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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: December 2014

Chapter 8 - Fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid gland

References

Introduction and statement on adequacy
Baloch ZW, Alexander EK, Gharib H, Raab SS. Overview of diagnostic terminology and reporting. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, et al. Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid 2009; 19(11): 1167–214.
Crothers BA, Henry MR, Firat P, Hamper UM. Nondiagnostic/unsatisfactory. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Jing X, Michael CW, Pu RT. The clinical and diagnostic impact of using standard criteria of adequacy assessment and diagnostic terminology on thyroid nodule fine needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 2008; 36(3): 161–6.
Oertel YC. Unsatisfactory (vs nondiagnostic) thyroidal aspirates: a semantic issue? Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34(2): 87–8.
Renshaw AA. Evidence-based criteria for adequacy in thyroid fine-needle aspiration. Am J Clin Pathol 2002; 118(4): 518–21.
Benign
Follicular nodule (colloid nodule/hyperplastic nodule/adenomatoid nodule)
Das DK, Khanna CM, Tripathi RP, et al. Solitary nodular goiter. Review of cytomorphologic features in 441 cases. Acta Cytol 1999; 43(4): 563–74.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Frost AR, Sidawy MK, Ferfelli M, et al. Utility of thin-layer preparations in thyroid fine-needle aspiration. Diagnostic accuracy, cytomorphology, and optimal sample preparation. Cancer 1998; 84: 17–25.
Grant CS, Hay ID, Gough IR, McCarthy PM, Goellner JR. Long-term follow-up of patients with benign thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytologic diagnoses. Surgery 1989; 106: 980–5.
Harach HR, Zusman SB, Saravia Day E. Nodular goiter: a histo-cytological study with some emphasis on pitfalls of fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 1992; 8(4): 409–19.
Kung IT, Yuen RW. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid. Distinction between colloid nodules and follicular neoplasms using cell blocks and 21-gauge needles. Acta Cytol 1989; 33(1): 53–60.
Layfield LJ, Wax T, Jones C. Cytologic distinction of goiterous nodules from morphologically normal thyroid: analyses of cytomorphologic features. Cancer 2003; 99(4): 217–22.
Suen KC. How does one separate cellular follicular lesions of the thyroid by fine-needle aspiration biopsy? Diagn Cytopathol 1988; 4: 78–81.
Chronic lymphocytic (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis
Carson HJ, Castelli MJ, Gattuso P. Incidence of neoplasia in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a fine-needle aspiration study. Diagn Cytopathol 1996; 14(1): 38–42.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Harvey AM, Truong LD, Mody DR. Diagnostic pitfalls of Hashimoto’s/lymphocytic thyroiditis on fine-needle aspirations and strategies to avoid overdiagnosis. Acta Cytol 2012; 56(4): 352–60.
Jayaram G, Marwaha RK, Gupta RK, Sharma SK. Cytomorphologic aspects of thyroiditis. A study of 51 cases with functional, immunologic and ultrasonographic data. Acta Cytol 1987; 31(6): 687–93.
Lerma E, Arguelles R, Rigla M, et al. Comparative findings of lymphocytic thyroiditis and thyroid lymphoma. Acta Cytol 2003; 47(4): 575–80.
Lui LH, Bakhos R, Wojcik EM. Concomitant papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Semin Diagn Pathol 2001: 18(2): 99–103.
MacDonald K, Yazdi HM. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Sources of diagnostic error. Acta Cytol 1999; 43(3): 400–6.
Nguygen GK, Ginsberg J, Crockford PM, Villanueva RR. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; cytodiagnostic accuracy and pitfalls. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 16(6): 531–6.
Poropatich C, Marcus D, Oertel YC. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a fine-needle aspiration of 50 asymptomatic cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1994; 11(2): 141–5.
Roh MH, Jo VY, Stelow EB, et al. The predictive value of the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis “suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type” in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Am J Clin Pathol 2011; 135: 139–45.
Acute thyroiditis
Battan R, Mariuz P, Raviglione MC, et al. Pneumocystis carinii infection of the thyroid in a hypothyroid patient with AIDS: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 72: 724–6.
Chi H, Lee YJ, Chiu NC, et al. Acute suppurative thyroiditis in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002; 21(5): 384–7.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Fukata S, Miyauchi A, Kuma K, Sugawara M. Acute suppurative thyroiditis caused by an infected piriform sinus fistula with thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid 2002; 12(2): 175–8.
Hopwood NJ, Kelch RP. Thyroid masses. Approach to diagnosis and management in childhood and adolescence. Pediatr Rev 1993; 14: 481–7.
Lin JD, Huang BY, Huang HS, Juang JH, Jeng LB. Ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration cytology of acute suppurative thyroiditis. Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi 1993; 16(2): 93–8.
Nishihara E, Miyauchi A, Matsuzuka F, et al. Acute suppurative thyroiditis after fine-needle aspiration causing thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid 2005; 15(10): 1183–7.
Shukla HS. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of acute suppurative thyroiditis. Ear Nose Throat J 1994; 73(6): 415–17.
Granulomatous (subacute or de Quervain’s) thyroiditis
Berger SA, Zonszein J, Villamena P, et al. Infectious diseases of the thyroid gland. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5: 108–22.
Chang TC, Lai SM, Wen CY, Hsiao YL. Three-dimensional cytomorphology in fine needle aspiration biopsy of subacute thyroiditis. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(2): 155–60.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Garcia Solano J, Gimenez Bascunana A, Sola Perez J, et al. Fine-needle aspiration of subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (de Quervain’s thyroiditis): a clinico-cytologic review of 36 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 16(3): 214–20.
