Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Errors of Justice
  • Cited by 7
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In this book, Brian Forst takes a fresh perspective on the assessment of criminal justice policy, examining the prospect of assessing policies based on their impact on errors of justice: the error of failing to bring offenders to justice, on the one hand, and the error of imposing costs on innocent people and excessive costs on offenders, on the other. Noting that we have sophisticated systems for managing errors in statistical inference and quality control processes and no parallel system for managing errors of a more socially costly variety - on matters of guilt and innocence - the author lays the foundation for a common sense approach to the management of errors in the criminal justice system, from policing and prosecution to sentencing and corrections. He examines the sources of error in each sector, the harms they impose on society, and frameworks for analyzing and reducing them.

Reviews

‘Brian Forst tackles the topic of errors of justice in a balanced manner that has been absent from the scholarly debate on the effects of the criminal justice policy on outcomes … no other book that addresses such a range of important criminal justice topics using the critical yardstick of analysis, and that is indeed the book’s major strength … long overdue. The book provides a blueprint for the kinds of data we need to better estimate the extent and costs of real errors associated with criminal justice policy. Dr Forst is ideally suited to write this book. His expertise on statistical inference, criminal justice information systems, policing, prosecution, and the death penalty is put to powerful use here. The book is immensely readable, rigorous and thorough, yet it will be accessible to non-technical readers. This is a valuable scholarly contribution. I loved it!’

Joan Petersilia - University of California, Irvine

‘Errors of Justice provides a powerful, well-grounded framework for analyzing some of the great topics of our day: wrongful convictions, the rights of suspects in terrorist investigations, the overuse of prison as a sanction, and reform of the exclusionary rule, to name just a few. Brian Forstas application of the principles of statistical inference and welfare economics to reducing criminal justice error is cogent, fresh, and interesting. This is an important book.’

Philip J. Cook - Duke University

‘… very accessible …’.

Source: The Times

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

Bibliography
Jeffrey Abramson, We, the Jury: The Jury System and the Ideal of Democracy (New York: Basic Books, 1994)
Stephan J. Adler, The Jury: Trial and Error in the American Courtroom (New York: Times Books, 1994)
Peter B. Ainsworth, Offender Profiling and Crime Analysis (Portland, OR: Willan, 2001)
George Akerlof and Janet L. Yellen, “Gang Behavior, Law Enforcement, and Community Values,” in Values and Public Policy, Henry J. Aaron, Thomas E. Mann, and Timothy Taylor, editors (Washington, DC: Brookings, 1994)
Ellen Alderman and Caroline Kennedy, In Our Defense: The Bill of Rights in Action (New York: Morrow, 1991)
Geoffrey Alpert and Mark H. Moore, “Measuring Police Performance in the New Paradigm of Policing,” in Performance Measures for the Criminal Justice System (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1993), pp. 109–42
Alschuler, Albert W., “Our Faltering Jury,” The Public Interest, Number 122 (Winter 1996), pp. 28–38
Alter, Jonathan, “Actually, the Database Is God,” Newsweek (November 4, 2002), p. 39
American Civil Liberties Freedom Network, “‘Driving While Black’ Is Not a Crime … So Why Are Incidents Like These Occurring Across the Country?Arrest the Racism: Racial Profiling in America (2003), <http://archive.aclu.org/profiling/tales/>
American Civil Liberties Union, “Is Jim Crow Justice Alive and Well in America Today?Arrest the Racism: Racial Profiling in America (2002), <http://archive.aclu.org/profiling/>
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000)
Amnesty International, Equatorial Guinea: An Opportunity to Put an End to Impunity (London: Amnesty International, 1997)
Anderson, David A., “The Aggregate Burden of Crime,” Journal of Law and Economics, Volume 42 (1999), p. 611–42
Anderson, David C., “Crime Control by the Numbers,” Ford Foundation Report (Winter 2001) Associated Press, “DNA Helps Exonerate Prisoner After 17 Years,” Washington Post (August 27, 2002), p. A2
Associated Press, “Airlines Accused of Discrimination” (June 10, 2002), <http://www.rockthevote.org/issues_civilrights.asp>
Attorney General Benjamin Civiletti, “U.S. Attorney General's Guidelines on Criminal Investigations and Use of Informers,” Criminal Law Reporter, Volume 28 (January 7, 1981), p. 3032
Axtman, Kris, “US Milestone: 100th Death-row Inmate Exonerated,” Christian Science Monitor (April 12, 2002)
Earl Babbie, The Practice of Social Research, 7th edition (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1995)
Bacon, Francis, “Aphorisms Concerning the Interpretation of Nature and the Kingdom of Man,” Novum Organum (1620)
Baddeley, Alan D., Thompson, N., and Buchanan, M., “Word Length and the Structure of Memory,” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, Volume 1 (1975), pp. 575–89
Baldus, David, Woodworth, George, and Pulaski, Charles A. Jr., “Arbitrariness and Discrimination in the Administration of the Death Penalty: A Challenge to State Supreme Courts,” 15 Stetson Law Review, Volume 15 (1986), pp. 133–262
Jerry Banks, Principles of Quality Control (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1989)
Barrett, Wayne, “White Pols and Press Tread Lightly on Rudy Role in Cop Brutality: Ducking Diallo,” The Village Voice (March 3, 1999)
Cesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishments, 6th edition, translated by Henry Paolucci (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963). Original edition, Dei delletti e delle pene (1764)
Becker, Gary, “Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach,” Journal of Political Economy, Volume 76 (1968), pp. 169–217
Hugo Adam Bedau, “Murder, Errors of Justice, and Capital Punishment,” in The Death Penalty in America, Hugo Adam Bedau, editor (1964); revised as “Miscarriages of Justice and the Death Penalty,” in The Death Penalty in America, 3rd edition, Hugo Adam Bedau, editor (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982)
Hugo Adam Bedau, The Death Penalty in America: Current Controversies (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997)
