Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Ethical Naturalism
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Ethical naturalism is narrowly construed as the doctrine that there are moral properties and facts, at least some of which are natural properties and facts. Perhaps owing to its having faced, early on, intuitively forceful objections by eliminativists and non-naturalists, ethical naturalism has only recently become a central player in the debates about the status of moral properties and facts which have occupied philosophers over the last century. It has now become a driving force in those debates, one with sufficient resources to challenge not only eliminativism, especially in its various non-cognitivist forms, but also the most sophisticated versions of non-naturalism. This volume brings together twelve new essays which make it clear that, in light of recent developments in analytic philosophy and the social sciences, there are novel grounds for reassessing the doctrines at stake in these debates.

Reviews

'Nuccetelli and Seay’s volume contributes to advancing the debates surrounding ethical naturalism in constructive and valuable ways.'

Mauro Rossi Source: Dialectica

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

  • Chapter 1 - Naturalism in moral philosophy
    pp 8-23
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter discusses certain prospects for naturalism in moral philosophy. Naturalism has an ontological or metaphysical aspect in supposing that the world is the natural world, the world that is studied by the natural sciences, the world that is available to methodological naturalism. The chapter first deals with metaphysical issues of the naturalism, having to do with naturalistic reduction in ethics. The most straightforward naturalistic reductive strategy appeals to the supervenience of the moral on the natural facts. The chapter considers three kinds of naturalistic reduction, associated with theories of normative functionalism, response-dependent theories, and social convention theories. It also considers how certain issues in moral psychology look from a naturalistic point of view. Finally, the chapter describes three different topics in moral psychology: linguistics as a guide to moral theory, guilt feelings, and character traits.
  • Chapter 2 - Normativity and reasons: five arguments from Parfit against normative naturalism
    pp 24-57
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter considers five arguments against naturalism that have recently been proposed by Derek Parfit, and, following Parfit, by David McNaughton and Piers Rawling and Jonathan Dancy. It first explains that the debate between naturalists and non-naturalists is of philosophical interest chiefly because of the important background issue of explaining what it is for a property or fact to be normative. The author's account of the nature of normative moral facts and facts about practical reasons can be generalized to provide an account of all kinds of normative fact. He calls the generalized view pluralist-teleology. Pluralist-teleology is an example of non-analytic normative naturalism. The Normativity Objection seems to be Parfit's chief objection. The goal is to show that no natural fact can be normative in the reason-implying sense. Parfit offers three closely related arguments that turn on the idea of triviality, so this is really a family of arguments.
  • Chapter 3 - Naturalism: feel the width
    pp 58-69
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter suggests that one can find a version of naturalism broad enough to be plausible to those initially attracted to non-naturalism if he/she uncovers what motivates naturalism and its denial. It describes the normative facts and normative properties. Non-naturalism is the view that normative properties cannot be seen as part of the scientific conception of the world, even in an ecumenical form. Two different pressures lead naturalism and non-naturalism away from one another. On the one hand, the naturalist wishes to anchor normative properties within the scientific conception of the world, and to avoid the attribution of properties which, by definition as non-natural, lie beyond that conception. On the other hand, the non-naturalist, noting the apparently highly significant difference between natural or "descriptive" properties and normative properties, marks that difference by isolating normativity from science.
  • Chapter 4 - On ethical naturalism and the philosophy of language
    pp 70-88
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter deals with an old problem that lies at the intersection of metaphysics and the philosophy of language. It presents some preliminary comments on ethical naturalism and on the representational view of language. The chapter is concerned with ethical naturalism in its manifestation as a realistically construed version of cognitivism in ethics, where what divides the cognitivist from the expressivist is that the former takes talk of ethical properties seriously. It describes two very different ways to respond to the problem. One sees ethical properties as solutions to something roughly akin to a set of simultaneous equations, a set that captures the way ethical concepts form an interlocking network, a network which is, to some extent, still under negotiation. The other draws on recent work on reference to natural kinds, inspired most especially by Hilary Putnam.
  • Chapter 5 - Metaethical pluralism: how both moral naturalism and moral skepticism may be permissible positions
    pp 89-109
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter deals with the relation between two metaethical theses: moral naturalism and moral skepticism. Moral naturalism and moral skepticism are certainly not contradictories; they do not exhaust the space of metaethical possibilities. It is usual to think of them as contraries, for surely to embrace one position is to reject the other. The chapter explores the possibility of an irresolvable indeterminacy between moral naturalism and moral skepticism. David Lewis located one potential node of indeterminacy: between moral naturalism and error theoretic moral skepticism. The chapter investigates the potential undecidability of the debate between cognitivism and non-cognitivism. Rudolf Carnap invites open competition with his cognitivist rival. Having discussed Lewis and Carnap, it seems apt to end with the philosopher who best connects them: W. V. Quine. Faced with the nodes of indeterminacy, the author counsels neither sectarianism nor ecumenicalism in particular, but rather what might be called "metaethical ambivalence".
  • Chapter 6 - Moral naturalism and categorical reasons
    pp 110-130
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter explains moral naturalism from Richard Joyce's contention that any philosopher with broadly naturalist inclinations should reject moral naturalism in favor of the error theory, according to which there are no moral facts at all. Moral naturalism of the sort comprises two claims. The first is that there are moral facts. The second claim is that the Humean theory of reasons is true. According to the Humean theory, nothing is a reason for an agent unless and because she has desires of the appropriate types. Moral naturalists might claim that thinking of some moral reasons as being categorical is not only something one find very natural, but also the best way to acquire moral reasons. A single line of argument would be sufficient to dispose of moral naturalism, expressivism, moral fictionalism, moral subjectivism, and other views, since they all fail to describe a system of moral concepts.