Lu CP, Chang TC, Wang CY, Hsiao YL. Serial changes in ultrasound-guided needle aspiration cytology in subacute thyroiditis. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(2): 238–43.
Ofner C, Hittmair A, Kroll I, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytodiagnosis of subacute (de Quervain’s) thyroiditis in an endemic goitre area. Cytopathology 1994; 5(1): 33–40.
Shabb NS, Salti I. Subacute thyroiditis: fine-needle aspiration cytology of 14 cases presenting with thyroid nodules. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34(1): 18–23.
Shabb NS, Tawil A, Gergeos F, Saleh M, Azar S. Multinucleated giant cells in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: their diagnostic significance. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 21(5): 307–12.
Riedel’s thyroiditis
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Harigopal M, Sahoo S, Recant WM, DeMay RM. Fine-needle aspiration of Riedel’s disease: report of a case and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 30(3): 193–7.
Papi G, Corrado S, Carapezzi C, De Gaetani C, Carani C. Riedel’s thyroiditis and fibrous variant of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study. J Endocrinol Invest 2003; 26(5): 444–9.
Papi G, Corrado S, Cesinaro AM, et al. Riedel’s thyroiditis: clinical, pathological and imaging features. Int J Clin Pract 2002; 56(1): 65–7.
Pusztaszeri M, Triponez F, Pache JC, Bongiovanni M. Riedel’s thyroiditis with increased IgG4 plasma cells: evidence for an underlying IgG4-related sclerosing disease? Thyroid 2012; 22(9): 964–8.
Yasmeen T, Khan S, Patel SG, et al. Clinical case seminar: Riedel’s thyroiditis: report of a case complicated by spontaneous hypoparathyroidism, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, and Horner’s syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87(8): 3543–7.
Graves’ disease
Anderson SR, Mandel S, LiVolsi VA, Gupta PK, Baloch ZW. Can cytomorphology differentiate between benign nodules and tumors arising in Graves’ disease? Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31(1): 64–7.
Cantalamessa L, Baldini M, Orsatti A, et al. Thyroid nodules in Graves disease and the risk of thyroid carcinoma. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159(15): 1705–8.
Carnell NE, Valente WA. Thyroid nodules in Graves’ disease: classification, characterization, and response to treatment. Thyroid 1998; 8(7): 571–6.
Centeno BA, Szyfelbein WM, Daniels GH, Vickery AL. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland in patients with prior Graves’ disease treated with radioactive iodine: morphologic findings and potential pitfalls. Acta Cytol 1996; 40: 1189–97.
Das DK. Marginal vacuoles (fire-flare appearance) in fine needle aspiration smears of thyroid lesions: does it represent diffusing out of thyroid hormones at the base of follicular cells? Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34(4): 277–83.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Jayaram G, Singh B, Marwaha RK. Grave’s disease. Appearance in cytologic smears from fine needle aspirates of the thyroid gland. Acta Cytol 1989; 33(1): 36–40.
Liel Y, Zirkin HJ, Sobel RJ. Fine needle aspiration of the hot thyroid nodule. Acta Cytol 1988; 32(6): 866–7.
Sahin M, Guvener ND, Ozer F, et al. Thyroid cancer in hyperthyroidism: incidence rates and value of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in this patient group. J Endocrinol Invest 2005; 28(9): 815–18.
Slowinska-Klencka D, Klencki M, Sporny S, Popowicz B, Lewinski A. Cytologic appearance of toxic nodular goiter after thyrostatic treatment. A karyometric study. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 2003; 25(1): 39–46.
Wang CY, Chang TJ, Chang TC, et al. Thyroidectomy or radioiodine? The value of ultrasonography and cytology in the assessment of nodular lesions in Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Am Surg 2001; 67(8): 721–6.
Amyloid goiter
Cibas ES. Thyroid. In Cibas ES, Ducatman BS, eds. Cytology: Diagnostic Principles and Clinical Correlates. 3rd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier, 2009.
Lucas A, Sanmarti A, Salinas I, Llatjos M, Foz M. Amyloid goiter. Diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid. J Endocrinol Invest 1989; 12(1): 43–6.
Nijhawan VS, Marwaha RK, Sahoo M, Ravishankar L. Fine needle aspiration cytology of amyloid goiter. A report of four cases. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(3): 830–4.
Atypia of undetermined significance (AUS)/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS)
Alexander EK, Kennedy GC, Baloch ZW, et al. Preoperative diagnosis of benign thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. N Engl J Med 2012; 367(8): 705–15.
Bongiovanni M, Krane JF, Cibas ES, Faquin WC. The atypical thyroid fine-needle aspiration: past, present, and future. Cancer Cytopathol 2012; 120(2): 73–86.
Chen JC, Pace SC, Chen BA, et al. Yield of repeat fine-needle aspiration biopsy and rate of malignancy in patients with atypia or follicular lesion of undetermined significance: the impact of the Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology. Surgery 2012; 152(6): 1037–44.
Duick DS, Klopper J, Diggans JC, et al. The impact of benign gene expression classifier test results on the endocrinologist–patient decision to operate on patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate FNA cytopathology. Thyroid 2012; 22(10): 996–1001.
Hodak SP, Rosenthal DS, American Thyroid Association Clinical Affairs Committee. Information for clinicians: commercially available molecular diagnosis testing in the evaluation of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration specimens. Thyroid 2013; 23(2): 131–4.
Krane J, Nayar R, Renshaw A. Atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 37–49.
Nayar R, Ivanovic M. The indeterminate thyroid FNA: experience from an academic center using terminology similar to that proposed in the 2007 NCI thyroid reporting guidelines. Cancer Cytopathol 2009; 117(3): 195–202.