Bedau, Hugo Adam and Radelet, Michael L., “Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases,” Stanford Law Review, Volume 40, Number 1 (November 1987), pp. 21–179
Naftali Bendavid, “Neglected Computers Hamper FBI: Ancient Systems Slow Investigations Chicago Tribune (Aug 6, 2001), p. 1
Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (London: Payne, 1789)
Jeremy Bentham, The Rationale of Punishment (London: Heward, 1830)
Berlow, Alan, “The Wrong Man,” The Atlantic Monthly (November 1999), pp. 66–91
Berlow, Alan, “A Jury of Your Peers? Only If You're Clueless,” Washington Post (August 11, 2002), pp. B1–B2
Donald Black, Manners and Customs of the Police (New York: Academic Press, 1980)
William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765)
Peter B. Bloch and James Bell, Managing Investigations: The Rochester System (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 1976)
Alfred Blumstein, “Prisons,” Chapter 16 in Crime: Public Policies for Crime Control, 2nd edition, James Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia, editors (San Francisco: ICS Press, 2002), pp. 451–82
Alfred Blumstein, Jacqueline Cohen, Susan E. Martin, and Michael H. Tonry, editors, Research on Sentencing: The Search for Reform (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1983)
Alfred Blumstein, Jacqueline Cohen, and Daniel Nagin, editors, Deterrence and Incapacitation: Estimating the Effects of Criminal Sanctions on Crime Rates, (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1978)
Alfred Blumstein, Jacqueline Cohen, Jeffrey A. Roth, and Christy A. Visher, editors, Criminal Careers and “Career Criminals,” Volume I (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1986)
Boland, Barbara and Forst, Brian, “Prosecutors Don't Always Aim to Pleas,” Federal Probation, Volume 49 (June 1985), pp. 10–15
Barbara Boland, Paul Mahanna, and Ronald Sones, The Prosecution of Felony Arrests, 1988 (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1992)
Barbara Boland and Ronald Sones, Prosecution of Felony Arrests (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1981)
Barbara Boland and Ronald Sones, Prosecution of Felony Arrests (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1986)
Edwin M. Borchard, Convicting the Innocent (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1932)
David A. Boyum and Mark A. R. Kleiman, “Substance Abuse Policy from a Crime Control Perspective,” in Crime: Public Policies for Crime Control, 2nd edition, James Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia, editors (San Francisco: ICS Press, 2002), pp. 331–82
Brennan, Tim, “An Academic's Guide to the Way Washington Really Works,” The Chronicle of Higher Education (January 12, 2001), p. B11
Bronner, Ethan, “Posner ⅴ. Dershowitz,” The New York Times, Books Section (July 15, 2001)
Kathleen Brosi, A Cross-City Comparison of Felony Case Processing (Washington, DC: Institute for Law and Social Research, 1979)
Jodi M. Brown, Patrick A. Langan, and David J. Levin, Felony Sentences in State Courts, 1996 (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1999)
Buckhout, Robert, Weg, Steve, Reilly, Vincent, and Frohboese, Robinsue, “Jury Verdicts: Comparison of 6- vs. 12-person Juries and Unanimous vs. Majority Decision Rule in a Murder Trial,” Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, Volume 10 (1977), pp. 175–8
Canter, David, “Offender Profiling and Criminal Differentiation,” Journal of Legal and Criminological Psychology, Volume 5 (2000), pp. 23–46
Cassell, Paul G., “Protecting the Innocent from False Confessions and Lost Confessions — and from Miranda,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Volume 88 (1998), pp. 497–556
Cassell, Paul G., “We're Not Executing the Innocent,” Wall Street Journal (June 16, 2000), p. A14
Cassell, Paul G. and Fowles, Richard, “Handcuffing the Cops? A Thirty-Year Perspective on Miranda's Harmful Effects on Law Enforcement,” Stanford Law Review, Volume 50 (1998), pp. 1055–172
Cassell, Paul G. and Markman, Stephen J., “Protecting the Innocent: A Response to the Bedau-Radelet Study,” Stanford Law Review, Volume 41 (1988), pp. 121–33
Jan M. Chaiken and Marcia Chaiken, Varieties of Criminal Behavior (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1982)
Ronald V. Clarke, Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies, 2nd edition (Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston, 1997)
Clifford, Brian R. and Scott, Jane, “Individual and Situational Factors in Eyewitness Testimony,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume 63 (1978), pp. 352–9
Cloud, John, “What's Race Got To Do With It?”Time Magazine (July 30, 2001), pp. 42–7
Jacqueline Cohen, “The Incapacitative Effect of Imprisonment: A Critical Review of the Literature,” in Deterrence and Incapacitation: Estimating the Effects of Criminal Sanctions on Crime Rates, Alfred Blumstein, Jacqueline Cohen, and Daniel Nagin, editors (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1978), pp. 187–243
Mark A. Cohen, “Measuring the Costs and Benefits of Crime and Justice,” in Criminal Justice 2000, Volume 4 (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 2000)
Catherine M. Coles, George M. Kelling, Mark H. Moore, Prosecution in the Community: A Study of Emergent Strategies — A Cross Site Analysis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 1998) and NCJ 187105 (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice)
Edward Connors, Thomas Lundregan, Neal Miller, and Tom McEwen, Convicted by Juries, Exonerated by Science: Case Studies in the Use of DNA Evidence to Establish Innocence after Trial (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 1996)
Philip J. Cook, “Costs of Crime,” in Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice, edited by Sanford H. Kadish (New York: Free Press, 1983)
Gary Copson, Coals to Newcastle? Police Use of Offender Profiling (London: Home Office, 1995)
Costello, C. J., Adams, R. M., and Polasky, S., “The Value of El Nino Forecasts in the Management of Salmon: A Stochastic Dynamic Assessment,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 80 (1998), pp. 765–77
Crocker, David A., “Can There Be Healing through Justice?”The Responsive Community, Volume 11 (Spring 2001), pp. 32–42
Francis T. Cullen, “Rehabilitation and Treatment Programs,” in Crime: Public Policies for Crime Control, 2nd edition, James Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia, editors (San Francisco: ICS Press, 2002), pp. 253– 90
William C. Cunningham and Todd H. Taylor, The Hallcrest Report: Private Security and Police in America (Portland, OR: Chancellor, 1985)