  • Chapter 7 - Does analytical moral naturalism rest on a mistake?
    pp 131-143
  • Susana Nuccetelli and Gary Seay
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter argues that analytical naturalism of the sort recently proposed by Frank Jackson and Michael Smith does after all rest on a mistake, though perhaps not the one G. E. Moore had in mind when he made the naturalistic fallacy charge. Smith outlines a parallel version of analytical naturalism, in the course of suggesting what is for him the only naturalistic moral realist account of the content of moral belief that can safely dodge the bullet aimed by the open question argument (OQA) against naturalistic moral realism. The chapter explains the analytical naturalist claim that some conceptual equivalences hold between predicates in the moral and non-moral vocabularies. On Smith and Jackson's account, since such equivalences are likely to be unobvious, the theory that countenances them is therefore unaffected by Moore's OQA. On the author's view, the analytical naturalist commits a parallel dialectical mistake.
  • Chapter 8 - Supervenience and the nature of normativity
    pp 144-168
  • View abstract

    Summary

    Non-naturalism in metanormative theory maintains that normative predicates refer to normative properties, normative properties are utterly irreducible to any of the properties of the natural sciences, and that these properties are at least sometimes instantiated in the actual world. The idea of non-natural normative properties can reasonably seem, as J. L. Mackie famously remarked, "queer". Before elaborating on the queerness of this combination of views, though, it is useful to characterize the relevant supervenience thesis. This chapter deals with an account of the semantics Ralph Wedgwood offers for normative predicates, so as to put his metaphysical views into their proper context. Wedgwood's proposed explanation of Strong Supervenience (SS) is itself problematic, in that it invokes essentialist claims which are just essentialist variants on SS and which stand just as much in need of explanation as SS itself.
  • Chapter 9 - Can normativity be naturalized?
    pp 169-193
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter explores the possibility of naturalizing the normative. It shows how some of the aims of well-conceived naturalization projects can be achieved: normative properties are in some cases accessible to perception and, even apart from that possibility, may be justifiedly ascribed to actions or other elements on the basis of clearly natural properties. One reason for the philosophical attraction of naturalizing normativity is what one might call the epistemological authority of perception. For philosophical naturalists, perception is often taken to have epistemological sovereignty, in the sense that it is essential for any other kind of knowledge and is the ultimate test of claims to knowledge or justified belief. Naturalization projects occur in all major domains of inquiry: for instance, in ethics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, even theology. Any account of ethical objectivity, something ethical naturalists wish to preserve, should provide a major role for perception.
  • Chapter 10 - Ethical non-naturalism and experimental philosophy
    pp 194-210
  • View abstract

    Summary

    One thing that the classic non-naturalists wanted to protect was a specific epistemology. The author's concern is what impact, if any, recent work stemming from the psychology and experimental philosophy literatures should have on this debate. Some of this work, especially from epistemology, is hostile to appeals to intuition, and there are parallel empirical findings in ethics that could justify similar hostility to the appeals to intuition prized by the non-naturalists. He argues that empirical findings may be relevant to particular arguments some non-naturalists give, in particular, to the argument of Prichard, Carritt, and Ross that egoism, Kantianism, and consequentialism give the wrong reasons for some moral judgments. There are two potential objections to the wrong-reasons argument when it is given without support from wrong verdicts. Both objections owe something to the empirical literature. Empirical work may, however, discredit a particular sort of argument, the wrong-reasons argument.
  • Chapter 11 - Externalism, motivation, and moral knowledge
    pp 211-225
  • View abstract

    Summary

    For ethical naturalists of a certain stripe, externalism about moral motivation is an attractive option. Ethical naturalists tend to accept externalism and explain virtuous and moral behavior by the existence of a desire to act morally, or a desire to perform only actions that are morally right. Michael Smith has mounted an important objection to this form of ethical externalism. In responding to this objection, the author shows how non-analytical naturalism must see the connection between moral knowledge and moral motivation in this picture. Smith points out that anyone needs to explain why a rational, moral agent reliably changes his or her motivation in accordance with changes in her moral beliefs. According to him, the externalist explains such reliable changes in the virtuous agent's motivation in accordance with changes in their moral beliefs only in terms of a non-derivative desire to do what is morally right, read de dicto.
  • Chapter 12 - Naturalism, absolutism, relativism
    pp 226-244
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter clarifies the two views about morality. One of these is the view that basic moral demands apply only to some, not to everyone. Gilbert Harman calls this view as "moral relativism". The alternative to relativism is a view that Harman calls "moral absolutism". Moral absolutism is a version of moral rationalism, the view that basic moral demands are claims about the reasons that people have, where these claims are both necessary and a priori. The existence of moral demands does not require that everyone has sufficient reasons to do or hope or wish for the things that morality demands. Harman's hypothesis is that naturalism tells in favor of moral relativism. He argues that the relativist's conception of rationality or reasonableness is itself more naturalistically respectable than the absolutist's. This chapter presents four lines of reply to the flat-footed response to the Harman's argument.
