Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: August 2011


Ahrend, Evelyn R. 1934. Ontario speech. American Speech 9/2: 136–139.
Algeo, John. 2006. British or American English? A Handbook of Word and Grammar Patterns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Allen, Harold B. 1959. Canadian–American speech differences along the middle border. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 5/1: 17–24.
Allen, Harold B. 1976. The Linguistic Atlas of the Upper Midwest in Three Volumes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Allen, Harold B. 1989. Canadian Raising in the Upper Midwest. American Speech 64/1: 74–75.
Arnopoulos, Sheila McLeod and Clift, Dominique. 1984. The English Fact in Quebec, 2nd edn. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Ash, Russell. 2003. The Top 10 of Everything 2004. Toronto: Dorling Kindersley / International Book Productions.
Atwood, Margaret. 1969. The Edible Woman. Toronto: Seal Books.
Avis, Walter S. 1954. Speech differences along the Ontario–United States border. I. Vocabulary. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 1/1: 13–18.
Avis, Walter S. 1955. Speech differences along the Ontario–United States border. II. Grammar and syntax. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 1/1 (Regular Series): 14–19.
Avis, Walter S. 1956. Speech differences along the Ontario–United States border. III. Pronunciation. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 2/2: 41–59.
Avis, Walter S. 1972. The phonemic segments of an Edmonton idiolect. In Davis, L. M. (ed.), Studies in Honor of Raven I. McDavid, Jr. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 239–250.
Avis, Walter S. 1973. The English language in Canada. In Sebeok, T. A. (ed.), Current Trends in Linguistics, vol. 10: Linguistics in North America. The Hague: Mouton, 40– 74.
Avis, Walter S. 1983. Canadian English in its North American context. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 28: 3–15.
Avis, Walter S. 1986. The contemporary context of Canadian English. In Allen, Harold B and Linn, Michael D (eds.), Dialect and Language Variation. San Diego: Academic Press, 212–216.
Avis, Walter S., Crate, C, Drysdale, P, Leechman, D. and Scargill, M. H (eds.). 1967. A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles. Toronto: W. J. Gage.
Avis, Walter S. and Kinloch, A. Murray. 1978. Writings on Canadian English 1792–1975: An Annotated Bibliography. Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside.
Ayearst, Morley. 1939. A note on Canadian speech. American Speech 14/3: 231–233.
Babiak, Todd. 2006. The Garneau Block. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.
Baeyer, C. V. 1980. The Ancestry of Canadian English. Hull, QC: Minister of Supply & Services Canada.
Bähr, Dieter. 1981. Die Englische Sprache in Kanada: Eine Analyse des “Survey of Canadian English”. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
Bailey, Richard W. 1982. The English language in Canada. In Bailey, Richard W. and Görlach, Manfred (eds.), English as a World Language. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 134–176.
Baillie, Ray and Baillie, Diana. 2001. Imprints: Discovering the Historic Face of English Quebec. Montreal: Price-Patterson.
Barbaud, Philippe. 1998. French in Quebec. In Edwards, (ed.), 177–201.
Barber, Katherine (ed.). 1998. The Canadian Oxford Dictionary. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Barber, Katherine 2008. Only in Canada You Say: A Treasury of Canadian Language. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Barris, Alex and Barris, Ted. 2001. Making Music: Profiles from a Century of Canadian Music. Toronto: HarperCollins.
Beal, Joan. 2004. English dialects in the North of England: Phonology. In Kortmann, and Schneider, (eds.), 113–133.
Belcher, Major E. A. 1924. Migration within the Empire. London: W. Collins Sons & Co.
Bloomfield, Morton. 1948. Canadian English and its relation to eighteenth century American speech. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 47: 59–67.
Boberg, Charles. 1997. Variation and change in the nativization of foreign (a) in English. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Boberg, Charles. 2000. Geolinguistic diffusion and the US–Canada border. Language Variation and Change 12: 1–24.
Boberg, Charles. 2004a. Canadian English. In Kortmann, and Schneider, (eds.), 351–365.
Boberg, Charles. 2004b. The dialect topography of Montreal. English World-Wide 25/2: 171–198.
Boberg, Charles. 2004c. Ethnic patterns in the phonetics of Montreal English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 8/4: 538–568.
Boberg, Charles. 2004d. Real and apparent time in language change: Late adoption of changes in Montreal English. American Speech 79/4: 250–269.
Boberg, Charles. 2005a. The Canadian Shift in Montreal. Language Variation and Change 17/2: 133–154.
Boberg, Charles. 2005b. The North American Regional Vocabulary Survey: New variables and methods in the study of North American English. American Speech 80/1: 22–60.
Boberg, Charles. 2008a. Regional phonetic differentiation in Standard Canadian English. Journal of English Linguistics 36/2: 129–154.
Boberg, Charles. 2008b. Canadian English vocabulary: National and regional variants. Anglistik 19/2: 65–79.
Boberg, Charles. 2009. The emergence of a new phoneme: Foreign (a) in Canadian English. Language Variation and Change 21/3: 355–380.
Boissevain, Jeremy. 1967. The Italians of Montreal: Social Adjustment in a Plural Society. Studies of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, vol. 7. Ottawa.
Bourhis, Richard Y. (ed.). 1984a. Conflict and Language Planning in Quebec. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Bourhis, Richard Y. 1984b. The Charter of the French Language and cross-cultural communication in Montreal. In Bourhis, (ed.), 174–204.
Bourhis, Richard Y. 2001. Reversing language shift in Quebec. In Fishman, Joshua A. (ed.), Can Threatened Languages Be Saved? Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 101–141.
Bradley, A. G. 1932. The United Empire Loyalists: Founders of British Canada. London: Thornton Butterworth.
Brinton, Laurel J. and Fee, Margery. 2001. Canadian English. In Algeo, John (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language, vol. vi: English in North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 422–440.
Britain, David. 1997. Dialect contact and phonological reallocation: “Canadian Raising” in the English Fens. Language in Society 26: 15–46.
Brown, Wallace and Senior, Hereward. 1984. Victorious in Defeat: The Loyalists in Canada. Toronto: Methuen.