Davies, Thomas, “A Hard Look at What We Know (and Still Need to Learn) about the ‘Costs’ of the Exclusionary Rule: The NIJ Study and Other Studies of ‘Lost’ Arrests,” American Bar Foundation Research Journal (1983), pp. 611–90
Davis, J. H., Kerr, N. L., Atkin, R. S., Holt, R., and Meek, D., “The Decision Processes of 6- and 12-Person Mock Juries Assigned Unanimous and Two-Thirds Majority Rules, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 32 (1975), pp. 1–14
Davis, Ann, Pereira, Joseph, and Bulkeley, William M., “Security Concerns Bring New Focus on Body Language,” Wall Street Journal (August 15, 2002), pp. A1, A6
Robert C. Davis and Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Respectful and Effective Policing: Two Examples in the South Bronx (New York: Vera, 1999)
Death Penalty Information Center, “Cases of Innocence: 1973 - Present,” DPIC website (2002) <http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/innocases.html>
Carol J. DeFrances and Greg W. Steadman, Prosecutors in State Courts, 1996 (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1998)
Diamond, John, “Spelling Slows War on Terror: Confusion Over Arab Names Makes it Difficult for U.S. to Track Suspects,” USA Today (June 30, 2002), p. 6A
Diamond, Shari S. and Zeisel, Hans, “Sentencing Councils: A Study of Sentence Disparity and Its Reduction,” University of Chicago Law Review, Volume 43 (1975)
DiIulio, John, “Three Strikes Was the Right Call,” The American Prospect, Volume 5, Number 18 (January 18, 1994)
DNA Testing Turns a Corner as Forensic Tool,” (no author) Law Enforcement News (October 15, 1995), p. 10
Robert L. Donigan and Edward C. Fisher, The Evidence Handbook, 4th edition (Evanston, IL: Traffic Institute, Northwestern University, 1980)
John Douglas and Mark Olshaker, Mindhunter (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995)
John Douglas and Mark Olshaker, Obsession (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998)
R. A. Duff, “Penal Communications: Recent Work in the Philosophy of Punishment,” in Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, edited by Michael Tonry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996)
R. A. Duff, Punishment, Communication, and Community (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000)
Detis T. Duhart, “Urban, Suburban, and Rural Victimization, 1993–98,” National Crime Victimization Survey NCJ 182031 (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000)
Otis Dudley Duncan, Introduction to Structural Equation Models (New York: Academic Press, 1975)
Easterbrook, Frank H., “Criminal Procedure as a Market System,” Journal of Legal Studies, Volume 12 (June 1983), pp. 289–332
John Eck, Solving Crimes: The Investigation of Burglary and Robbery (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 1983)
John Eck and William Spelman, Problem Solving: Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 1987)
Editorial, “Mr. Hatfill's Complaint,” Washington Post (August 13, 2002), p. A12
Albert Eglash, “Beyond Restitution: Creative Restitution,” in Restitution in Criminal Justice: A Critical Assessment of Sanctions, Joseph Hudson and Burton Galaway, editors (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1977)
Eisenberg, Theodore and Wells, Martin T., “Deadly Confusion: Juror Instructions in Capital Cases,” Cornell Law Review, Volume 79 (1993), pp. 1–17
Elliott, J. F., “Crime Control Teams: An Alternative to the Conventional Operational Procedure of Investigating Crimes,” Journal of Criminal Justice, Volume 6, No.1 (Spring 1978)
Engel, Robin Shepard, Calnon, Jennifer M., and Bernard, Thomas J., “Theory and Racial Profiling: Shortcomings and Future Directions in Research,” Justice Quarterly, Volume 19 (June 2002), pp. 249–73
Etzioni, Amitai, “A New American Race?”The Responsive Community, Volume 10 (Spring 2000), pp. 10–15
Amitai Etzioni, The Monochrome Society (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press: 2001) — example in text cited (p. 80) by Jonathan Marks's review of Etzioni's book in The Responsive Community, Volume 11 (Spring 2001), pp. 79–83
James R. Evans and David Louis Olson, Introduction to Simulation and Risk Analysis (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998)
Eysenck, Hans J., “Relationship Between Intelligence and Personality,” Perceptual and Motor Skills, Volume 32 (1971), pp. 637–8
Hans J. Eysenck and Michael Eysenck, Mind Watching: Why We Behave the Way We Do (London: Multimedia Books, 1994)
Farrell, John S., “How Homicide Is Handled in Prince George's,” Washington Post (June 23, 2001), p. A25
David P. Farrington and Donald J. West, “The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,” in Prospective Longitudinal Research: An Empirical Basis for the Primary Prevention of Psycho-Social Disorders, Sarnoff A. Mednick and Andre E. Baert, editors (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981)
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States — Uniform Crime Reports (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Investigation, 2000)
Malcolm M. Feeley and Mark H. Lazerson, “Police-Prosecutor Relationships: An Interorganizational Perspective,” in Empirical Theories About Courts, Keith O. Boyum and Lynn Mather, editors (New York: Longman, 1983)
Feeney, Floyd, “Police Clearances: A Poor Way to Measure the Impact of Miranda on the Police,” Rutgers Law Journal, Volume 32 (2000), pp. 1–114
Floyd Feeney, Forrest Dill, and Adrianne Weir, Arrests Without Conviction: How Often They Occur and Why (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 1983)
Glenn A. Fine, testimony before the Hearing of the Committee, “Oversight: Restoring Confidence in the FBI,” U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee (June 20, 2001)
Flynn, Kevin, “Feeling Scorn on the Beat and Pressure From Above,” The New York Times (December 26, 2000)
Stephen Flynn, “The Re-Bordering of North America Integration or Exclusion After September 11?”, excerpt from the transcript of Panel One, seminar at the Watson Institute for International Studies (February 5, 2002) <http://www.watsoninstitute.org/news_detail.cfm?ID=38>
Robert M. Fogelson, Big City Police (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977)
J. F. Folk, “Municipal Detective Systems — A Quantitative Approach,” Technical Paper Number 55 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Operations Research Center, 1971)
David Ford, Indianapolis Domestic Violence Prosecution Experiment (Indianapolis: Indiana University, 1993)
Brian Forst, The Representation of Uncertainty in Expert Systems: An Application in Criminal Investigation (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1994)