Bibliography
Adams, R. 1999 Finite and Infinite Goods: A Framework for EthicsNew YorkOxford University Press
Aristotle, 2000 Nicomachean EthicsCrisp, R.Cambridge University Press
Armstrong, D. M. 1968 A Materialist Theory of the MindLondonRoutledge
Audi, P.
Audi, R. 1989 Practical ReasoningLondon and New YorkRoutledge
Audi, R. 1993 Wagner, S.Warner, R.Naturalism: A Critical AppraisalUniversity of Notre Dame Press
Audi, R. 1997 Cullity, G.Gaut, B.Ethics and Practical ReasonOxford University Press
Audi, R. 1999 Self-EvidencePhilosophical Perspectives 13 205
Audi, R. 2000 Philosophical Naturalism at the Turn of the CenturyJournal of Philosophical Research 25 27
Audi, R. 2001 The Architecture of Reason: The Structure and Substance of RationalityOxford University Press
Audi, R. 2002 An Internalist Theory of Normative GroundsPhilosophical Topics 29 19
Audi, R. 2004 The Good in the Right: A Theory of Intuition and Intrinsic ValuePrinceton University Press
Audi, R. 2006 Practical Reasoning and Ethical DecisionLondonRoutledge
Audi, R. 2008 Intuition, Inference, and Rational Disagreement in EthicsEthical Theory and Moral Practice 11 475
Audi, R. 2010 Moral Perception and Moral KnowledgeProceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes 84 79
Austin, J. L. 1956 A Plea for ExcusesProceedings of the Aristotelian Society 57 1
Austin, J. L. 1962 How to Do Things with WordsOxford University Press
Ayer, A. J. 1956 The Problem of KnowledgeHarmondsworth, UKPenguin Books
Ayer, A. J. 1965 Philosophical EssaysLondonMacmillan
Bagnoli, C. 2011 www.plato.stanford.edu/entries/constructivism-ethics
Baker, M. 2001 Atoms of LanguageNew YorkBasic Books
Ball, S. W. 1988 Reductionism in Ethics and Science: A Contemporary Look at G. E. Moore’s Open Question ArgumentAmerican Philosophical Quarterly 25 197
Baron, J. 1992 The Effect of Normative Beliefs on Anticipated EmotionsJournal of Personality and Social Psychology 63 320
Baron, J. 1994 Nonconsequentialist DecisionsBehavioral and Brain Sciences 17 1
Bartels, D.Medin, D. 2007 Are Morally Motivated Decision Makers Insensitive to the Consequences of Their Choices?Psychological Science 19 24
Beardsley, M. 1981 Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of CriticismIndianapolisHackett Publishing Company
Bechtel, W.Richardson, R. 1998 Craig, E.Routledge Encyclopedia of PhilosophyLondonRoutledge
Bennett, K.McLaughlin, B. 2005 Zalta, E.www.seop.leeds.ac.uk/entries/supervenience/
Bentham, J. 1988 An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and LegislationBuffalo, NYPrometheus Books
Blackburn, S. 1984 Spreading the WordOxfordClarendon Press
Blackburn, S. 1985 Hacking, IanExercises in Analysis: Essays by Students of Casimir LewyCambridge University Press
Blackburn, S. 1993 Essays in Quasi-RealismNew YorkOxford University Press
Blackburn, S. 1998 Ruling PassionsOxfordClarendon Press
Bloomfield, P. 2001 Moral RealityNew YorkOxford University Press
Boghossian, P. 1994 The Transparency of Mental ContentPhilosophical Perspectives 8 33
Boyd, R. N. 1988 Sayre-McCord, G.Essays in Moral RealismIthaca, NYCornell University Press
Boyd, R. N. 1993 Orotney, A.Metaphor and ThoughtCambridge University Press
Boyd, R. N. 2003 Finite Beings, Finite Goods: The Semantics, Metaphysics and Ethics of Naturalist Consequentialism, Part iiPhilosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 3505
Brandom, R. 1994 Making It ExplicitCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Brandt, R. B. 1954 Hopi Ethics: A Theoretical AnalysisUniversity of Chicago Press
Brandt, R. B. 1979 A Theory of the Good and the RightOxford University Press
Brink, D. O. 1989 Moral Realism and the Foundations of EthicsCambridge University Press
Brink, D. O. 1992 Tomberlin, J.Philosophical Perspectives: EthicsAtascadero, CARidgeview Publishing Company
Brink, D. O. 1997 Moral MotivationEthics 108 4
Broad, C. D. 1971 Broad’s Critical Essays in Moral PhilosophyCheney, DavidLondonGeorge Allen & Unwin
Burge, T. 1996 Our Entitlement to Self-KnowledgeProceedings of the Aristotelian 96 91
Burge, T. 1998 Wright, C.Smith, B. C.Macdonald, C.Knowing Our Own MindsOxford University Press
Capitan, H.Merrill, D. 1967 Art, Mind, and ReligionPittsburgh University Press
Carnap, R. 1935 Philosophy and Logical SyntaxLondonKegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co
Carnap, R. 1950 Logical Foundations of ProbabilityUniversity of Chicago Press
Carnap, R. 1950 Meaning and NecessityUniversity of Chicago Press
Carnap, R. 1967 The Logical Structure of the WorldLondonRoutledge & Kegan Paul
Carritt, E. F. 1928 The Theory of MoralsLondonOxford University Press
Carritt, E. F. 1937 An Ambiguity of the Word ‘Good.’Proceedings of the British Academy 23 51
Chan, D. 2008 Moral Psychology Today: Essays on Values, Rational Choice, and the WillBerlinSpringer
Chomsky, N. 1972 Language and MindNew YorkHarcourt Brace Jovanovich
Copp, D. 1995 Morality, Normativity, and SocietyOxford University Press
Copp, D. 2001 Roughley, N.Being HumansBerlinde Gruyter
Copp, D. 2006 Oxford Handbook of Ethical TheoryNew YorkOxford University Press
Copp, D. 2006
Copp, D. 2007 Morality in a Natural WorldCambridge University Press
Copp, D. 2008 Shafer-Landau, R.Oxford Studies in MetaethicsOxford University Press
Copp, D. 2009 Toward a Pluralist and Teleological Theory of NormativityPhilosophical Issues 19 21
Copp, D. 2010 Joyce, R.Kirchin, S.A World without Values: Essays on John Mackie’s Error TheoryBerlinSpringer
Copp, D. 2010 Black, S.Tiffany, E.
