factors for persistent trophoblastic activity after surgery for ectopic pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004;83:471–5.
81. . Tubal patency and fertility outcome after expectant management of ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 1997;68:1043--6.
82. , . Current status of surgical and nonsurgical management of ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 1997;67:421–33.