Nikiforov YE, Ohori NP, Hodak SP, et al. Impact of mutational testing on the diagnosis and management of patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules: a prospective analysis of 1056 FNA samples. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96(11): 3390–7.
Renshaw AA. Subclassification of atypical cells of undetermined significance in direct smears of fine-needle aspirations of the thyroid: distinct patterns and associated risk of malignancy. Cancer Cytopathol 2011; 119(5): 322–7.
Shi Y, Ding X, Klein M, et al. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration with atypia of undetermined significance: a necessary or optional category? Cancer 2009; 117(5): 298–304.
Neoplasm
Follicular neoplasm
Baloch ZW, Fleisher S, LiVolsi VA, Gupta PK. Diagnosis of “follicular neoplasm”: a gray zone in thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 26(1): 41–4.
Barbaro D, Simi U, Lopane P, et al. Thyroid nodules with microfollicular findings reported on fine-needle aspiration: invariably surgical treatment? Endocr Pract 2001; 7(5): 352–7.
Deandrea M, Ragazzoni F, Motta M, et al. Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation. Thyroid 2010; 20(10): 1077–83.
Ersoz C, Firat P, Uguz A, Kuzey GM. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of solitary thyroid nodules: how far can we go in rendering differential cytologic diagnoses? Cancer 2004; 102(5): 302–7.
Giorgadze T, Rossi ED, Fadda G, et al. Does the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of “Hürthle-cell neoplasm/follicular neoplasm with oncocytic features” denote increased risk of malignancy? Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31(5): 307–12.
Greaves TS, Olvera M, Florentine BD, et al. Follicular lesions of thyroid: a 5-year fine-needle aspiration experience. Cancer 2000; 90(6): 335–41.
Henry MR, DeMay RM, Berezowski K. Follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 51–58.
Sidawy MK, Del Vecchio DM, Knoll SM. Fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: correlation between cytology and histology and evaluation of discrepant cases. Cancer 1997; 81(4): 253–9.
Tulecke MA, Wang HH. ThinPrep for cytologic evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions: correlation with histologic findings. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 30(1): 7–13.
Zeppa P, Benincasa G, Lucariello A, Palombini L. Association of different pathologic processes of the thyroid gland in fine needle aspiration samples. Acta Cytol 2001; 45(3): 347–52.
Hürthle cell neoplasm
Alaedeen DI, Khiyami A, McHenry CR. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimen with a predominance of Hürthle cells: a dilemma in the management of nodular thyroid disease. Surgery 2005; 138(4): 650–6; discussion 656–7.
Blumenfeld W, Nair R, Mir R. Diagnostic significance of papillary structures and intranuclear inclusions in Hürthle-cell neoplasms of the thyroid. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20(4): 185–9.
Elliott DD, Pitman MB, Bloom L, Faquin WC. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of Hürthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland: a cytomorphologic study of 139 cases with statistical analysis. Cancer 2006; 108(2): 102–9.
Faquin WC, Michael CW, Renshaw AA, Vielh P. Follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 59–74.
Giorgadze T, Rossi ED, Fadda G, et al. Does the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of “Hürthle-cell neoplasm/follicular neoplasm with oncocytic features” denote increased risk of malignancy? Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31(5): 307–12.
Gonzalez JL, Wang HH, Ducatman BS. Fine-needle aspiration of Hürthle cell lesions. A cytomorphologic approach to diagnosis. Am J Clin Pathol 1993; 100(3): 231–5.
Kini SR, Miller JM, Hamburger JI. Cytopathology of Hürthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland by fine needle aspiration. Acta Cytol 1981; 25(6): 647–52.
Nguyen GK, Husain M, Akin MR. Cytodiagnosis of benign and malignant Hürthle cell lesions of the thyroid by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20(5): 261–5.
Renshaw AA. Hürthle cell carcinoma is a better gold standard than Hürthle cell neoplasm for fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid: defining more consistent and specific cytologic criteria. Cancer 2002; 96(5): 261–6.
Roh MH, Jo VY, Stelow EB, et al. The predictive value of the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis “suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type” in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Am J Clin Pathol 2011; 135(1): 139–45.
Yang YJ, Khurana KK. Diagnostic utility of intracytoplasmic lumen and transgressing vessels in evaluation of Hürthle cell lesions by fine-needle aspiration. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001; 125(8): 1031–5.
Suspicious for malignancy
Castro-Gomez L, Cordova-Ramirez S, Duarte-Torres R, Alonso de Ruiz P, Hurtado-Lopez LM. Cytologic criteria of cystic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Acta Cytol 2003; 47(4): 590–4.
Chhieng DC, Cohen JM, Cangiarella JF. Cytology and immunophenotyping of low- and intermediate-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas with a predominant small-cell component: a study of 56 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 24(2): 90–7.
Cibas ES, Ali SZ. NCI Thyroid FNA State of the Science Conference. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology. Am J Clin Pathol 2009; 132(5): 658–65.
Faquin WC, Cibas ES, Renshaw AA. “Atypical” cells in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens of benign thyroid cysts. Cancer 2005; 105(2): 71–9.
Granter SR, Cibas ES. Cytologic findings in thyroid nodules after 131iodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. Am J Clin Pathol 1997; 107: 20–5.
Hodak SP, Rosenthal DS, American Thyroid Association Clinical Affairs Committee. Information for clinicians: commercially available molecular diagnosis testing in the evaluation of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration specimens. Thyroid 2013; 23(2): 131–4.