Brian Forst, “The Privatization and Civilianization of Policing,” in Criminal Justice 2000, Volume 2 — Boundary Changes in Criminal Justice Organizations (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 2000)
Forst, Brian, “Prosecutors Discover the Community,” Judicature, Volume 84 (November–December 2000), pp. 135–41
Forst, Brian, “Toward an Understanding of the Effect of Changes in Standards of Proof on Errors of Justice,” Jurimetrics, Volume 41 (Summer 2001)
Brian Forst, “Prosecution,” Chapter 18 in Crime: Public Policies for Crime Control, 2nd edition, James Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia, editors (San Francisco: ICS Press, 2002), pp. 509–36
Forst, Brian and Brosi, Kathleen, “A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Prosecutor,” Journal of Legal Studies, Volume 6 (January 1977), pp. 177–91
Brian Forst, Frank Leahy, Jean Shirhall, Herbert Tyson, Eric Wish, and John Bartolomeo, Arrest Convictability as a Measure of Police Performance (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 1982)
Brian Forst, Judith Lucianovic, and Sarah Cox, What Happens After Arrest? (Washington, DC: Institute for Law and Social Research, 1977)
Forst, Brian and Lynch, James P., “The Decomposition and Graphical Analysis of Crime and Sanctions Data: A Cross-National Application,” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Volume 13 (Summer 1997), pp. 97–119
Brian Forst and Peter K. Manning, The Privatization of Policing: Two Views (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1999)
Forst, Brian and Planty, Michael, “What Is the Probability that the Offender in a New Case Is in the Modus Operandi File?”International Journal of Police Science and Management, Volume 3 (Winter 2000), pp. 124–37
Forst, Brian and Wellford, Charles, “Punishment and Sentencing: Developing Sentencing Guidelines Empirically from Principles of Punishment,” Rutgers Law Review, Volume 33 (1981), pp. 799–837
ForsterLee, Lynne, Horowitz, Irwin A., and Bourgeois, Martin, “Effects of Notetaking on Verdicts and Evidence Processing in a Civil Trial,” Law and Human Behavior, Volume 18 (1994), pp. 567–578
Jerome Frank, Courts on Trial: Myth and Reality in American Justice (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973)
Frank, Robert H. and Sunstein, Cass R., “Cost-Benefit Analysis and Relative Position,” University of Chicago Law Review, Volume 68 (Spring 2001)
Richard S. Frase, “Sentencing Principles in Theory and Practice,” Crime and Justice: A Review of Research (University of Chicago Press, 1997)
Frederick, Shane, Loewenstein, George, and O'Donoghue, Ted, “Time Discounting and Time Preference: A Critical Review,” Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 40 (June 2002), pp. 351–401
Friedman, David, “Paying for Crime Prevention,” Liberty, Volume 6 (June 1993) <http://www.best.com/∼ddfr/Libertarian/Paying_for_Crime_P.html>
Milton Friedman, “The Methodology of Positive Economics,” in Essays in Positive Economics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953), pp. 3–43
Fuller, John Randolph, “So You Want to Be a Serial-Murderer Profiler …,” Chronicle of Higher Education (December 7, 2001), p. B5
James J. Fyfe, “The Split-Second Syndrome and Other Determinants of Police Violence,” in Violent Transactions, Anne Campbell and John Gibbs, editors (New York: Basil Blackwell, 1986)
Fyfe, James J., “Police Observational Research: Demeanor and Substance,” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Volume 33 (August 1996), pp. 333–47
Fyfe, James J., “When Cops Kill, Someone Should Count,” The Washington Post — Outlook Section (July 8, 2001), pp. B1–B2
Fyfe, James J., “Missing Cases: Holes in Our Knowledge of Police Use of Force,” Justice Research and Policy, Volume 4 (Fall 2002), pp. 87–102
James J. Fyfe, Jack R. Greene, William F. Walsh, O. W. Wilson, and Roy Clinton McLaren, Police Administration, 5th edition (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997)
Garvey, Stephen P., Johnson, Sheri Lynn, and Marcus, Paul, “Correcting Deadly Confusion: Responding to Jury Inquiries in Capital Cases,” Cornell Law Review, Volume 85, (2000), pp. 627–55
Geller, William A., “Deadly Force: What We Know,” Journal of Police Science and Administration, Volume 10 (1982), pp. 151–77
Bennett L. Gershman, Prosecutorial Misconduct, 2nd edition (St. Paul, MN: West, 1999)
James Gobert, Justice, Democracy and the Jury (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate/Dartmouth Publishing Co., 1997)
Goldberg, Jonah, “What Happened to the Angry White Male?”Wall Street Journal (October 25, 2002), p. W15
Gottfredson, Michael and Hirschi, Travis, “The True Value of Lambda Would Appear to Be Zero: An Essay on Career Criminals, Criminal Careers, Selective Incapacitation, Cohort Studies, and Related Topics,” Criminology, Volume 24 (1986), pp. 213–34
Philip Gourevitch, A Cold Case (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001)
Greenberg, David, “The Incapacitative Effect of Imprisonment: Some Estimates,” Law and Society Review, Volume 9 (1975), pp. 541–80
Peter W. Greenwood, An Analysis of the Apprehension Activities of the New York Police Department (New York: Rand Institute, 1970)
Peter W. Greenwood, Jan M. Chaiken, Joan Petersilia, and Linda Prusoff, The Criminal Investigation Process. Volume III: Observations and Analysis (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1975)
Peter W. Greenwood, C. Peter Rydell, Allan F. Abrahamse, Jonathan P. Caulkins, James R. Chiesa, Karyn E. Model, Stephen P. Klein, Three Strikes and You're Out: Estimated Benefits and Costs of California's New Mandatory-Sentencing Law (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1994)
Hamlet, A. F., Huppert, D., and Lettenmaier, D. P., “Economic Value of Long-Lead Streamflow Forecasts for Columbia River Hydropower,” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Volume 128 (2002), pp. 91–101
Valerie P. Hans and Neil Vidmar, Judging the Jury (New York: Plenum Press, 1986)
Charles Harper, Impunity: An Ethical Perspective (Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1996)
Harring, Sidney L., “Taylorization of Police Work; Prospects for the 1980s,” Insurgent Sociologist, Volume 10 (1981), pp. 25–32
David A. Harris, Profiles in Injustice: Why Racial Profiling Cannot Work (New York: New Press, 2002)
Thomas Harris, The Silence of the Lambs (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988)
Herbert L. A. Hart, “Prolegomenon to the Principles of Punishment,” in Punishment and Responsibility: Essays in the Philosophy of Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968)
Timothy C. Hart and Brian A. Reaves, Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 1996 (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1999)