Cullen, S. 2010 Survey-Driven RomanticismReview of Philosophy and Psychology 1 275
Cuneo, T. 2007 The Normative WebOxford University Press
Cushman, F.Young, L.Hauser, M. 2006 The Role of Conscious Reasoning and Intuition in Moral Judgments: Testing Three Principles of HarmPsychological Science 17 1082
Dancy, J. 2000 Practical RealityOxford University Press
Dancy, J. 2004 Ethics without PrinciplesOxford University Press
Dancy, J. 2006 Copp,
Danto, A. 1997 After the End of ArtPrinceton University Press
Darley, J.Schultz, T. 1990 Moral Rules: Their Content and AcquisitionAnnual Review of 41 523
Darwall, S. 1983 Impartial ReasonIthaca, NYCornell University Press
Darwall, S. 1992 Tomberlin, J.Philosophical Perspectives: EthicsAtascadero, CARidgeview Publishing Company
Darwall, S.Gibbard, A.Railton, P. 1992 Toward a Fin de Siècle Ethics: Some TrendsPhilosophical Review 101 115
Davidson, D. 1991 What Is Present to the Mind?Philosophical Issues 1 197
Davidson, D.Harman, G. 1972 Semantics of Natural LanguageDordrecht, The NetherlandsD. Reidel
Doris, J. 2002 Lack of CharacterCambridge University Press
Doris, J. 2010 The Moral Psychology HandbookOxford University Press
Doris, J.Stich, S. 2005 Jackson, F.Smith, M.The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Analytic PhilosophyOxford University Press
Doris, J.Stich, S. 2008 Zalta, E.http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/moral-psych-emp/
Dreier, J. 2000 Dispositions and Fetishes: Externalist Models of Moral MotivationPhilosophy and Phenomenological Research 61 619
Druckman, J. 2001 Evaluating Framing EffectsJournal of Economic Psychology 22 91
Dummett, M. 1959 TruthProceedings of the Aristotelian Society 59 141
Dummett, M. 1981 Frege: Philosophy of LanguageCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Dupré, J. 1993 The Disorder of Things: Metaphysical Foundations of the Disunity of ScienceCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Fagley, N.Miller, P. 1987 The Effects of Decision Framing on Choice of Risky versus Certain OptionsOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 39 264
Fine, K. 1982 First-Order Modal Theories III – FactsSynthese 53 43
Finlay, S. 2010 Recent Work on NormativityAnalysis 70 331
Foot, P. 1972 Morality as a System of Hypothetical ImperativesPhilosophical Review 81 305
Foot, P. 2001 Natural GoodnessOxfordClarendon Press
Foot, P. 2002 Virtues and VicesOxford University Press
Frankena, W. K. 1939 The Naturalistic FallacyMind 48 464
Frisch, D. 1993 Reasons for Framing EffectsOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 54 399
Fumerton, R. 1990 Reason and MoralityIthaca, NYCornell University Press
Gallie, W. 1955 Essentially Contested ConceptsProceedings of the Aristotelian Society 56 167
Garner, R. 2010 Joyce, R.Kirchin, S.A World without ValuesBerlinSpringer
Gibbard, A. 1990 Wise Choices, Apt FeelingsCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Goldman, A. 1986 Epistemology and CognitionCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Greene, J. 2008
Greene, J. 2008
Haack, S. 1976 The Pragmatist Theory of TruthBritish Journal for the Philosophy of Science 27 231
Haidt, J. 2001 The Emotional Dog and Its Rational Tail: A Social Intuitionist Approach to Moral JudgmentPsychological Review 108 814
Haidt, J.Bjorklund, F. 2008
Haidt, J.Hersh, M. 2001 Sexual Morality: The Cultures and Emotions of Conservatives and LiberalsJournal of Applied Social Psychology 31 191
Hall, E. 1950 The ‘Proof’ of Utility in Bentham and MillEthics 61 66
Hare, R. D. 1993 Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths among UsNew YorkPocket Books
Hare, R. M. 1952 The Language of MoralsOxford University Press
Harman, G. 1963 Generative Grammars without Transformation Rules: A Defense of Phrase StructureLanguage 39 597
Harman, G. 1977 The Nature of MoralityNew YorkOxford University Press
Harman, G. 1996 Harman, G.Thomson, J. J.Moral Relativism and Moral ObjectivityMalden, MABlackwell
Harman, G. 1999 Reasoning, Meaning, and MindOxfordClarendon Press
Harman, G. 2000 Explaining Value and Other Essays in Moral PhilosophyOxfordClarendon Press
Harman, G. 2000
Harman, G. 2009 Shafer-Landau, R.Oxford Studies in MetaethicsOxford University Press
Hartshorne, C.Weiss, P. 1934 Collected Papers of Charles Sanders PeirceCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Hauser, M. 2006 Moral MindsNew YorkHarperCollins
Hauser, M.Cushman, F.Young, L.Jin, R.Mikhail, J. 2006 A Dissociation between Moral Judgment and JustificationMind and Language 22 1