Lerma E, Arguelles R, Rigla M, et al. Comparative findings of lymphocytic thyroiditis and thyroid lymphoma. Acta Cytol 2003; 47(4): 575–80.
Mahajan A, Lin X, Nayar R. Thyroid Bethesda reporting category, ‘suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma’, pitfalls and clues to optimize the use of this category. Cytopathology 2013; 24(2): 85–91.
Renshaw AA. “Histiocytoid” cells in fine-needle aspirations of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: frequency and significance of an under-recognized cytologic pattern. Cancer 2002; 96(4): 240–3.
Wang HH, Filie AC, Clark DP, Powers CN. Suspicious for malignancy. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 75–90.
Weber D, Brainard J, Chen L. Atypical epithelial cells, cannot exclude papillary carcinoma, in fine needle aspiration of the thyroid. Acta Cytol 2008; 52(3): 320–4.
Zhang Y, Fraser JL, Wang HH. Morphologic predictors of papillary carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid with ThinPrep preparations. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 24(6): 378–83.
Malignant
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)
Auger M, Stelow EB, Yang GCH, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma and variants. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 91–116.
Brandwein-Gensler M, Urken M, Wang B. Collision tumor of the thyroid: a case report of metastatic liposarcoma plus papillary thyroid carcinoma. Head Neck 2004; 26(7): 637–41.
Chuah KL, Hwang JS, Ng SB, et al. Cytologic features of cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: a case report. Acta Cytol 2005; 49(1): 75–80.
Das DK, Mallik MK, Sharma P, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma and its variants in fine needle aspiration smears. A cytomorphologic study with special reference to tall cell variant. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(3): 325–36.
Das DK, Sharma PN. Diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine needle aspiration smears: factors that affect decision making. Acta Cytol 2009; 53(5): 497–506.
Khurana KK, Truong LD, LiVolsi VA, Baloch ZW. Cytokeratin 19 immunolocalization in cell block preparation of thyroid aspirates. An adjunct to fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003; 127(5): 579–83.
Mesonero CE, Jugle JE, Wilbur DC, Nayar R. Fine-needle aspiration of the macrofollicular and microfollicular subtypes of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Cancer 1998; 84(4): 235–44.
Moreira AL, Waisman J, Cangiarella JF. Aspiration cytology of the oncocytic variant of papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(2): 137–41.
Ohori NP, Schoedel KE. Cytopathology of high-grade papillary thyroid carcinomas: tall-cell variant, diffuse sclerosing variant, and poorly differentiated papillary carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20(1): 19–23.
Solomon A, Gupta P. Baloch Z, LiVolsi V. Distinguishing tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma from usual variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in cytologic specimens. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27(3): 143–8.
Wu HH, Jones JN, Grzybicki DM, Elsheikh TM. Sensitive cytologic criteria for the identification of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 2003; 29(5): 262–6.
Ylagan LR, Dehner LP, Huettner PC, Lu D. Columnar cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Report of a case with cytologic findings. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(1): 73–7.
Medullary carcinoma
Aulicino MR, Szporn AH, Dembitzer R, et al. Cytologic findings in the differential diagnosis of C-cell hyperplasia and medullary carcinoma by fine needle aspiration. A case report. Acta Cytol 1998; 42(4): 963–7.
Cakir M, Altunbas H, Balci MK, Karayalcin U, Karpuzoglu G. Medullary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant. Endocr Pathol 2002; 13(1): 75–9.
Dedivitis RA, Di Giovanni JH, Silva GF, Marinho LC, Guimaraes AV. [Oncocytic variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma: case report]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2004; 48(2): 315–17.
Duskova J, Janotova D, Svobodova E, Novak Z, Tretinik P. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma. A report of two cases. Acta Cytol 2003; 47(1): 71–7.
Dustin SM, Jo VY, Hanley KZ, Stelow EB. High sensitivity and positive predictive value of fine-needle aspiration for uncommon thyroid malignancies. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40(5): 416–21.
Forrest CH, Frost FA, de Boer WB, et al. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: accuracy of diagnosis of fine-needle aspiration cytology. Cancer 1998; 84(5): 295–302.
Ibarrola de Andres C, Castellano Megias VM, Ballestin Carcavilla C, et al. Hepatic metastases from the spindle cell variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma: report of a case with diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 2001; 45(6): 1022–6.
Kakudo K, Miyauchi A, Ogihara T, et al. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Giant cell type. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1978; 102(9): 445–7.
Kini SR, Miller JM, Hamburger JI, et al. Cytopathologic features of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Arch Pathol Med 1984; 108: 156–9.
Pigman MB, Oertel YC, Geisinger KR. Medullary thyroid carcinoma. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 117–28.
Trimboli P, Rossi F, Baldelli R, et al. Measuring calcitonin in washout of the needle in patients undergoing fine needle aspiration with suspicious medullary thyroid cancer. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40(5): 394–8.
Poorly differentiated carcinoma (insular/trabecular/solid carcinoma)
Bongiovanni M, Faquin WC. Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 129–138.
Cibas ES, Ali SZ, NCI Thyroid FNA State of the Science Conference. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology. Am J Clin Pathol 2009; 132(5): 658–65.
Guiter GE, Auger M, Ali SZ, Allen EA, Zakowski MF. Cytopathology of insular carcinoma of the thyroid. Cancer 1999; 87(4): 196–202.