Burnett, Wendy. 2006. Linguistic resistance on the Maine–New Brunswick border. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51/2–3: 161–176.
Caldwell, Gary. 1974. A Demographic Profile of the English-speaking Population of Quebec 1921–1971. Publication B-51. Quebec City: International Center for Research on Bilingualism.
Caldwell, Gary. 1982. People and society. In Caldwell, Gary and Waddell, Eric (eds.), The English of Quebec: From Majority to Minority. Montreal: Institut québécois de la recherché, 57–70.
Caldwell, Gary. 1984. Anglo-Quebec: Demographic realities and options for the future. In Bourhis, (ed.), 205–221.
Caldwell, Gary. 1998. English Quebec. In Edwards, (ed.), 273–292.
Caldwell, Gary and Waddell, Eric. 1982. The English of Quebec: From Majority to Minority. Montreal: Institut québécois de la recherche.
Campey, Lucille H. 2003. The Silver Chief: Lord Selkirk and the Scottish Pioneers of Belfast, Baldoon and Red River. Toronto: Natural Heritage Books.
Campey, Lucille H. 2004. After the Hector: The Scottish Pioneers of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton. Toronto: Natural Heritage Books.
Campey, Lucille H. 2005. The Scottish Pioneers of Upper Canada, 1784–1855: Glengarry and Beyond. Toronto: Natural Heritage Books.
,Canada. Department of Justice. 1983. A Consolidation of the Constitution Acts, 1867 to 1982. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services.
,Canada. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, General Statistics Branch. 1933. The Canada Year Book 1933. Ottawa: King's Printer.
,Canadian Press Stylebook: A Guide for Writers and Editors, The. 1992. Toronto: The Canadian Press.
Carlock, Elizabeth and Wölck, Wolfgang. 1981. A method for isolating diagnostic linguistic variables: The Buffalo ethnolects experiment. In Sankoff, David and Cedergren, Henrietta (eds.), Variation Omnibus. Edmonton, AB: Linguistic Research, 17–24.
Carrothers, W. A. 1929/1969. Emigration from the British Isles. New York: Augustus M. Kelley.
Casselman, Bill. 1995. Casselman's Canadian Words: A Comic Browse through Words and Folk Sayings Invented by Canadians. Toronto: McArthur & Company.
Casselman, Bill. 1999–2004. Canadian Sayings, vols. 1–3. Toronto: McArthur & Company.
Castonguay, Charles. 1998. The fading Canadian duality. In Edwards, (ed.), 36–60.
Chambers, J. K. 1973. Canadian raising. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 18/2: 113–135.
Chambers, J.K. (ed.). 1975a. Canadian English: Origins and Structures. Toronto: Methuen.
Chambers, J.K. 1975b. The Ottawa Valley “twang.” In Chambers, (ed.), 55–59.
Chambers, J.K. (ed.). 1979a. The Languages of Canada. Montreal: Didier.
Chambers, J.K. 1979b. Canadian English. In Chambers, (ed.), 168–204.
Chambers, J. K. 1989. Canadian raising: Blocking, fronting, etc. American Speech 64: 75–88.
Chambers, J.K. 1991. Canada. In Cheshire, (ed.), 89–107.
Chambers, J.K. 1993. “Lawless and vulgar innovations”: Victorian views of Canadian English. In Clarke, (ed.), 1–26.
Chambers, J.K. 1994. An introduction to dialect topography. English World-Wide 15/1: 35–53.
Chambers, J.K. 1995a. Sociolinguistic Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
Chambers, J.K. 1995b. The Canada–US border as a vanishing isogloss: The evidence of chesterfield. Journal of English Linguistics 23/1–2: 155–166.
Chambers, J.K. 1998a. English: Canadian varieties. In Edwards, (ed.), 252–272.
Chambers, J.K. 1998b. Inferring dialect from a postal questionnaire. Journal of English Linguistics 26/3: 222–246.
Chambers, J.K. 1998c. Social embedding of changes in progress. Journal of English Linguistics 26/1: 5–36.
Chambers, J.K. 2000. Region and language variation. English World-Wide 21/2: 169–199.
Chambers, J.K. 2006a. The development of Canadian English. In Bolton, Kingsley and Kachru, Braj B. (eds.), World Englishes: Critical Concepts in Linguistics. London: Routledge, 383–395.
Chambers, J.K. 2006b. Canadian Raising: retrospect and prospect. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51/2–3: 105–118.
Chambers, J.K. 2008. The tangled garden: Relics and vestiges in Canadian English. Anglistik 19/2: 7–21
Chambers, J. K. and Hardwick, Margaret. 1986. Comparative sociolinguistics of a sound change in Canadian English. English World-Wide 7: 23–46.
Chambers, J. K. and Heisler, Troy. 1999. Dialect topography of Québec City English. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 44/1: 23–48.
Charbonneau, Hubert, Desjardins, Bertrand, Légaré, Jacques and Denis, Hubert. 2000. The population of the St. Lawrence Valley, 1608–1760. In Haines, and Steckel, (ed.), 99–142.
Charbonneau, Hubert, Henripin, Jacques and Légaré, Jacques. 1970. L'avenir démographique des francophones au Québec et à Montréal en l'absence de politiques adéquates. Revue de Géographie de Montréal 24/2: 199–202.
Charbonneau, Hubert and Maheu, Robert. 1973. Les aspects démographiques de la question linguistique. Synthèse S3. Quebec City: Commission d'enquête sur la situation de la langue française et sur les droits linguistiques au Québec.
Cheshire, Jenny (ed.). 1991. English around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clarke, Sandra. 1991. Phonological variation and recent language change in St. John's English. In Cheshire, (ed.), 109–122.
Clarke, Sandra (ed.). 1993a. Focus on Canada. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Clarke, Sandra. 1993b. The Americanization of Canadian pronunciation: A survey of palatal glide usage. In Clarke, (ed.), 85–108.
Clarke, Sandra. 2004a. Newfoundland English: Phonology. In Kortmann, and Schneider, (eds.), 366–382.