Henrick J. Harwood, Douglas Fountain, and Gina Livermore. The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States, 1992 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 1998)
Reid Hastie, Steven Penrod, and Nancy Pennington, Inside the Jury (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983)
Heckman, James, “Varieties of Selection Bias,” American Economic Review, Volume 80 (May 1990), pp. 313–18
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Philosophy of Right (original 1821; translation by T. M. Knox, London: Oxford University Press, 1945)
Helland, Eric and Tabarrok, Alexander, “Runaway Judges? Selection Effects and the Jury,” Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Volume 16 (2000), pp. 306–33
Hersh, Seymour M., “Mixed Messages: Why the Government Didn't Know What it Knew,” The New Yorker (June 3, 2002), pp. 40–8
Heuer, Larry and Penrod, Steven, “Trial Complexity: A Field Investigation of Its Meaning and Effects,” Law and Human Behavior, Volume 18 (1994), p. 29
Larry Heuer and Steven Penrod, “Juror Notetaking and Question Asking During Trials,” Law and Human Behavior, Volume 18 (1994), p. 123
Philip Heymann and Carol Petrie, editors, What's Changing in Prosecution? Report of a Workshop (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001)
Ho, Celia, “Death Penalty Under Attack,” Rising Times, Issue 9 (March/April 2000) <www.aclu-mass.org/youth/risingtimes/9dpunattack/html>
Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan: The Matter, Form, and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651)
John Hogarth, Sentencing as a Human Process (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971). James O. Holliday (Senior Judge), Finding and Recommendation in the Matter of an Investigation of the West Virginia State Police Crime Laboratory, Serology Division, West Virginia Supreme Court, Matter No. 21973 (1993)
Ronald M. Holmes, “Psychological Profiling Use in Serial Murder Cases,” in Contemporary Perspectives on Serial Murder, Ronald M. Holmes and Steven T. Holmes, editors (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998)
Horney, Julie and Marshall, Ineke, “Measuring Lambda Through Self-Reports,” Criminology, Volume 29 (1991), pp. 471–95
C. Ronald Huff, Arye Rattner, and Edward Sagarin, Convicted but Innocent: Wrongful Conviction and Public Policy (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996)
Hume, David, A Treatise of Human Nature (1739)
Hutchinson, Earl Ofari, “Black Cops No Antidote To Police Violence,” The Black World Today (November 7, 2000)
H. H. Isaacs, “A Study of Communications, Crimes and Arrests in a Metropolitan Police Department,” in Task Force Report: Science and Technology, Appendix B (Washington, DC: President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, 1967)
Kaoru Ishikawa, What is Total Quality Control? (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1985)
Ivey, Glenn and Hennessy, W. Louis, “Safeguards for the Innocent,” Washington Post (June 24, 2001), p. B8
Jackman, Tom, “Judge Seeks Both Sides' Input on Moussaoui Hearing,” Washington Post (July 25, 2002), p. A14
Jackson, Robert H., “The Federal Prosecutor,” Journal of the American Judicial Society, Volume 24 (1940)
James B. Jacobs and Kimberly Potter, Hate Crimes: Criminal Law and Identity Politics (Oxford University Press — Studies in Crime and Public Policy, 1998)
C. R. Jeffrey, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1971)
Carl G. Jung, Psychological Types (Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volume 6), Michael Fordham and R. F. Hull, editors (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1971)
Harry Kalven, Jr. and Hans Zeisel, The American Jury (New York: Little, Brown, and Co., 1966)
Kant, Immanuel, Philosophy of Law: An Exposition of the Fundamental Principles of Jurisprudence as the Science of Right (1790)
John F. Kelly and Phillip K. Wearne, Tainting Evidence: Inside the Scandals at the FBI Crime Lab (New York: Free Press, 1998)
Kennedy, Anthony M., Opening remarks at the 1997 9th Circuit Judicial Conference, cited in Legal Times, Volume 10 (November 16, 1987), p. 14 and <http://www.dsl.psu.edu/library/lrr/guides/supct/kennedy.html>
Randall Kennedy, Race, Crime, and the Law (New York: Random House, 1997)
Randall Kennedy, “Race, the Police, and ‘Reasonable Suspicion’,” Perspectives on Crime and Justice: 1997–1998 Lecture Series (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 1998)
Kennedy, Randall, “Racial Profiling May Be Justified, But It's Still Wrong,” The New Republic (September 13, 1999), pp. 30–35
Kersch, Ken I., “Juries on Trial,” The Public Interest, Number 150 (Winter 2003), pp. 121–30
Ronald Kessler, The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2002)
Kinsley, Michael, “Racial Profiling at the Airport: Discrimination We're Afraid to be Against,” Slate Magazine (September 28, 2001)
Albert R. Kiralfy, “Common Law,” in The New Encyclopædia Britannica — Macropædia, Volume 4 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1974), pp. 998–1005
Mark A. R. Kleiman, “Crime Control Policy in California,” in California Policy Options 2000 (Los Angeles: University of California, 2000)
John Kleinig, Punishment and Desert (The Hague/Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974)
William J. Kolarik, Creating Quality: Concepts, Systems, Strategies, and Tools (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999)
K. M. L., “Francis Bacon,” in the New Encyclopædia Britannica — Macropædia, Volume 2 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1974), pp. 561–7
Laband, David N. and Sophocleus, John P., “An Estimate of Resource Expenditures on Transfer Activity in the United States,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Volume 107 (1992), pp. 959–83
Landes, William M., “An Economic Analysis of the Courts,” Journal of Law and Economics, Volume 14 (1971), pp. 61–107
Lane, Charles, “O'Connor Expresses Death Penalty Doubt, Justice Says Innocent May Be Killed”Washington Post (July 4, 2001), p. A1
Nancy G. LaVigne, “Safe Transport: Security by Design on the Washington Metro,” in Preventing Mass Transit Crime, edited by Ronald V. Clarke (Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, 1997)
Patrick J. Leahy, testimony before the Hearing of the Criminal Justice Subcommittee, “Oversight of the Criminal Division,” U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee (July 27, 1999)
Patrick J. Leahy, testimony before the Hearing of the Committee, “Oversight: Restoring Confidence in the FBI,” U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee (June 20, 2001)