Hauser, M.Young, L.Cushman, F. 2008
Heller, Z. 1999 Talk of the Town: The BenchThe New Yorker 24 29
Hinckfuss, I. 1987 Discussion Papers in Environmental PhilosophyCanberraAustralian National University
Hirstein, W. 2005 Brain Fiction: Self-Deception and the Riddle of ConfabulationCambridge, MAMIT Press
Horgan, T. 1993 From Supervenience to Superdupervenience: Meeting the Demands of a Material WorldMind 102 555
Horgan, T.Timmons, M. 1992 Troubles for New Wave Moral Semantics: The ‘Open Question Argument’ RevivedPhilosophical Papers 21 153
Horgan, T.Timmons, M. 2008 What Does Phenomenology Tell Us about Moral Objectivity?Social Theory and Policy 25 267
Horgan, T.Timmons, M. 2009
Hubin, D. 2001 The Groundless Normativity of Instrumental RationalityJournal of Philosophy 98 445
Huemer, M. 2005 Ethical IntuitionismHoundmills, UKPalgrave Macmillan
Hume, D. 1885 An Enquiry Concerning Human UnderstandingSelby-Bigge, L. A.Oxford University Press.
Hume, D. 1955 An Enquiry Concerning Human UnderstandingHendel, C. W.IndianapolisBobbs-Merrill
Hume, D. 2000 A Treatise of Human NatureNorton, D.Norton, M.Oxford University Press
Hursthouse, R. 1999 On Virtue EthicsOxford University Press
Jackson, F. 1992 Critical Notice of S. Hurley, Australasian Journal of Philosophy 70 475
Jackson, F. 1998 From Metaphysics to Ethics: A Defence of Conceptual AnalysisOxfordClarendon Press
Jackson, F. 2003 Cognitivism, A Priori Deduction, and MooreEthics 3 557
Jackson, F. 2004 Why We Need -IntensionsPhilosophical Studies 118 257
Jackson, F. 2005 What Are Cognitivists Doing When They Do Normative Ethics?Normativity, Philosophical Issues 15 94
Jackson, F. 2009 Ravenscroft,
Jackson, F.Pettit, P. 1995 Moral Functionalism and Moral MotivationPhilosophical Quarterly 45 20
Johnston, M. 2010 Surviving DeathPrinceton University Press
Jou, J.Shanteau, J.Harris, R. 1996 An Information Processing View of Framing Effects: The Role of Causal Schemas in Decision MakingMemory and Cognition 24 1
Joyce, R. 2001 The Myth of MoralityCambridge University Press
Joyce, R. 2006 The Evolution of MoralityCambridge, MAMIT Press
Joyce, R. 2007 Bloomfield, P.Morality and Self-InterestOxford University Press
Joyce, R. 2007 Zalta, E.http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral-anti-realism/
Joyce, R. 2011 Shafer-Landau, R.Oxford Studies in MetaethicsOxford University Press
Joyce, R. 2011 The Error in ‘The Error in the Error TheoryAustralasian Journal of Philosophy
Kahane, G. 2011
Kahneman, D. 1994
Kamm, F. M. 1996 Morality, MortalityOxford University Press
Kamm, F. M. 1998 Moral Intuitions, Cognitive Psychology, and the Harming-versus-Not-Aiding DistinctionEthics 108 463
Kamm, F. M. 2008 Responses to Commentators on Intricate EthicsUtilitas 20 111
Kant, I. 1948 Groundwork of the Metaphysics of MoralsPaton, H. J.LondonHutchinson
Kauppinen, Antti 2007 The Rise and Fall of Experimental PhilosophyPhilosophical Explorations 10 95
Kim, J. 1984 Supervenience and MindCambridge University Press
King, J. 1998 What Is a Philosophical Analysis?Philosophical Studies 90 155
Kohlberg, L. 1981 Essays in Moral DevelopmentNew YorkHarper & Row
Kohlberg, L. 1984 Essays in Moral DevelopmentNew YorkHarper & Row
Korsgaard, C. 1996 The Sources of NormativityCambridge University Press
Kühberger, A. 1995 The Framing of Decisions: A New Look at Old ProblemsOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 62 230
Kühberger, A. 1998 The Influence of Framing on Risky Decisions: A Meta-AnalysisOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 75 23
Kuhn, D. 1991 The Skills of ArgumentCambridge University Press
Kunda, Z. 1999 Social Cognition: Making Sense of PeopleCambridge, MAMIT Press
Ladd, J. 1957 The Structure of a Moral Code: A Philosophical Analysis of Ethical Discourse Applied to the Ethics of the Navaho IndiansCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
LeBoeuf, R.Shafir, E. 2003 Deep Thoughts and Shallow Frames: On the Susceptibility to Framing EffectsJournal of Behavioral Decision Making 16 77
Levin, I.Chapman, D. 1990 Risk Taking, Frame of Reference, and Characterization of Victim Groups in AIDS Treatment DecisionsJournal of Experimental Social Psychology 26 421
Levin, I.Johnson, R.Davies, M. 1987 How Information Frame Influences Risky DecisionsJournal of Economic Psychology 8 43
Levine, J. 1983 Materialism and Qualia: The Explanatory GapPacific Philosophical Quarterly 64 354
Lewis, D. K. 1970 How to Define Theoretical TermsJournal of Philosophy 67 427
Lewis, D. K. 1989 Dispositional Theories of Value. Part iiProceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes 63 113