Clarke, Sandra. 2004b. Newfoundland English: Morphology and syntax. In Kortmann, and Schneider, (eds.), 303–318.
Clarke, Sandra. 2004c. The legacy of British and Irish English in Newfoundland. In Hickey, Raymond (ed.), Legacies of Colonial English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 242–261.
Clarke, Sandra. 2006. Nooz or nyooz?: The complex construction of Canadian identity. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51/2–3: 225–246.
Clarke, Sandra. 2008. Newfoundland and Labrador English: Phonology and phonetic variation. Anglistik 19/2: 93–106.
Clarke, Sandra, Elms, Ford and Youssef, Amani. 1995. The third dialect of English: Some Canadian evidence. Language Variation and Change 7: 209–228.
Coupland, Douglas. 2002. Souvenir of Canada. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre.
Cowan, Helen I. 1961. British emigration to British North America. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Crystal, David. 1997. English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dailey-O'Cain, Jennifer. 1997. Canadian raising in a midwestern US city. Language Variation and Change 9/1: 107–120.
d'Anglejan, Alison. 1984. Language planning in Quebec: An historical overview and future trends. In Bourhis, (ed.), 29–52.
D'Arcy, Alexandra. 2004. Contextualizing St. John's Youth English within the Canadian quotative system. Journal of English Linguistics 32/4: 323–345.
D'Arcy, Alexandra. 2005. The development of linguistic constraints: Phonological innovations in St. John's. Language Variation and Change 17/3: 327–355.
D'Arcy, Alexandra. 2008. Canadian English as a window to the rise of like in discourse. Anglistik 19/2: 125–140.
Wolf, Gaelan Dodds. 1983. A comparison of phonetically-ordered phonological variables in two major Canadian urban surveys. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 13: 90–96.
Wolf, Gaelan Dodds. 1988. On phonological variability in Canadian English in Ottawa and Vancouver. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 18/2: 110–124.
Wolf, Gaelan Dodds. 1989. Analytical methods in a Labovian framework: A mainframe comparison of Canadian urban sociodialect data. Journal of English Linguistics 22/1: 119–128.
Wolf, Gaelan Dodds. 1990. Patterns of usage in urban Canadian English. English World-Wide 11/1: 1–31.
Wolf, Gaelan Dodds. 1992. Social and Regional Factors in Canadian English. Toronto: Canadian Scholar's Press.
Wolf, Gaelan Dodds. 1993. Local patterns and markers of speech in Vancouver English. In Clarke, (ed.), 269–293.
Wolf, Gaelan Dodds. 1996. Word choice: Lexical variation in two Canadian surveys. Journal of English Linguistics 24/2: 131–155.
Wolf, Gaelan Dodds. 2004. Evidence for linguistic change in urban Canadian English. In Wolf, Fee and McAlpine, (ed.): 229–252.
Wolf, Gaelan Dodds, Fee, Margery and McAlpine, Janice (eds.). 2004. The Survey of Vancouver English: A Sociolinguistic Study of Urban Canadian English. Kingston, ON: Strathy Language Unit, Queen's University.
Wolf, Gaelan Dodds, Gregg, Robert J., Harris, Barbara P and Scargill, Matthew H. (eds.). 1997. Gage Canadian Dictionary, Revised and Expanded. Vancouver: Gage Educational Publishing.
Dollinger, Stefan. 2006. The modal auxiliaries have to and must in the Corpus of Early Ontario English. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51/2–3: 287–308.
Dollinger, Stefan. 2008. New-Dialect Formation in Canada: Evidence from the English Modal Auxiliaries. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Dollinger, Stefan. Forthcoming. Written sources for Canadian English: Phonetic reconstruction and the low-back vowel merger in the nineteenth century. In Hickey, Raymond (ed.), Varieties in Writing: The Written Word as Linguistic Evidence. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Dollinger, Stefan and Brinton, Laurel J. 2008. Canadian English lexis: Historical and variationist perspectives. Anglistik 19/2: 43–64.
Drysdale, P. D. 1959. A first approach to Newfoundland phonemics. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 5/1: 25–34.
Dubé, Francine. 2002. The region where you live affects the words you use. National Post, Nov. 27: 1.
Eckert, Penelope. 1989. The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation. Language Variation and Change 1: 245–267.
Eckert, Penelope. 2008. Where do ethnolects stop? International Journal of Bilingualism 12/1: 25–42.
Edwards, J. (ed.). 1998. Language in Canada. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Elliott, Bruce S. 1988. Irish Migrants in the Canadas: A New Approach. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Elliott, Bruce S. 2004. Regional patterns of English immigration and settlement in Upper Canada. In Messamore, Barbara J. (ed.), Canadian Migration Patterns From Britain and North America. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 51–90.
Emeneau, M. B. 1935. The dialect of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. Language 11: 140–147.
Esling, John H. 1991. Sociophonetic variation in Vancouver. In Cheshire, (ed.), 123–133.
Esling, John H. 2004. Vowel systems and voice setting in the Survey of Vancouver English. In Wolf, Fee and McAlpine, (eds.): 253–288.
Esling, John H. and Warkentyne, Henry J. 1993. Retracting of /æ/ in Vancouver English. In Clarke, (ed.), 229–246.
Falk, Lilian and Harry, Margaret (eds.). 1999. The English Language in Nova Scotia. Lockeport, NS: Roseway Publishing.
Fee, Margery. 2008. French borrowing in Quebec English. Anglistik 19/2: 173–188.
Fee, Margery and McAlpine, Janice. 1997. Guide to Canadian English Usage. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Findley, Timothy. 1977. The Wars. Toronto: Penguin.
Fischer, John L. 1958. Social influences on the choice of a linguistic variant. Word 14: 47–56.
Fishman, Joshua A. 1991. Reversing Language Shift. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Fought, Carmen. 2003. Chicano English in Context. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Fought, Carmen. 2006. Language and Ethnicity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fraser, Graham. 2006. Sorry, I Don't Speak French: Confronting the Canadian Crisis that Won't Go Away. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.
,Freelance Editors' Association of Canada. 1987. Editing Canadian English. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre.