Leape, Lucian L., “Error in Medicine,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 272 (1994), pp. 1851–7
Lehrer, Eli, “Profiles in Confusion,” The Weekly Standard (November 4, 2002), pp. 12–13
Leo, John, “Seeing Through Prisms,” U.S. News and World Report (November 11, 2002), p. 61
Richard A. Leo and George C. Thomas III, editors, The Miranda Debate: Law, Justice and Crime Control (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998)
Levitt, Steven D., “The Economics of Crime and the Criminal Justice System,” National Bureau of Economic Research Reporter (Fall 1998)
Steven D. Levitt, “Deterrence,” in Crime: Public Policies for Crime Control, 2nd edition, James Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia, editors (San Francisco: ICS Press, 2002), pp. 435–50
Lichtblau, Eric and Piller, Charles, “War on Terrorism Highlights FBI's Computer Woes,” Los Angeles Times (July 28, 2002), pp. 1, 26–7
Liebman, James S., Fagan, Jeffrey, West, Valerie, and Lloyd, Jonathan, “Capital Attrition: Error Rates in Capital Cases, 1973–1995,” Texas Law Review, Volume 78 (2000), p. 1839
James S. Liebman, Jeffrey Fagan, Andrew Gelman, Valerie West, Garth Davies, and Alexander Kiss, “A Broken System, Part II: Why There Is So Much Error in Capital Cases, and What Can Be Done About It,” unpublished report, Columbia University (2002) <http://www.law.columbia.edu/brokensystem2/>
Lindsay, R. C. L. and Wells, Gary L., “Improving Eyewitness Identifications from Lineups: Simultaneous versus Sequential Lineup Presentation,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume 70 (1985), Number 3, pp. 556–64
Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion (New York: Touchstone, 1997), original edition in 1920
Lithwick, Dahlia, “Three Strikes Golfing: Life in Prison without Parole for Stealing Three Callaway Clubs,” Slate (November 5, 2002)
Locke, John, Second Treatise of Government (1690)
Loftus, Elizabeth F. and Burns, T. E., “Mental Shock Can Produce Retrograde Amnesia,” Memory and Cognition, Volume 10 (1982), pp. 318–23
Charles H. Logan, “Criminal Justice Performance Measures for Prisons,” in Performance Measures for the Criminal Justice System (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1993), pp. 19–60
Lombroso, Cesare, L'uomo delinquente (The Criminal Man, 1876)
James P. Lynch and William J. Sabol, “Prison Use and Social Control,” in Policies, Processes, and Decisions of the Criminal Justice System, Volume 3 of the Criminal Justice 2000 series (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 2000)
Macmillan, Ross, “Adolescent Victimization and Income Deficits in Adulthood: Rethinking the Costs of Criminal Violence from a Life-Course Perspective,” Criminology, Volume 38 (May 2000), pp. 553–88
Mangan, Terence J. and Shanahan, Michael G., “Public Law Enforcement/Private Security: A New Partnership?”FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Volume 59 (January 1990), pp. 18–22
Martin, Susan E. and Sherman, Lawrence W., “Selective Apprehension: A Police Strategy for Repeat Offenders,” Criminology, Volume 24 (1986), pp. 155–73
Martinson, Robert, “What Works? Questions and Answers About Prison Reform,” Public Interest, Number 35 (1974), pp. 22–54
Kenneth J. Matulia, A Balance of Forces, 2nd edition (Gaithersburg, MD: International Association of Chiefs of Police, 1985)
McChesney, Fred S., 1993. “Boxed in: Economists and the Benefits of Crime,” International Review of Law and Economics, Volume 13 (1993), pp. 225–31
William F. McDonald, Police-Prosecutor Relations in the United States (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 1982)
McGovern, George, “Flying the Unfriendly Skies,” Wall Street Journal (July 29, 2002), p. A14
Paul E. Meehl, Clinical vs. Statistical Prediction (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1954)
Karl Menninger, The Crime of Punishment (New York: Viking Press, 1968)
Terance Miethe and Richard McCorkle, Crime Profiles: The Anatomy of Dangerous Persons, Places, and Situations (Los Angeles: Roxbury, 2001)
Ted R. Miller, Mark A. Cohen, and Brian Wiersema, Victim Costs and Consequences: A New Look, Research Report NCJ 155282 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1996)
Jessica Mitford, Kind and Usual Punishment (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1971)
John Monahan, Predicting Violent Behavior: An Assessment of Clinical Techniques (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1981)
Mark Moore, “The Legitimation of Criminal Justice Policies and Practices,” in Perspectives on Crime and Justice: 1996–1997 Lecture Series (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 1997), pp. 47–74
J. Brian Morgan, The Police Function and the Investigation of Crime (Aldershot, England: Avebury, 1990)
Norval Morris, The Future of Imprisonment (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974)
Norval Morris, “The Honest Politician's Guide to Sentencing Reform,” in The Socio-Economics of Crime and Justice, Brian Forst, editor (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1993), pp. 303–10
Norval Morris and Michael Tonry, Between Prison and Probation: Intermediate Punishments in a Rational Sentencing System (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990)
Morrison, Blake, “Airport Security Failures Persist: Screeners Miss Even Obvious Items,” USA Today (July 1, 2002), pp. 1A, 4A
Jenny Mouzos and Damon Muller, Solvability Factors of Homicide in Australia: An Exploratory Analysis (Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 2001)
Muller, Damon A., “Criminal Profiling: Real Science or Just Wishful Thinking?”Homicide Studies, Volume 4 (2000), pp. 234–64
Daniel S. Nagin, “Criminal Deterrence Research at the Outset of the Twenty-First Century,” in Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, edited by Michael Tonry (University of Chicago Press, 1998), pp. 1–42
Oscar Newman, Defensible Space (New York: Macmillan, 1972)
Newman, Oscar, “Defensible Space,” National Housing Institute Shelterforce Online (May/June 1997) <http://www.nhi.org/online/issues/93/defense.html>
Novak, Robert D., “The FBI Problem,” Washington Post (August 29, 2002), p. A31
Sandra Day O'Connor, Address to the Minnesota Women Lawyers Association, July 2, 2001, reported by Brian Bakst, Associated Press (July 3, 2001)
Office of the Inspector General, The FBI Laboratory: An Investigation into Laboratory Practices and Alleged Misconduct in Explosives-Related and Other Cases, Special Report (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 1997)
Office of Management and Budget, Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting, Directive 15 (May 1997)
O'Neill, Helen, “The Perfect Witness,” Washington Post (March 4, 2001), pp. F1, F4