Kuhel WI, Kutler DI, Santos-Buch CA. Poorly differentiated insular thyroid carcinoma. A case report with identification of intact insulae with fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 1998; 42(4): 991–7.
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Pietribiasi F, Sapino A, Papotti M, Bussolati G. Cytologic features of poorly differentiated ‘insular’ carcinoma of the thyroid, as revealed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Am J Clin Pathol 1990; 94(6): 687–92.
Sironi M, Collini P, Cantaboni A. Fine needle aspiration cytology of insular thyroid carcinoma. A report of four cases. Acta Cytol 1992; 36(3): 435–9.
Anaplastic carcinoma
Bauman ME, Tao LC. Cytopathology of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with anaplastic transformation. A case report. Acta Cytol 1995; 39(3): 525–9.
Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Febles-Perez C, Sobrinho-Simoes M. Cytologic features of fine needle aspirates of papillary and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid with anaplastic transformation. A case report. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(4): 1356–60.
Dustin SM, Jo VY, Hanley KZ, Stelow EB. High sensitivity and positive predictive value of fine-needle aspiration for uncommon thyroid malignancies. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40(5): 416–21.
Fortson JK, Durden FL Jr, Patel V, Darkeh A. The coexistence of anaplastic and papillary carcinomas of the thyroid: a case presentation and literature review. Am Surg 2004; 70(12): 1116–19.
Guarda LA, Peterson CE, Hall W, Baskin HJ. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: cytomorphology and clinical implications of fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 1991; 7(1): 63–7.
Kumar PV, Torabinejad S, Omrani GH. Osteoclastoma-like anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Report of two cases. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(4): 1345–8.
Luze T, Totsch M, Bangerl I, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytodiagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma and malignant haemangioendothelioma of the thyroid in an endemic goitre area. Cytopathology 1990; 1(5): 305–10.
Mai DD, Mai KT, Shamji FM. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma developing from a Hürthle cell tumor: a case report. Acta Cytol 2001; 45(5): 761–4.
Saunders CA, Nayar R. Anaplastic spindle-cell squamous carcinoma arising in association with tall-cell papillary cancer of the thyroid: a potential pitfall. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 21(6): 413–18.
Staerkel GA, Ljung BE, Shidham V, Frable WJ, Rosai J. Undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 139–52.
Malignant lymphoma
Al-Marzooq YM, Chopra R, Younis M, et al. Thyroid low-grade B-cell lymphoma (MALT type) with extreme plasmacytic differentiation: report of a case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration and flow cytometric study. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31(1): 52–6.
Cha C, Chen H, Westra WH, Udelsman R. Primary thyroid lymphoma: can the diagnosis be made solely by fine-needle aspiration? Ann Surg Oncol 2002; 9(3): 298–302.
Das DK, Gupta SK, Francis IM, Ahmed MS. Fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of thyroid: a report of four cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1993; 9(6): 639–45.
Dustin SM, Jo VY, Hanley KZ, Stelow EB. High sensitivity and positive predictive value of fine-needle aspiration for uncommon thyroid malignancies. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40(5): 416–21.
Gupta N, Nijhawan R, Srinivasan R, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of primary thyroid lymphoma: a report of ten cases. Cytojournal 2005; 2: 21.
Layfield LJ, Waisman J, Atkins KA. Metastatic tumors and lymphomas. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 153–66.
Lu JY, Lin CW, Chang TC, Chen YC. Diagnostic pitfalls of fine-needle aspiration cytology and prognostic impact of chemotherapy in thyroid lymphoma. J Formos Med Assoc 2001; 100(8): 519–25.
Matsuzuka F, Miyauchi A, Katayama S, et al. Clinical aspects of primary thyroid lymphoma: diagnosis and treatment based on our experience of 119 cases. Thyroid 1993; 3(2): 93–9.
Morgen EK, Geddie W, Boerner S, Bailey D, Santos Gda C. The role of fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of thyroid lymphoma: a retrospective study of nine cases and review of published series. J Clin Pathol 2010; 63(2): 129–33.
Sangalli G, Serio G, Zampatti C, Lomuscio G, Colombo L. Fine needle aspiration cytology of primary lymphoma of the thyroid: a report of 17 cases. Cytopathology 2001; 12(4): 257–63.
Metastatic tumors
Bozbora A, Barbaros U, Kaya H, et al. Thyroid metastasis of malignant melanoma. Am J Clin Oncol 2005; 28(6): 642–3.
Hanna WC, Ponsky TA, Trachiotis GD, Knoll SM. Colon cancer metastatic to the lung and the thyroid gland. Arch Surg 2006; 141(1): 93–6.
Kihara M, Yokomise H, Yamauchi A. Metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland 19 years after nephrectomy: a case report. Auris Nasus Larynx 2004; 31(1): 95–100.
Layfield LJ, Waisman J, Atkins KA. Metastatic tumors and lymphomas. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 153–66.
Loo CK, Burchett IJ. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of neuroendocrine breast carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid. A case report. Acta Cytol 2003; 47(1): 83–7.
Maly A, Meir K, Maly B. Isolated carcinoid tumor metastatic to the thyroid gland: report of a case initially diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol 2006; 50(1): 84–7.
Michelow PM, Leiman G. Metastases to the thyroid gland: diagnosis by aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 1995; 13(3): 209–13.
Nenkov R, Radev R, Hristosov K, et al. Locally advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma with coexistent metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma in the thyroid gland and parathyroid adenoma. Thyroid 2005; 15(12): 1415–16.
Owens CL, Basaria S, Nicol TL. Metastatic breast carcinoma involving the thyroid gland diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(2): 110–15.