Gemery, Henry A. 2000. The white population of the Colonial United States, 1607–1790. In Haines, and Steckel, (eds.), 143–190.
Giles, Howard, Taylor, Donald M. and Bourhis, Richard. 1973. Toward a theory of inter-personal accommodation through speech: Some Canadian data. Language in Society 2: 177–192.
Gold, Elaine. 2008. Canadian eh?: From eh to zed. Anglistik 19/2: 141–156.
Gold, Elaine and Tremblay, Mireille. 2006. Eh? and Hein?: Discourse particles or national icons? Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51/2–3: 247–264.
Görlach, Manfred. 1991. The identity of Canadian English. In Görlach, Manfred (ed.), Englishes: Studies in Varieties of English 1984–1988. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 108–121.
,Government of Canada. 1912. The Canada Year Book 1911, Second Series. Ottawa: King's Printer.
,Government of Canada. 1914. The Canada Year Book 1914. Ottawa: King's Printer.
,Government of Canada. 1974. Perspective Canada: A Compendium of Social Statistics. Ottawa: Minister of Industry, Trade and Commerce.
,Government of Quebec. 1972. Report of the Commission of Enquiry on the Position of the French Language and on Linguistic Rights in Quebec [the Gendron Commission]. Quebec City: Éditeur Officiel du Québec.
Gramley, Stephan and Pätzold, Kurt-Michael. 1992. A Survey of Modern English. London: Routledge.
Gregg, R. J. 1957a. Notes on the pronunciation of Canadian English as spoken in Vancouver, B.C. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 3/1: 20–26.
Gregg, R.J. 1957b. Neutralisation and fusion of vocalic phonemes in Canadian English as spoken in the Vancouver area. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 3/2: 78–83.
Gregg, R.J. 1973. The diphthongs Əi and aɪ in Scottish, Scotch-Irish and Canadian English. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 18: 136–145.
Gregg, R.J. 1983. Local lexical items in the Sociodialectal Survey of Vancouver English. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 28/1: 17–23.
Gregg, R.J. 1984. Final Report to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada on “An Urban Dialect Survey of the English Spoken in Vancouver.”Vancouver: University of British Columbia Linguistics Department.
Gregg, R.J. 1992. The Survey of Vancouver English. American Speech 67/3: 250–267.
Gregg, R.J. 1993. Canadian English lexicography. In Clarke, (ed.), 27–44.
Gregg, R.J. 1995. The survival of local lexical items as specific markers in Vancouver English. Journal of English Linguistics 23/1–2: 184–194.
Gregg, R.J. 2004. The survey of Vancouver English, 1976–1984: Methodology, planning, implementation and analysis. In Wolf, Fee and McAlpine, (ed.), 1–138.
Guy, Gregory. 1980. Variation in the group and the individual. In Labov, William (ed.), Locating Language in Time and Space. New York: Academic Press, 1–36.
Guy, Gregory. 1991. Explanation in variable phonology: An exponential model of morphological constraints. Language Variation and Change 3: 1–22.
Guy, Gregory and Boberg, Charles. 1997. Inherent variability and the Obligatory Contour Principle. Language Variation and Change 9: 149–164.
Hagiwara, Robert. 2006. Vowel production in Winnipeg. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51/2–3: 127–142.
Haines, Michael R. 2000. The white population of the United States, 1790–1920. In Haines, and Steckel, (eds.), 305–369.
Haines, Michael R. and Steckel, Richard H. (eds.). 2000. A Population History of North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hamilton, Donald E. 1958. Notes on Montreal English. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 4/2: 70–79.
Handcock, W. Gordon. 1977. English migration to Newfoundland. In Mannion, (ed.), 15–48.
Hansen, Marcus Lee. 1940. The Mingling of the Canadian and American Peoples, vol. i: Historical. Completed and prepared for publication by John Bartlet Brebner. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Harris, Barbara P. 1983. Handsaw or harlot? Some problem etymologies in the lexicon of Chinook Jargon. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 28/1: 25–32.
Harris, R. Cole and Warkentin, John. 1974. Canada Before Confederation: A Study in Historical Geography. New York: Oxford University Press.
Harvey, David D. 1991. Americans in Canada: Migration and Settlement since 1840. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Heller, Monica S. 1982. Negotiations of language choice in Montreal. In Gumperz, John J. (ed.), Language and Social Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 108–118.
Henripin, Jacques. 1973. Quebec and the demographic dilemma of French Canadian society. In Thomson, Dale C. (ed.), Quebec Society and Politics: Views from the Inside. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 155–166.
Henripin, Jacques. 1989. Naître ou ne pas être. Quebec City: Institut québécois de recherche sur la culture.
Hickey, Raymond. 2002. The Atlantic edge: The relationship between Irish English and Newfoundland English. English World-Wide 23/2: 283–316.
Hickey, Raymond. 2004. Irish English: phonology. In Kortmann, and Schneider, (eds.), 68–97.
Hickey, Raymond. 2007. Irish English: History and Present-Day Forms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Higinbotham, John D. 1962. Western vernacular. Alberta Historical Review 10/4: 9–17.
Hillenbrand, James, Getty, Laura A, Clark, Michael J and Wheeler, Kimberlee. 1995. Acoustic characteristics of American English vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 95/5: 3099–3111.
Hollett, Pauline. 2006. Investigating St. John's English: Real- and apparent-time perspectives. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51/2–3: 143–160.
Hollingshead, Greg. 1995. The Roaring Girl. Toronto: Somerville House Publishing.
Horvath, Barbara. 1985. Variation in Australian English: The Sociolects of Sydney. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Houston, Cecil J. and Smyth, William J. 1990. Irish Emigration and Canadian Settlement: Patterns, Links, & Letters. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Howe, Neil and Strauss, Bill. 1993. 13th Gen: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail? New York: Vintage Books.
Hultin, Neil C. 1967. Canadian views of American English. American Speech 42/4: 243–260.
Hung, Henrietta, Davison, John and Chambers, J. K.. 1993. Comparative sociolinguistics of (aw)-fronting. In Clarke, (ed.), 247–267.