Livengood, J.Sytsma, J.Feltz, A.Scheines, R.Machery, E. 2010 Philosophical TemperamentPhilosophical Psychology 23 313
Loeb, D. 1998 Moral Realism and the Argument from DisagreementPhilosophical Studies 90 281
Loke, W. 1989 The Effects of Framing and Incomplete Information on JudgmentsJournal of Economic Psychology 10 392
Loke, W.Lau, S. 1992 Effects of Framing and Mathematical Experience on JudgmentsBulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 393
Loke, W.Tan, K. 1992 Effects of Framing and Missing Information in Expert and Novice JudgmentBulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 187
Lowe, E. 2010 Zalta, E.The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophyhttp://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2010/entries/dependence-ontological/
Ludwig, K. 2007 The Epistemology of Thought Experiments: First Person versus Third Person ApproachesMidwest Studies in Philosophy: Philosophy and the Empirical 31 128
Macdonald, C.Macdonald, G. 2010 Emergence in MindOxford University Press
McElroy, T.Seta, J. 2003 Framing Effects: An Analytic-Holistic PerspectiveJournal of Experimental Social Psychology 39 610
Machery, E.Mallon, S.Nichols, S.Stich, S. 2004 Semantics, Cross-Cultural StyleCognition 92 B1
MacIntyre, A. 1981 After VirtueUniversity of Notre Dame Press
Mackie, J. L. 1977 Ethics: Inventing Right and WrongHarmondsworth, UKPenguin Books
Maley, C.
McLaughlin, B. 1997 Emergence and SupervenienceIntellectica 2 25
McNaughton, D.Rawling, P. 2003 Naturalism and NormativitySupplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 77 23
McNeil, B.Pauker, S.Tversky, A. 1988 Bell, D.Raiffa, H.Tversky, A.Decision Making: Descriptive, Normative and Prescriptive InteractionsCambridge University Press
Mikhail, J. 2007 Universal Moral Grammar: Theory, Evidence and the FutureTrends in Cognitive 11 143
Mikhail, J. 2008 Sinnott-Armstrong,
Milgram, S. 1974 Obedience to AuthorityNew YorkHarper & Row
Mill, J. S. 1979 UtilitarianismIndianapolisHackett Publishing Company
Miller, P.Fagley, N. 1991 The Effects of Framing, Problem Variations, and Providing Rationale on ChoicePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin 17 517
Miller, R. 1985 Ways of Moral LearningPhilosophical Review 94 507
Moore, G. E. 1903 Principia EthicaCambridge University Press
Moore, G. E. 1922 Philosophical StudiesLondonRoutledge & Kegan Paul
Moore, G. E. 1922 Philosophical StudiesLondonRoutledge & Kegan Paul
Moore, G. E. 1953 Some Main Problems of PhilosophyLondonGeorge Allen & Unwin
Moore, G. E. 1968 Schilpp, P. A.The Philosophy of G. E. MooreLa Salle, ILOpen Court
Moore, G. E. 1993 Principia EthicaBaldwin, T.Cambridge University Press
Moore, G. E. 1993 Principia EthicaBaldwin, T.Cambridge University Press
Mormann, T. 2007 Carnap’s Logical Empiricism, Values, and American PragmatismJournal for the General Philosophy of Science 38 127
Nagel, T. 1970 The Possibility of AltruismPrinceton University Press
Nagel, T. 1974 What Is It Like to Be a Bat?Philosophical Review 83 435
Nehamas, A. 2008 Only a Promise of Happiness: The Place of Beauty in a World of ArtPrinceton University Press
Nichols, S. 2008 Sinnott-Armstrong,
Nisbett, R.Wilson, T. 1977 Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental ProcessesPsychological Review 84 231
Norcross, A 2008 Off Her Trolley? Frances Kamm and the Metaphysics of MoralityUtilitas 20 65
Nozick, R. 1968 Moral Complications and Moral StructuresNatural Law Forum 13 150
Nozick, R. 1969 Rescher, NicholasEssays in Honor of Carl G. HempelDordrecht, The NetherlandsD. Reidel
Nuccetelli, S.Seay, G. 2007 Themes from G. E. Moore: New Essays in Epistemology and EthicsOxford University Press
Nuccetelli, S.Seay, G. 2007 Nuccetelli, Seay,
O’Connor, T.Wong, H. 2005 The Metaphysics of EmergenceNoûs 39 658
Olson, J. 2002 Are Desires De Dicto Fetishistic?Inquiry 45 89
Otsuka, M. 2008 Double Effect, Triple Effect and the Trolley Problem: Squaring the Circle in Looping CasesUtilitas 20 92
Paese, P.Bieser, M.Tubbs, M. 1993 Framing Effects and Choice Shifts in Group Decision MakingOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 56 149
Parfit, D. 2011 On What MattersOxford University Press
Peirce, C. S. 1934 Hartshorne, Weiss,
Peirce, C. S. 1934 Hartshorne, Weiss,
Perry, R. B. 1970 Sellars, W.Hospers, J.Readings in Ethical TheoryNew YorkAppleton-Century-Crofts
Petrinovich, L.O’Neill, P. 1996 Influence of Wording and Framing Effects on Moral IntuitionsEthology and Sociobiology 17 145