Introduction and statement on adequacy

Baloch ZW, Alexander EK, Gharib H, Raab SS. Overview of diagnostic terminology and reporting. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, et al. Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid 2009; 19(11): 1167–214.
Crothers BA, Henry MR, Firat P, Hamper UM. Nondiagnostic/unsatisfactory. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Jing X, Michael CW, Pu RT. The clinical and diagnostic impact of using standard criteria of adequacy assessment and diagnostic terminology on thyroid nodule fine needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 2008; 36(3): 161–6.
Oertel YC. Unsatisfactory (vs nondiagnostic) thyroidal aspirates: a semantic issue? Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34(2): 87–8.
Renshaw AA. Evidence-based criteria for adequacy in thyroid fine-needle aspiration. Am J Clin Pathol 2002; 118(4): 518–21.

Benign

Follicular nodule (colloid nodule/hyperplastic nodule/adenomatoid nodule)
Das DK, Khanna CM, Tripathi RP, et al. Solitary nodular goiter. Review of cytomorphologic features in 441 cases. Acta Cytol 1999; 43(4): 563–74.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Frost AR, Sidawy MK, Ferfelli M, et al. Utility of thin-layer preparations in thyroid fine-needle aspiration. Diagnostic accuracy, cytomorphology, and optimal sample preparation. Cancer 1998; 84: 17–25.
Grant CS, Hay ID, Gough IR, McCarthy PM, Goellner JR. Long-term follow-up of patients with benign thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytologic diagnoses. Surgery 1989; 106: 980–5.
Harach HR, Zusman SB, Saravia Day E. Nodular goiter: a histo-cytological study with some emphasis on pitfalls of fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 1992; 8(4): 409–19.
Kung IT, Yuen RW. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid. Distinction between colloid nodules and follicular neoplasms using cell blocks and 21-gauge needles. Acta Cytol 1989; 33(1): 53–60.
Layfield LJ, Wax T, Jones C. Cytologic distinction of goiterous nodules from morphologically normal thyroid: analyses of cytomorphologic features. Cancer 2003; 99(4): 217–22.
Suen KC. How does one separate cellular follicular lesions of the thyroid by fine-needle aspiration biopsy? Diagn Cytopathol 1988; 4: 78–81.
Chronic lymphocytic (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis
Carson HJ, Castelli MJ, Gattuso P. Incidence of neoplasia in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a fine-needle aspiration study. Diagn Cytopathol 1996; 14(1): 38–42.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Harvey AM, Truong LD, Mody DR. Diagnostic pitfalls of Hashimoto’s/lymphocytic thyroiditis on fine-needle aspirations and strategies to avoid overdiagnosis. Acta Cytol 2012; 56(4): 352–60.
Jayaram G, Marwaha RK, Gupta RK, Sharma SK. Cytomorphologic aspects of thyroiditis. A study of 51 cases with functional, immunologic and ultrasonographic data. Acta Cytol 1987; 31(6): 687–93.
Lerma E, Arguelles R, Rigla M, et al. Comparative findings of lymphocytic thyroiditis and thyroid lymphoma. Acta Cytol 2003; 47(4): 575–80.
Lui LH, Bakhos R, Wojcik EM. Concomitant papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Semin Diagn Pathol 2001: 18(2): 99–103.
MacDonald K, Yazdi HM. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Sources of diagnostic error. Acta Cytol 1999; 43(3): 400–6.
Nguygen GK, Ginsberg J, Crockford PM, Villanueva RR. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; cytodiagnostic accuracy and pitfalls. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 16(6): 531–6.
Poropatich C, Marcus D, Oertel YC. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a fine-needle aspiration of 50 asymptomatic cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1994; 11(2): 141–5.
Roh MH, Jo VY, Stelow EB, et al. The predictive value of the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis “suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type” in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Am J Clin Pathol 2011; 135: 139–45.
Acute thyroiditis
Battan R, Mariuz P, Raviglione MC, et al. Pneumocystis carinii infection of the thyroid in a hypothyroid patient with AIDS: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 72: 724–6.
Chi H, Lee YJ, Chiu NC, et al. Acute suppurative thyroiditis in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002; 21(5): 384–7.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Fukata S, Miyauchi A, Kuma K, Sugawara M. Acute suppurative thyroiditis caused by an infected piriform sinus fistula with thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid 2002; 12(2): 175–8.
Hopwood NJ, Kelch RP. Thyroid masses. Approach to diagnosis and management in childhood and adolescence. Pediatr Rev 1993; 14: 481–7.
Lin JD, Huang BY, Huang HS, Juang JH, Jeng LB. Ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration cytology of acute suppurative thyroiditis. Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi 1993; 16(2): 93–8.
Nishihara E, Miyauchi A, Matsuzuka F, et al. Acute suppurative thyroiditis after fine-needle aspiration causing thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid 2005; 15(10): 1183–7.