Idsardi, William J. 2006. Canadian raising, opacity, and rephonemicization. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51/2–3: 119–126.
Jackson, Rick. 1994. Encyclopedia of Canadian Rock, Pop & Folk Music. Kingston, ON: Quarry Press.
Jedwab, Jack. 1996. English in Montreal: A Layman's Look at the Current Situation. Montreal: Les Éditions Images.
Jedwab, Jack. 2000. Ethnic Identification and Heritage Languages in Canada. Montreal: Les Éditions Images.
Jedwab, Jack. 2004. Going Forward: The Evolution of Quebec's English-speaking Community. Ottawa: Department of Public Works and Government Services Canada.
Johnson, Stanley C. 1913. A History of Emigration from the United Kingdom to North America, 1763–1912. London: George Routledge & Sons.
Johnson, William. 1991. Anglophobie Made in Quebec. Montreal: Stanké.
Joos, Martin. 1942. A phonological dilemma in Canadian English. Language 18: 141–144.
Kachru, Braj B. 1985. Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the Outer Circle. In Quirk, Randolph and Widdowson, Henry G. (eds.), English in the World: Teaching and Learning the Language and Literatures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 11–30.
Kachru, Braj B., Kachru, Yamuna and Nelson, Cecil L.. 2006. The Handbook of World Englishes. Oxford: Blackwell.
Kerswill, Paul. 2003. Dialect levelling and geographical diffusion in British English. In Britain, David and Cheshire, Jenny (eds.), Social Dialectology: In Honour of Peter Trudgill. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 223–243.
Kerswill, Paul, Torgersen, Eivind Nessa and Fox, Susan. 2008. Reversing “drift”: Innovation and diffusion in the London diphthong system. Language Variation and Change 20/3: 451–491.
Kerswill, Paul and Williams, Ann. 2000. Creating a new town koine: Children and language change in Milton Keynes. Language in Society 29: 65–115.
Kinloch, A. M. 1983. The phonology of Central/Prairie Canadian English. American Speech 58/1: 31–35.
Kinloch, A. M. 1995. The significance for the study of Canadian English of the work of Harold B. Allen. Journal of English Linguistics 23/1–2: 167–183.
Kinloch, A. M. and Avis, Walter S.. 1989. Central Canadian English and Received Standard English: A comparison of pronunciation. In García, Ofelia and Otheguy, Ricardo (eds.), English Across Cultures, Cultures Across English: A Reader in Cross-cultural Communication. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 403–420.
Kirwin, William J. 1960. LABRADOR, ST. JOHN'S and NEWFOUNDLAND: Some pronunciations. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 6/2: 115–116.
Kirwin, William J. 1993. The planting of Anglo-Irish in Newfoundland. In Clarke, (ed.), 65–84.
Kirwin, William J. 2001. Newfoundland English. In Algeo, John (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language, vol. vi: English in North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 441–455.
Kortmann, Bernd and Schneider, Edgar W. (eds.). 2004. A Handbook of Varieties of English, vol. 1: Phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kurath, Hans. 1949. A Word Geography of the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Kurath, Hans and McDavid, Raven I. 1961. The Pronunciation of English in the Atlantic States. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
Labov, William. 1963. The social motivation of a sound change. Word 19: 273–309.
Labov, William. 1972. Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Labov, William. 1990. The intersection of sex and social class in the course of linguistic change. Language Variation and Change 2: 205–254.
Labov, William. 1991. The three dialects of English. In Eckert, Penelope (ed.), New Ways of Analyzing Sound Change. New York: Academic Press, 1–44.
Labov, William. 1994. Principles of Linguistic Change: Internal Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
Labov, William, Ash, Sharon and Boberg, Charles. 2006. The Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Labov, William, Yaeger, Malcah and Steiner, Richard. 1972. A Quantitative Study of Sound Change in Progress. Philadelphia: US Regional Survey.
Laferrière, Martha. 1979. Ethnicity in phonological variation and change. Language 55: 603–617.
Lambert, Wallace E. 1967. A social psychology of bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues 23: 91–109.
Laporte, Pierre E. 1984. Status planning in Quebec: An evaluation. In Bourhis, (ed.), 53–80.
Lass, Roger. 2006. Phonology and morphology. In Hogg, Richard and Denison, David (eds.), A History of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 43–108.
Laurence, Margaret. 1974. The Diviners. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.
Laurin, Camille. 1980. Préface. In Amyot, Michel (ed.), La Situation démolinguistique au Québec et la Charte de la Langue Française. Quebec City: Conseil de la langue française, 9–11.
Leacock, Stephen. 1912. Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1982.
Legault, Josée. 1992. L'invention d'une minorité: Les Anglo-québécois. Montreal: Boréal.
Lehn, Walter. 1959. Vowel contrasts in a Saskatchewan dialect. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 5/2: 90–98.
Léon, Pierre R. and Martin, Philippe J (eds.). 1979. Toronto English: Studies in Phonetics. Ottawa: Marcel Didier (Canada).
Levine, Marc V. 1990. The Reconquest of Montreal: Language Policy and Social Change in a Bilingual City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Libman, Robert. 2009. 20 years later. Montreal Gazette, Sept. 22: A15.
Lieberson, Stanley. 1970. Language and Ethnic Relations in Canada. New York: Wiley.
Lieberson, Stanley. 1981. Linguistic and ethnic segregation in Montreal. In Dil, Anwar S. (ed.), Language Diversity and Language Contact: Essays by Stanley Lieberson. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 218–248.
Lindsey, Geoff. 1990. Quantity and quality in British and American vowel systems. In Ramsaran, Susan (ed.), Studies in the Pronunciation of English. London: Routledge, 106–118.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1990. Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada. New York: Routledge.
Locher, Uli. 1988. Les Anglophones de Montréal; émigration et évolution des attitudes 1978–1983. Quebec City: Conseil de la Langue Française.
Locher, Uli. 1992. Intentions to Leave Quebec among Students in English High Schools and Colleges. Working papers in Social Behaviour 92–05. Montreal: Department of Sociology, McGill University.