Pigden, C. R. 2007 Nuccetelli, Seay, 2007
Pinillos, N.Smith, N.Nair, G.Marchetto, P.Mun, C. 2011 Philosophy’s New Challenge: Experiments and Intentional ActionMind and Language 26 115
Pitcher, G. 1970 Pain PerceptionPhilosophical Review 74 368
Pollock, J. 1995 Cognitive Carpentry: A Blueprint for How to Build a PersonCambridge, MABradford/MIT Press
Prichard, H. A. 2002 Moral WritingsOxfordClarendon Press
Prinz, J. 2007 The Emotional Construction of MoralsOxford University Press
Prinz, J. 2008 Knobe, J.Nichols, S.Experimental PhilosophyOxford University Press
Prinz, J. 2008 Sinnott-Armstrong,
Prinz, J. 2008
Putnam, H. 1967 Capitan, Merrill,
Putnam, H. 1975 Mind, Language and Reality: Philosophical PapersCambridge University Press
Quine, W. V. 1960 Word and ObjectCambridge, MAMIT Press
Quine, W. V. 1975 On Empirically Equivalent Systems of the WorldErkenntnis 9 313
Quine, W. V. 1981 Theories and ThingsCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Quine, W. V. 1986 Hahn, L.Schilpp, P.The Philosophy of W. V. QuineLa Salle, ILOpen Court
Quine, W. V. 1989 Barrett, R.Gibson, R.Perspectives on QuineOxfordBasil Blackwell
Quine, W. V. 1990 The Pursuit of TruthCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Railton, P. 1986 Moral RealismPhilosophical Review 95 163
Railton, P. 1992 Tomberlin, JamesPhilosophical Perspectives: EthicsAtascadero, CARidgeview Publishing Company
Ravenscroft, I. 2009 Minds, Ethics, and Conditionals: Themes from the Philosophy of Frank JacksonOxfordClarendon Press
Rawls, J. 1971 A Theory of JusticeCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Rawls, J. 1993 Political LiberalismNew YorkColumbia University Press
Ridge, M. 2007 Anti-Reductionism and SupervenienceJournal of Moral Philosophy 4 330
Ridge, M. 2008 Zalta, E.http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2010/entries/moral-non-naturalism/
Roedder, E.Harman, G. 2010 Doris,
Roemer, J. 1996 Theories of Distributive JusticeCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Roorda, J. 1997 Fallibilism, Ambivalence, and BeliefJournal of Philosophy 94 126
Rosenbaum, S. P. 1995 The Bloomsbury GroupUniversity of Toronto Press
Ross, L.Nisbett, R. 1991 The Person and the SituationPhiladelphia, PATemple University Press
Ross, W. D. 1930 The Right and the GoodOxfordClarendon Press
Ross, W. D. 1939 Foundations of EthicsOxford University Press
Ross, W. D. 1954 Kant’s Ethical TheoryOxford University Press
Rowe, W. 1993 Philosophy of Religion: An IntroductionBelmont, CAWadsworth
Russell, B. 1910 Philosophical EssaysLondonLongman, Green, and Co.
Scanlon, T. 1998 What We Owe to Each OtherCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Scanlon, T. 2009 www.philosophy.ox.ac.uk/lectures/john_locke_lectures/past_lectures
Schilpp, P. 1963 The Philosophy of Rudolf CarnapLa Salle, ILOpen Court
Schnider, A. 2008 The Confabulating Mind: How the Brain Creates RealityOxford University Press
Schroeder, M. 2005 Realism and Reduction: The Quest for RobustnessPhilosophers’ Imprint 5 http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=phimp;rgn=main;idno=3521354.0005.001
Schroeder, M. 2007 Slaves of the PassionsOxford University Press
Schroeter, F.Schroeter, L. 2003 A Slim Semantics for Thin Moral Terms?Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 191
Searle, J. 1969 Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of LanguageCambridge University Press
Shafer-Landau, R. 2003 Moral Realism: A DefenceOxfordClarendon Press
Shafer-Landau, R. 2005 Hawthorne, JohnPhilosophical Issues 15: NormativityOxfordBlackwell
Shafir, E. 1998 Depaul, M.Ramsey, W.Rethinking IntuitionLanham, MDRowman and Littlefield
Sharp, F. C. 1928 EthicsNew YorkThe Century
Shaver, R. 2007 Nuccetelli, Seay,
Shiloh, S.Salton, E.Sharabi, D. 2002 Individual Differences in Rational and Intuitive Thinking Styles as Predictors of Heuristic Responses and Framing EffectsPersonality and Individual Differences 32 415
Sidgwick, H. 1907 The Methods of EthicsLondonMacmillan
Sidgwick, H. 1998 Practical EthicsNew YorkOxford University Press
Sidgwick, H. 2000 Essays on Ethics and MethodSinger, M. G.OxfordClarendon Press
Sieck, W.Yates, J. 1997 Exposition Effects on Decision Making: Choice and Confidence in ChoiceOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 70 207
Singer, P. 2005 Ethics and IntuitionsJournal of Ethics 9 331
Sinnott-Armstrong, W. 2006 Moral SkepticismsOxford University Press
Sinnott-Armstrong, W. 2006 Horgan, T.Timmons, M.Metaethics after MooreNew YorkOxford University Press