Shukla HS. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of acute suppurative thyroiditis. Ear Nose Throat J 1994; 73(6): 415–17.
Granulomatous (subacute or de Quervain’s) thyroiditis
Berger SA, Zonszein J, Villamena P, et al. Infectious diseases of the thyroid gland. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5: 108–22.
Chang TC, Lai SM, Wen CY, Hsiao YL. Three-dimensional cytomorphology in fine needle aspiration biopsy of subacute thyroiditis. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(2): 155–60.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Garcia Solano J, Gimenez Bascunana A, Sola Perez J, et al. Fine-needle aspiration of subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (de Quervain’s thyroiditis): a clinico-cytologic review of 36 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 16(3): 214–20.
Lu CP, Chang TC, Wang CY, Hsiao YL. Serial changes in ultrasound-guided needle aspiration cytology in subacute thyroiditis. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(2): 238–43.
Ofner C, Hittmair A, Kroll I, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytodiagnosis of subacute (de Quervain’s) thyroiditis in an endemic goitre area. Cytopathology 1994; 5(1): 33–40.
Shabb NS, Salti I. Subacute thyroiditis: fine-needle aspiration cytology of 14 cases presenting with thyroid nodules. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34(1): 18–23.
Shabb NS, Tawil A, Gergeos F, Saleh M, Azar S. Multinucleated giant cells in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: their diagnostic significance. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 21(5): 307–12.
Riedel’s thyroiditis
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Harigopal M, Sahoo S, Recant WM, DeMay RM. Fine-needle aspiration of Riedel’s disease: report of a case and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 30(3): 193–7.
Papi G, Corrado S, Carapezzi C, De Gaetani C, Carani C. Riedel’s thyroiditis and fibrous variant of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study. J Endocrinol Invest 2003; 26(5): 444–9.
Papi G, Corrado S, Cesinaro AM, et al. Riedel’s thyroiditis: clinical, pathological and imaging features. Int J Clin Pract 2002; 56(1): 65–7.
Pusztaszeri M, Triponez F, Pache JC, Bongiovanni M. Riedel’s thyroiditis with increased IgG4 plasma cells: evidence for an underlying IgG4-related sclerosing disease? Thyroid 2012; 22(9): 964–8.
Yasmeen T, Khan S, Patel SG, et al. Clinical case seminar: Riedel’s thyroiditis: report of a case complicated by spontaneous hypoparathyroidism, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, and Horner’s syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87(8): 3543–7.
Graves’ disease
Anderson SR, Mandel S, LiVolsi VA, Gupta PK, Baloch ZW. Can cytomorphology differentiate between benign nodules and tumors arising in Graves’ disease? Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31(1): 64–7.
Cantalamessa L, Baldini M, Orsatti A, et al. Thyroid nodules in Graves disease and the risk of thyroid carcinoma. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159(15): 1705–8.
Carnell NE, Valente WA. Thyroid nodules in Graves’ disease: classification, characterization, and response to treatment. Thyroid 1998; 8(7): 571–6.
Centeno BA, Szyfelbein WM, Daniels GH, Vickery AL. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland in patients with prior Graves’ disease treated with radioactive iodine: morphologic findings and potential pitfalls. Acta Cytol 1996; 40: 1189–97.
Das DK. Marginal vacuoles (fire-flare appearance) in fine needle aspiration smears of thyroid lesions: does it represent diffusing out of thyroid hormones at the base of follicular cells? Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34(4): 277–83.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Jayaram G, Singh B, Marwaha RK. Grave’s disease. Appearance in cytologic smears from fine needle aspirates of the thyroid gland. Acta Cytol 1989; 33(1): 36–40.
Liel Y, Zirkin HJ, Sobel RJ. Fine needle aspiration of the hot thyroid nodule. Acta Cytol 1988; 32(6): 866–7.
Sahin M, Guvener ND, Ozer F, et al. Thyroid cancer in hyperthyroidism: incidence rates and value of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in this patient group. J Endocrinol Invest 2005; 28(9): 815–18.
Slowinska-Klencka D, Klencki M, Sporny S, Popowicz B, Lewinski A. Cytologic appearance of toxic nodular goiter after thyrostatic treatment. A karyometric study. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 2003; 25(1): 39–46.
Wang CY, Chang TJ, Chang TC, et al. Thyroidectomy or radioiodine? The value of ultrasonography and cytology in the assessment of nodular lesions in Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Am Surg 2001; 67(8): 721–6.
Amyloid goiter
Cibas ES. Thyroid. In Cibas ES, Ducatman BS, eds. Cytology: Diagnostic Principles and Clinical Correlates. 3rd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier, 2009.
Lucas A, Sanmarti A, Salinas I, Llatjos M, Foz M. Amyloid goiter. Diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid. J Endocrinol Invest 1989; 12(1): 43–6.
Nijhawan VS, Marwaha RK, Sahoo M, Ravishankar L. Fine needle aspiration cytology of amyloid goiter. A report of four cases. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(3): 830–4.