Lougheed, W. C. (ed.). 1986. In Search of the Standard in Canadian English. Kingston, ON: Strathy Language Unit, Queen's University.
Lougheed, W.C. (ed.). 1988. Writings on Canadian English 1976–1987: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography. Kingston, ON: Strathy Language Unit, Queen's University.
Lovell, Charles J. 1955. Whys and hows of collecting for the Dictionary of Canadian English. Part i: Scope and source material. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 1/2: 3–8.
Lovell, Charles J. 1956. Whys and hows of collecting for the Dictionary of Canadian English. Part ii: Excerption of quotations. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 2/1: 23–32.
Lovell, Charles J. 1958. A sampling of materials for a dictionary of Canadian English based on historical principles. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 4/1: 7–33.
MacGregor, James G. 1972. A History of Alberta. Edmonton, AB: Hurtig Publishers.
MacLennan, Hugh. 1941. Barometer Rising. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1982.
MacMillan, Michael C. 1998. The Practice of Language Rights in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
MacNutt, W. Stewart. 1965. The Atlantic Provinces: The Emergence of Colonial Society 1712–1857. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.
Mallea, John. 1984. Minority language education in Quebec and anglophone Canada. In Bourhis, (ed.), 222–261.
Mannion, John J. 1977a. The Peopling of Newfoundland: Essays in Historical Geography. St. John's, NL: Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland.
Mannion, John J. 1977b. Introduction. In Mannion, (ed.), 1–13.
McArthur, Tom. 1989. The English Language as Used in Quebec: A Survey. Kingston, ON: Strathy Language Unit, Queen's University.
McConnell, R. E. 1979. Our Own Voice. Toronto: Gage Educational Publishing.
McGillis, Ian. 2002. A Tourist's Guide to Glengarry. Erin, ON: The Porcupine's Quill.
McInnis, Marvin. 2000a. The population of Canada in the nineteenth century. In Haines, and Steckel, (eds.), 371–432.
McInnis, Marvin. 2000b. Canada's population in the twentieth century. In Haines, and Steckel, (eds.), 529–599.
McLay, W. S. W. 1930. A note on Canadian English. American Speech 5/4: 328– 329.
McRae, Kenneth. 1998. Official bilingualism: From the 1960s to the 1990s. In Edwards, (ed.), 61–83.
Meechan, Marjory. 1998. I guess we have Mormon language: American English in a Canadian setting. Cahiers linguistiques d'Ottawa 26: 39–54.
Meechan, Marjory. 1999. The Mormon drawl: Religious ethnicity and phonological variation in southern Alberta. PhD dissertation, University of Ottawa.
Meechan, Marjory and Foley, Michele. 1994. On resolving disagreement: Linguistic theory and variation – “There's bridges.”Language Variation and Change 6/1: 63–85.
Meyer, Matthias L.G., ed. 2008. Focus on Canadian English. Anglistik 19/2.
Miller, Jeffrey. 1986. Street Talk: The Language of Coronation Street. Toronto: CBC Enterprises.
Miller, Roger. 1984. The response of business firms to the francization process. In Bourhis, (ed.), 114–129.
Mitchell, W. O. 1947. Who Has Seen the Wind. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1998.
Montgomery, Lucy Maud. 1908. Anne of Green Gables. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1992.
Moore, Christopher. 1984. The Loyalists: Revolution, Exile, Settlement. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada.
Moore, Margaret E. 1989. Understanding British English: Bridging the Gap Between the English Language and Its American Counterpart. New York: Citadel Press.
Morgan, Kenneth O. (ed). 1984. The Oxford History of Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Morrison, Val, Reimer, Bill and Shaver, Frances M.. 1991. English speakers in the Eastern Townships of Quebec. English World-Wide 12/1: 63–74.
Munro, Alice. 1996. Selected Stories. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1998.
Munroe, Helen C. 1929. Montreal English. American Speech 5/1: 21.
Murdoch, Margaret M. 2004. Are the traditional Canadian diphthongs on the move? In Wolf, Fee and McAlpine, (eds.), 221–228.
Nearey, Terrance Michael. 1978. Phonetic Feature Systems for Vowels. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club.
Niedzielski, Nancy. 1999. The effect of social information on the perception of sociolinguistic variables. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18/1: 62–85.
Noad, Algy Smillie. 1932. A Canadian Handbook of English. Toronto: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons (Canada).
Nylvek, Judith. 1993. A sociolinguistic analysis of Canadian English in Saskatchewan: A look at urban versus rural speakers. In Clarke, (ed.), 201–228.
Nylvek, Judith. 1992. Is Canadian English in Saskatchewan becoming more American? American Speech 67/3: 268–78.
Oakes, Leigh and Warren, Jane. 2007. Language, Citizenship and Identity in Quebec. Basingstoke, Hants: Palgrave Macmillan.
Orkin, Mark M. 1970. Speaking Canadian English: An Informal Account of the English Language in Canada. Toronto: General Publishing.
Orkin, Mark M. and Bickerstaff, [Don Evans]. 1997. Canajan, eh? (3rd rev. edn.) Toronto: Stoddart.
Owens, Thompson W. and Baker, Paul M.. 1984. Linguistic insecurity in Winnipeg: Validation of a Canadian Index of Insecurity. Language in Society 13/3: 337– 350.
Paddock, Harold J. 1981. A Dialect Survey of Carbonear, Newfoundland. Publications of the American Dialect Society 68. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
Paddock, Harold J. (ed.). 1982. Languages in Newfoundland and Labrador. St. John's, NL: Memorial University Press.
Paillé, Michel. 1985. Contribution à la démolinguistique du Québec. Quebec City: Conseil de la Langue Française.
Paillé, Michel. 1989. Nouvelles tendances démolinguistiques dans l'Île de Montréal 1981–1996. Quebec City: Conseil de la Langue Française.
Palmer, Howard. 1990. Alberta: A New History. Edmonton, AB: Hurtig Publishers.
Paradis, C. 1980. La règle de Canadian raising et l'analyse en structure syllabique. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 25: 35–45.