Herbert Packer, The Limits of the Criminal Sanction (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1968)
Paternoster, Raymond, Brame, Robert, Bachman, Ronet, and Sherman, Lawrence W., “Do Fair Procedures Matter? The Effect of Procedural Justice on Spouse Assault,” Law and Society Review, Volume 31 (1997), pp. 163–204
John Allen Paulos, A Mathematician Reads the Newspaper (New York: Basic Books, 1995)
Steven D. Penrod and Brian L. Cutler, “Assessing the Competency of Juries,” in The Handbook of Forensic Psychology, Irving Weiner and Allen K. Hess, editors (New York: Wiley, 1987)
Joan Petersilia, “Measuring the Performance of Community Corrections,” in Performance Measures for the Criminal Justice System (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1993), pp. 61–86
Petersilia, Joan, “A Decade of Experimenting with Intermediate Sanctions: What Have We Learned?”Justice Research and Policy, Volume 11 (1999), pp. 9–24
Joan Petersilia, “Community Corrections,” in Crime: Public Policies for Crime Control, 2nd edition, James Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia, editors (San Francisco: ICS Press, 2002), pp. 483–508
Mark A. Peterson and Harriet B. Braiker, Doing Crime: A Survey of California Prison Inmates (Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1980)
Petherick, Wayne, “Criminal Profiling: How It Got Started and How It Is Used,” Crime Library, <http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/profiling/profiling2/1.html>
Anne Morrison Piehl, Bert Useem, and John J. DiIulio, Jr., “Right-Sizing Justice: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Imprisonment in Three States,” Civic Report Number 8 of the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research (September 1999) <http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_8.htm>
Karl Popper, Logic of Scientific Discovery (London: Routledge, 2002 reissue) (original 1934)
Richard A. Posner, The Economics of Justice (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981)
Posner, Richard A., “Security Versus Civil Liberties,” The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 288 (December 2001), pp. 46–7
Lucas A. Powe, The Warren Court and American Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000)
Proffatt, John, Trial by Jury (1877)
Michael L. Radelet, Hugo Adam Bedau, and Constance E. Putnam, In Spite of Innocence: Erroneous Convictions in Capital Cases (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992)
Gerard Rainville, Differing Incentives of Appointed and Elected Prosecutors and the Relationship between Prosecutor Policy and Votes in Local Elections, doctoral dissertation (Washington, DC: American University, School of Public Affairs, 2002)
John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971)
Albert J. Reiss, Jr., The Police and the Public (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1971)
Report of the Rampart Independent Review Panel (November 16, 2000) <www.ci.la.ca.us/oig/rirprpt.pdf>
Rhodes, William, Pelissier, Bernadette, Gaes, Gerald, Saylor, William, Camp, Scott, and Wallace, Susan, “Alternative Solutions to the Problem of Selection Bias in an Analysis of Federal Residential Drug Treatment Programs,” Evaluation Research, Volume 25 (2000), pp. 331–69
Rosen, Jeffrey, “In Lieu of Manners,” New York Times Magazine (February 4, 2001)
D. Kim Rossmo, “Geographic Profiling,” Chapter 9 in Offender Profiling: Theory, Research and Practice, Janet L. Jackson and Debra Bekerian, editors (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1997)
D. Kim Rossmo, Geographic Profiling (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1999)
Rowan, Carl T. Jr., “Who's Policing DC Cops?Washington Post (October 8, 1995)
George H. Ryan, Press Release (January 31, 2000) <http://www.state.il.us/gov/press/00/Jan/morat.htm>
Ryan, George H., “In Ryan's Words: ‘I Must Act’,” New York Times (January 11, 2003) <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/11/national/11CND-RTEX.html?pagewanted=printandposition=bottom>
Michael J. Saks, Jury Verdicts: The Role of Group Size and Social Decision Rule (Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath and Co., 1977)
Saks, Michael J., “The Smaller the Jury, The Greater the Unpredictability,” Judicature, Volume 79 (1996), pp. 263–5
Saulny, Susan, “Convictions and Charges Voided in '89 Central Park Jogger Attack,” New York Times (December 20, 2002)
Barry Scheck, Peter Neufeld, and Jim Dwyer, Actual Innocence: When Justice Goes Wrong and How to Make it Right (New York: Penguin Putnam, 2001)
Schuck, Peter H., “A Case for Profiling,” The American Lawyer (January 2002)
Alfred I. Schwartz and Sumner N. Clarren, The Cincinnati Team Policing Experiment: A Summary Report (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 1977)
Lee Sechrest, Susan O. White, and Elizabeth D. Brown, editors, The Rehabilitation of Criminal Offenders: Problems and Prospects (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1979)
Thorsten Sellin and Marvin E. Wolfgang, The Measurement of Delinquency (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1964)
Serafin, Barry, “Guns Slip Through the Cracks: Gaps in Fingerprints and Background Checks May Have Aided Snipers,” ABCNews.com (November 1, 2002)
Clifford D. Shearing and Philip Stenning, “Modern Private Security: Its Growth and Implications,” in Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, Volume 3, Norval Morris and Michael Tonry, editors (University of Chicago Press, 1981)
Lawrence W. Sherman, Policing Domestic Violence: Experiments and Dilemmas (New York: Free Press, 1992)
Lawrence W. Sherman, “Fair and Effective Policing,” in Crime: Public Policies for Crime Control, James Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia, editors (San Francisco: ICS Press, 2002)
Lawrence W. Sherman, Denise Gottfredson, Doris MacKenzie, John Eck, Peter Reuter, and Shawn Bushway Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 1999)
Eli Silverman, NYPD Battles Crime: Innovative Strategies in Policing (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999)
Rita James Simon, The Jury and the Defense of Insanity (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999)
Peter Skerry, Counting on the Census? Race, Group Identity, and the Evasion of Politics (Washington, DC: Brookings, 2000)
Wesley G. Skogan, Disorder and Decline: Crime and the Spiral of Decay in American Neighborhoods (New York: Free Press, 1990)
Skogan, Wesley G. and Antunes, George E., “Information, Apprehension, and Deterrence: Exploring the Limits of Police Productivity,” Journal of Criminal Justice, Volume 7, No. 3 (1979), pp. 217–41