Sinnott-Armstrong, W. 2008 Moral PsychologyCambridge, MAMIT Press
Sinnott-Armstrong, W. 2008 Sinnott-Armstrong,
Sinnott-Armstrong, W. 2008
Skinner, B. F. 1971 Beyond Freedom and DignityNew YorkAlfred A. Knopf
Slote, M. 1979 Dancy, J.Papers on Language and LogicKeele University Library
Smart, J. J. C. 1959 Sensations and Brain ProcessesPhilosophical Review 68 141
Smith, M. 1994 The Moral ProblemOxfordBlackwell
Smith, M. 2000 LaFollette, H.The Blackwell Guide to Ethical TheoryOxfordBlackwell
Smith, M. 2004 Ethics and the A Priori: Selected Essays on Moral Psychology and Meta-EthicsCambridge University Press
Smith, M. 2004 Instrumental Desires, Instrumental RationalitySupplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 78 93
Smith, M. 2004 Ethics and the A Priori: Selected Essays on Moral Psychology and Meta-EthicsCambridge University Press
Smith, S.Levin, I. 1996 Need for Cognition and Choice Framing EffectsJournal of Behavioral Decision Making 9 283
Sosa, E. 2007 Experimental Philosophy and Philosophical IntuitionPhilosophical Studies 132 99
Sperber, D. 1973 Le Structuralisme en anthropologieParisÉditions du Seuil
Sperber, D.Wilson, D. 1986 Relevance: Communication and CognitionOxfordBlackwell
Stalnaker, R. 1984 InquiryCambridge, MAMIT Press
Stanovich, K.West, R. 1998 Individual Differences in Framing and Conjunction EffortsThinking and Reasoning 4 289
Stanovich, K.West, R. 2008 On the Relative Independence of Thinking Biases and Cognitive AbilityJournal of Personality and Social Psychology 94 672
Street, S. 2006 A Darwinian Dilemma for Realist Theories of ValuePhilosophical 127 109
Sturgeon, N. 1985 Copp, D.Zimmerman, D.Morality, Reason, and TruthTotowa, NJRowman and Allanheld
Sturgeon, N. 2003 Moore on Ethical NaturalismEthics 113 528
Sturgeon, N. 2006 Copp,
Swain, S.Alexander, J.Weinberg, J. 2008 The Instability of Philosophical Intuitions: Running Hot and Cold on TruetempPhilosophy and Phenomenological Research 76 138
Takemura, K. 1994 Influence of Elaboration on the Framing of DecisionJournal of Psychology 128 33
Thomson, J. J. 1976 Killing, Letting Die, and the Trolley ProblemThe Monist 59 204
Thomson, J. J. 1986 Rights, Restitution, and RiskCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Thomson, J. J. 1990 The Realm of RightsCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Thomson, J. J. 2008 NormativityChicago, ILOpen Court
Thomson, J. J. 2008 Turning the TrolleyPhilosophy and Public Affairs 36 359
Timmons, M. 1999 Morality without FoundationsOxford University Press
Tversky, A.Kahneman, D. 1986 Rational Choice and the Framing of DecisionsJournal of Business 59 251
Unger, P. 1996 Living High and Letting DieNew YorkOxford University Press
Waldmann, M.Dieterich, J. 2007 Throwing a Bomb on a Person versus Throwing a Person on a BombPsychological Science 18 247
Warnock, M. 1960 Ethics since 1900LondonOxford University Press
Wedgwood, R. 2007 The Nature of NormativityOxford University Press
Weinberg, J.Nichols, S.Stich, S. 2001 Normativity and Epistemic IntuitionsPhilosophical Topics 29 429
West, H. 1997 Lyons, D.Mill’s Utilitarianism: Critical EssaysLanham, MDRowman and Littlefield
Wheatley, T. 2009 Hirstein, W.Confabulation: Views from Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Psychology, and PhilosophyOxford University Press
White, A. 1958 G. E. Moore: A Critical ExpositionOxfordBasil Blackwell
Willett, J. 1957 Brecht on TheatreNew YorkHill and Wang
Williams, B. 1966 Consistency and RealismProceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes 40 1
Williams, B. 1985 Ethics and the Limits of PhilosophyCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Williamson, T. 2000 Knowledge and Its LimitsOxford University Press
Wilson, T. 2002 Strangers to OurselvesCambridge, MABelknap Press
Wolf, S. 1982 Moral SaintsJournal of Philosophy 79 419
Wollheim, R. 1965 Minimal ArtArts Magazine26
Wong, D. 2006 Natural Moralities: A Defense of Pluralistic RelativismOxford University Press
Wood, A. 2008 Kantian EthicsCambridge University Press
Woodward, J.Allman, J. 2007 Moral Intuition: Its Neural Substrates and Normative SignificanceJournal of Physiology – Paris 101 179
Wright, C. 2005 Intuition, Entitlement and the Epistemology of Logical LawsDialectica 58 155
Wynne, M. 2005 Emotional Experience and Religious UnderstandingCambridge University Press
Zangwill, N. 1998 Direction of Fit and Normative FunctionalismPhilosophical Studies 91 173
Zimmerman, M. 2001 The Nature of Intrinsic ValueLanham, MDRowman and Littlefield

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.