Parenteau, Philippe, Magnan, Marie-Odile and Thibault, Caroline V.. 2008. Portrait socio-économique de la communauté anglophone au Québec et dans ses régions. Montreal: Institut national de la recherche scientifique.
Parkin, Tom. 1989. Wet Coast Words: A Dictionary of British Columbia Words and Phrases. Victoria, BC: Orca Book Publishers.
Peterson, Gordon E. and Barney, Harold L.. 1952. Control methods used in a study of the vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 24: 175–184.
Picard, Marc. 1977. Canadian raising: The case against reordering. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 22: 144–55.
Piske, Thorsten. 2008. Italian-English bilinguals in Canada: Age and L1 use effects on their perception and production of L2 and L1 speech. Anglistik 19/2: 215–228
Poplack, Shana. 1978. Dialect acquisition among Puerto Rican bilinguals. Language in Society 7:89–103.
Poplack, Shana. 2008. French influence on Canadian English: Issues of code-switching and borrowing. Anglistik 19/2: 189–200.
Poplack, Shana and Tagliamonte, Sali. 1991. African American English in the diaspora: Evidence from old-line Nova Scotians. Language Variation and Change 3/3: 301–339. (Also in Clarke 1993a: 109–150.)
Poplack, Shana, Walker, James A. and Malcolmson, Rebecca. 2006. An English “like no other”? Language contact and change in Quebec. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51/2: 185–213.
Porter, Bernard H. 1966. Some Newfoundland phrases, sayings, and figures of speech. American Speech 41: 294–297.
Poteet, Lewis J. 1988. The South Shore Phrase Book. Hantsport, NS: Lancelot Press.
Poteet, Lewis J. 1992. Talking Country: The Eastern Townships Phrase Book. Ayers Cliff, QC: Pigwidgeon Press.
Pratley, Gerald. 2003. A Century of Canadian Cinema. Toronto: Lynx Images.
Pratt, T. K. (ed.). 1988. Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Pratt, T.K. 1993. The hobgoblin of Canadian English spelling. In Clarke, (ed.), 45–64.
Pratt, T. K. and Burke, Scott (eds.). 1998. Prince Edward Island Sayings. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Priestly, F. E. L. 1951. Canadian English. In Partridge, E. and Clark, J. W. (eds.), British and American English since 1900. New York: Greenwood Press, 72–79.
Pringle, Ian. 1983. The concept of dialect and the study of Canadian English. Queen's Quarterly 90: 100–21.
Pringle, Ian, Jones, C. Stanley and Padolsky, Enoch. 1981. The misapprehension of Ottawa standards in an adjacent rural area. English World-Wide 2/2: 165–180.
Pringle, Ian and Padolsky, Enoch. 1983. The linguistic survey of the Ottawa Valley. American Speech 58/4: 325–344.
Provost, Honorius. 1984. Les Premiers Anglo-Canadiens à Québec. Quebec City: Institut québécois de recherche sur la culture.
,Quebec Ministry of Education. 1992. Task Force on English-Language Education in Quebec: Report to the Minister of Education in Quebec [the Chambers Report].
Richards, D. J. 2004. The Survey of Vancouver English: Attitudes and awareness. In Wolf, Fee and McAlpine, (eds.), 178–199.
Richler, Mordecai. 1959. The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1983.
Roberts, Julie. 2007. Vermont lowering? Raising some questions about /ai/ and /au/ south of the Canadian border. Language Variation and Change 19/2: 181–197.
Rodman, Lilita. 1974. Characteristics of BC English. English Quarterly 7: 49–82.
Ross, Sinclair. 1941. As for Me and My House. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1982.
Rothney, G. O. 1973. Newfoundland: A History. Ottawa: The Canadian Historical Association.
Rudin, Ronald. 1985. The Forgotten Quebecers: A History of English-Speaking Quebec, 1759–1980. Quebec: Institut québécois de recherche sur la culture.
Sadlier-Brown, Emily and Tamminga, Meredith. 2008. The Canadian Shift: Coast to coast. In Jones, Susie (ed.), Proceedings of the 2008 Annual Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association, 1–14.
Sandilands, John (ed.). 1912. Western Canadian Dictionary and Phrase Book. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.
Scargill, Matthew Henry. 1954. A pilot study of Alberta speech: Vocabulary. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 1/1: 21–22.
Scargill, Matthew Henry. 1955. Canadian English and Canadian culture in Alberta. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 1/1 (Regular Series): 26–29.
Scargill, Matthew Henry. 1956. Eighteenth century English in Nova Scotia. Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association 2/1: 3.
Scargill, Matthew Henry. 1957. Sources of Canadian English. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 56: 610–614.
Scargill, Matthew Henry. 1974. Modern Canadian English Usage. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.
Scargill, Matthew Henry. 1977. A Short History of Canadian English. Victoria, BC: Sono Nis Press.
Scargill, Matthew Henry and Warkentyne, Henry J.. 1972. The Survey of Canadian English: a report. English Quarterly 5/3: 47–104.
Schur, Norman W. 1987. British English A to Zed. New York: Harper Perennial.
Scollon, Ronald and Scollon, Suzanne B. K.. 1979. Linguistic Convergence: An Ethnography of Speaking at Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. New York: Academic Press.
Scott, N. C. 1939. Canadian caught and cot. Maître Phonétique 66: 22.
Scowen, Reed. 1991. A Different Vision: The English in Quebec in the 1990s. Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan.
Shapiro, Michael. 1995. A case of distant assimilation: /str/ → /štr/. American Speech 70: 101–107.
Shapiro, Michael. 1997. Broad and flat A in marked words. American Speech 72/4: 437–439.
Shaw, Matthew. 2003. Great Scots!: How the Scots Created Canada. Winnipeg: Heartland Associates.
Siemund, Peter and Haselow, Alexander. 2008. Newfoundland English morpho-syntax: Universal aspects and trends. Anglistik 19/2: 201–213.
Staveley, Michael. 1977. Population dynamics in Newfoundland: The Regional patterns. In Mannion, (ed.), 49–76.