Wesley Skogan and Kathleen Frydl, editors, The Evidence on Policing: Fairness and Effectiveness in U.S. Law Enforcement (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2003)
Skolnick, Jerome H., “Wild Pitch: ‘Three Strikes, You're Out’ and Other Bad Calls on Crime,” American Prospect, Volume 5, Issue 17 (March 21, 1994) <http://www.prospect.org/print/V5/17/skolnick-j.html>
Jerome H. Skolnick and James J. Fyfe, Above the Law: Police and the Excessive Use of Force (New York: Free Press, 1993)
Skolnick, Jerome H. and Leo, Richard A., “The Ethics of Deceptive Interrogation,” Criminal Justice Ethics, Volume 11 (Winter/Spring 1992), pp. 3–12
Smith, Douglas and Visher, Christy, “Street-Level Justice: Situational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions,” Social Problems, Volume 29 (1981), pp. 167–78
Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000)
Steadman, Henry J. and Cocozza, Joseph, “Psychiatry, Dangerousness and the Repetitively Violent Offender,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Volume 69 (1978), pp. 226–31
Kate Stith and Jose A. Cabranes, Fear of Judging: Sentencing Guidelines in the Federal Courts (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998)
Cass R. Sunstein, editor, Punitive Damages: How Juries Decide (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002)
Swets, John A., Dawes, Robyn M., and Monahan, John, “Psychological Science Can Improve Diagnostic Decisions,” Psychological Science in the Public Interest, Volume 1 (May 2000), pp. 1–24
Genichi Taguchi, The Mahalanobis-Taguchi Strategy: A Pattern Technology System (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002)
Tamm, Edward A., “The Five-Man Civil Jury: A Proposed Constitutional Amendment,” Georgetown Law Journal, Volume 51 (1962), p. 120
Ralph B. Taylor, Breaking Away from Broken Windows (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001)
Tocqueville, Alexis, Democracy in America (1835)
Michael Tonry, Sentencing Matters (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)
Trumbull, William N., “Who Has Standing in Cost-Benefit Analysis?”Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Volume 9 (1990), pp. 201–18
Turow, Scott, “To Kill or Not to Kill,” The New Yorker (January 6, 2003), pp. 40–7
Brent E. Turvey, Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis, 2nd edition (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2001)
Tom Tyler, Why People Obey the Law (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990)
U.S. Department of Justice, Justice Litigation Management (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977)
H. Richard Uviller, Virtual Justice: The Flawed Prosecution of Crime in America (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996)
Daniel Van Ness and Karen Heetderks Strong, Restoring Justice (Cincinnati, OH: Anderson, 1997)
Vidmar, Neil J., “Is the Jury Competent?”Law and Contemporary Problems, Volume 52 (Autumn 1989)
Volokh, Eugene, “Traffic Enforcement Cameras,” Wall Street Journal (March 26, 2002), p. A22
Voltaire, Zadig (Book of Fate) (1749; originally published as Memnon in 1747)
Andrew von Hirsch, Doing Justice: The Choice of Punishments (New York: Hill and Wang, 1976)
Andrew von Hirsch, “Doing Justice: The Principle of Commensurate Deserts,” in Sentencing, edited by Hyman Gross and Andrew von Hirsch (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981)
Andrew von Hirsch, “Proportionality in the Philosophy of Punishment,” in Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, edited by Michael Tonry (University of Chicago Press, 1992), pp. 55–98
David Vose, Risk Analysis: A Quantitative Guide (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000)
Richard H. Ward, The Investigative Function: Criminal Investigation in the United States, Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation (Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley, 1971)
Weber, Robert, cartoon in The New Yorker (June 3, 2002), p. 35
Wellford, Charles and Cronin, James, “Clearing Up Homicide Clearance Rates,” National Institute of Justice Journal, Number 243 (April 2000), pp. 3–7. Summary of longer report, An Analysis of Variables Affecting the Clearance of Homicides: A Multistate Study (Washington, DC: Justice Research and Statistics Association, 1999), is available at <http://www.jrsa.org/pubs/reports/Clearance_of_Homicide.html>
Whitlock, Craig and Fallis, David S., “County Officers Kill More Often Than Any in U.S.,” Washington Post (July 1, 2001), pp. A1, A8–9
Wilke, John R., “How Outdated Files Hamper FBI Effort to Fight Terrorism,” Wall Street Journal (July 9, 2002), pp. A1, A8
Kristen M. Williams, The Scope and Prediction of Recidivism (Washington, DC: Institute for Law and Social Research, 1979)
James Q. Wilson, Thinking About Crime (New York: Basic Books, 1975)
Wilson, James Q., “What Mistakes in Death Penalty Cases?”New York Times (July 10, 2000), p. A19
Orlando W. Wilson, Police Records — Their Installation and Use, 4th edition (Public Administration Service, 1951)
Benjamin Wittes, Starr: A Reassessment (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002)
Marvin E. Wolfgang, Robert Figlio, and Thorsten Sellin, Delinquency in a Birth Cohort (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972)
Marvin E. Wolfgang, Terence P. Thornberry, and Robert M. Figlio, From Boy to Man — From Delinquency to Crime (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1985)
Wright, Ronald and Miller, Marc, “The Screening/Bargaining Tradeoff,” Stanford Law Review, Volume 55 (October 2002), pp. 29–118
Zakaria, Fareed, “Freedom vs. Security — Delicate Balance: The case for ‘Smart Profiling’ as a Weapon in the War on Terror”Newsweek, Volume 140 (July 8, 2002), pp. 26–31
Zeisel, Hans, “And Then There Were None: The Diminution of the Federal Jury,” University of Chicago Law Review, Volume 38 (1971), pp. 710–24
Zeisel, Hans and Diamond, Shari Seidman, “‘Convincing Empirical Evidence’ on the Six Member Jury,” University of Chicago Law Review, Volume 41 (1974), pp. 281–95
Zeisel, Hans and Diamond, Shari Seidman, “The Effect of Peremptory Challenges on Jury and Verdict: An Experiment in a Federal District Court,” Stanford Law Review, Volume 30 (1978), pp. 491–503
Franklin Zimring, Perspectives on Deterrence (Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health, 1971)
Franklin Zimring, “The New Politics of Criminal Justice: Of ‘Three Strikes,’ Truth-in-Sentencing, and Megan's Laws,” in Perspectives on Crime and Justice: 1999–2000 Lecture Series (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 2001), pp. 1–22

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.