Stevenson, Garth. 1999. A Community Besieged: The Anglophone Minority and the Politics of Quebec. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Story, G. M. 1982. The dialects of Newfoundland English. In Paddock, (ed.), 62–70.
Story, G. M., Kirwin, W. J. and Widdowson, J. D. A. (eds.). 1990. Dictionary of Newfoundland English, Second Edition with Supplement. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Stroinska, Magda and Cecchetto, Vikki. 1999. Canada – the winter half of North America. In Ronowicz, Eddie and Yallop, Colin (eds.), English: One Language, Different Cultures. London: Cassell, 136–178.
Stuart-Smith, Jane. 2004. Scottish English: Phonology. In Kortmann, and Schneider, (eds.), 47–67.
Tagliamonte, Sali A. 2006. “So cool, right?”: Canadian English entering the 21st century. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51/2–3: 309–332.
Tagliamonte, Sali A. and D'Arcy, Alexandra. 2004. He's like, she's like: The quotative system in Canadian youth. Journal of Sociolinguistics 8/4: 493–514.
Tagliamonte, Sali A., and D'Arcy, Alexandra. 2007a. Frequency and variation in the community grammar: Tracking a new change through the generations. Language Variation and Change 19/2: 199–217.
Tagliamonte, Sali A., and D'Arcy, Alexandra. 2007b. The modals of obligation/necessity in Canadian perspective. English World-Wide 28/1: 47–87.
Tagliamonte, Sali A. and Hudson, Rachel. 1999. Be like et al. beyond America: the quotative system in British and Canadian youth. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3/2: 147–172.
Taylor, Donald M. and Dubé-Simard, Lise. 1984. Language planning and intergroup relations: Anglophone and francophone attitudes toward the Charter of the French Language. In Bourhis, (ed.), 130–147.
Termote, M. and Gauvreau, D.. 1988. La situation démolinguistique du Québec. Quebec City: Conseil de la Langue Française.
Thain, Chris. 1987. Cold as a Bay Street Banker's Heart: The Ultimate Prairie Phrase Book. Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books.
Thomas, Erik R. 1991. The origin of Canadian raising in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 36: 147–70.
Thomas, Erik R. 2001. An Acoustic Analysis of Vowel Variation in New World English. Publication of the American Dialect Society no. 85. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Toohey, Kelleen. 1985. English as a second language for Native Canadians. Canadian Journal of Education 10/3: 275–293.
Torgersen, Eivind, Kerswill, Paul and Fox, Sue. 2006. Ethnicity as a source of changes in the London vowel system. In Hinskens, Frans (ed.), Language Variation – European Perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 249–263.
Trivisonno, John. 1998. The Official St. Leonard Dictionary, Revised and Updated. Montreal: Chapter 11 Productions.
Trudgill, Peter. 1974. The Social Differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Trudgill, Peter. 1986. Dialects in Contact. Oxford: Blackwell.
Trudgill, Peter. 2004. New-Dialect Formation: The Inevitability of Colonial Englishes. New York: Oxford University Press.
Trudgill, Peter and Hannah, Jean. 1985. International English: A Guide to Standard Varieties of English, 2nd edn. London: Edward Arnold.
Underhill, Doug. 1996. Miramichi Dictionary. Rothesay, NB: Neptune Publishing Company.
Urquhart, M. C. and Buckley, K. A. H. (eds.) 1965. Historical Statistics of Canada. Toronto: Macmillan (Canada).
Vance, Timothy J. 1987. “Canadian Raising” in some dialects of the northern United States. American Speech 62: 195–210.
,Vancouver Public Library. 1999. Great Canadian Books of the Century. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre.
Veltman, Calvin. 1996. The English language in Quebec 1940–1990. In Fishman, Joshua A., Conrad, Andrew W. and Rubal-Lopez, Alma (eds.), Post-Imperial English: Status Change in Former British and American Colonies, 1940–1990. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 205–237.
Wallace, W. Stewart. 1964. The United Empire Loyalists: A Chronicle of the Great Migration. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Walker, Douglas C. 1975. Another Edmonton idiolect: Comments on an article by Professor Avis. In Chambers, (ed.), 129–132.
Walker, James A. 2001. Using the past to explain the present: Tense and temporal reference in Early African American English. Language Variation and Change 13/1: 1–35.
Walker, James A. 2005. The ain't constraint: Not-contraction in Early African American English. Language Variation and Change 17/1: 1–17.
Walker, James A. 2007. “There's bears back there”: Plural existentials and vernacular universals in Quebec English. English World-Wide 28/2: 147–166.
Warkentyne, Henry J. 1973. Contemporary Canadian English: A report of the Survey of Canadian English. American Speech 46/3–4: 193–199.
Warkentyne, Henry J. 1983. Attitudes and language behavior. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 28/1: 71–76.
Watson, Sheila. 1959. The Double Hook. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.
Wells, J. C. 1982. Accents of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wiebe, Armin. 1984. The Salvation of Yasch Siemens. Winnipeg: Turnstone Press.
Willis, Clodius. 1972. Perception of vowel phonemes in Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada, and Buffalo, New York: An application of synthetic vowel categorization tests to dialectology. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 15: 246–255.
Wölck, Wolfgang. 2002. Ethnolects – between bilingualism and urban dialect. In Wei, Li, Dewaele, Jean-Marc and Housen, Alex (eds.), Opportunities and Challenges of Bilingualism. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 157–170.
Woods, Howard B. 1991. Social differentiation in Ottawa English. In Cheshire, (ed.), 134–149.
Woods, Howard B. 1993. A synchronic study of English spoken in Ottawa: Is Canadian English becoming more American? In Clarke, (ed.), 151–178.
Woods, Howard B. 1999. The Ottawa Survey of Canadian English. Kingston, ON: Strathy Language Unit, Queen's University.
Wyld, Henry Cecil. 1925. A History of Modern Colloquial English, 3rd edn. Oxford: Blackwell.
Zelinsky, Wilbur. 1973. The Cultural Geography of the United States. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Zeller, Christine. 1993. Linguistic symmetries, asymmetries, and border effects within a Canadian/American sample. In Clarke, (ed.), 179–200.