Follicular nodule (colloid nodule/hyperplastic nodule/adenomatoid nodule)

Das DK, Khanna CM, Tripathi RP, et al. Solitary nodular goiter. Review of cytomorphologic features in 441 cases. Acta Cytol 1999; 43(4): 563–74.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Frost AR, Sidawy MK, Ferfelli M, et al. Utility of thin-layer preparations in thyroid fine-needle aspiration. Diagnostic accuracy, cytomorphology, and optimal sample preparation. Cancer 1998; 84: 17–25.
Grant CS, Hay ID, Gough IR, McCarthy PM, Goellner JR. Long-term follow-up of patients with benign thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytologic diagnoses. Surgery 1989; 106: 980–5.
Harach HR, Zusman SB, Saravia Day E. Nodular goiter: a histo-cytological study with some emphasis on pitfalls of fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 1992; 8(4): 409–19.
Kung IT, Yuen RW. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid. Distinction between colloid nodules and follicular neoplasms using cell blocks and 21-gauge needles. Acta Cytol 1989; 33(1): 53–60.
Layfield LJ, Wax T, Jones C. Cytologic distinction of goiterous nodules from morphologically normal thyroid: analyses of cytomorphologic features. Cancer 2003; 99(4): 217–22.
Suen KC. How does one separate cellular follicular lesions of the thyroid by fine-needle aspiration biopsy? Diagn Cytopathol 1988; 4: 78–81.

Chronic lymphocytic (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis

Carson HJ, Castelli MJ, Gattuso P. Incidence of neoplasia in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a fine-needle aspiration study. Diagn Cytopathol 1996; 14(1): 38–42.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Harvey AM, Truong LD, Mody DR. Diagnostic pitfalls of Hashimoto’s/lymphocytic thyroiditis on fine-needle aspirations and strategies to avoid overdiagnosis. Acta Cytol 2012; 56(4): 352–60.
Jayaram G, Marwaha RK, Gupta RK, Sharma SK. Cytomorphologic aspects of thyroiditis. A study of 51 cases with functional, immunologic and ultrasonographic data. Acta Cytol 1987; 31(6): 687–93.
Lerma E, Arguelles R, Rigla M, et al. Comparative findings of lymphocytic thyroiditis and thyroid lymphoma. Acta Cytol 2003; 47(4): 575–80.
Lui LH, Bakhos R, Wojcik EM. Concomitant papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Semin Diagn Pathol 2001: 18(2): 99–103.
MacDonald K, Yazdi HM. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Sources of diagnostic error. Acta Cytol 1999; 43(3): 400–6.
Nguygen GK, Ginsberg J, Crockford PM, Villanueva RR. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; cytodiagnostic accuracy and pitfalls. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 16(6): 531–6.
Poropatich C, Marcus D, Oertel YC. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a fine-needle aspiration of 50 asymptomatic cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1994; 11(2): 141–5.
Roh MH, Jo VY, Stelow EB, et al. The predictive value of the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis “suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type” in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Am J Clin Pathol 2011; 135: 139–45.

Acute thyroiditis

Battan R, Mariuz P, Raviglione MC, et al. Pneumocystis carinii infection of the thyroid in a hypothyroid patient with AIDS: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 72: 724–6.
Chi H, Lee YJ, Chiu NC, et al. Acute suppurative thyroiditis in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002; 21(5): 384–7.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Fukata S, Miyauchi A, Kuma K, Sugawara M. Acute suppurative thyroiditis caused by an infected piriform sinus fistula with thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid 2002; 12(2): 175–8.
Hopwood NJ, Kelch RP. Thyroid masses. Approach to diagnosis and management in childhood and adolescence. Pediatr Rev 1993; 14: 481–7.
Lin JD, Huang BY, Huang HS, Juang JH, Jeng LB. Ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration cytology of acute suppurative thyroiditis. Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi 1993; 16(2): 93–8.
Nishihara E, Miyauchi A, Matsuzuka F, et al. Acute suppurative thyroiditis after fine-needle aspiration causing thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid 2005; 15(10): 1183–7.
Shukla HS. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of acute suppurative thyroiditis. Ear Nose Throat J 1994; 73(6): 415–17.

Granulomatous (subacute or de Quervain’s) thyroiditis

Berger SA, Zonszein J, Villamena P, et al. Infectious diseases of the thyroid gland. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5: 108–22.
Chang TC, Lai SM, Wen CY, Hsiao YL. Three-dimensional cytomorphology in fine needle aspiration biopsy of subacute thyroiditis. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(2): 155–60.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Garcia Solano J, Gimenez Bascunana A, Sola Perez J, et al. Fine-needle aspiration of subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (de Quervain’s thyroiditis): a clinico-cytologic review of 36 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 16(3): 214–20.
Lu CP, Chang TC, Wang CY, Hsiao YL. Serial changes in ultrasound-guided needle aspiration cytology in subacute thyroiditis. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(2): 238–43.
Ofner C, Hittmair A, Kroll I, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytodiagnosis of subacute (de Quervain’s) thyroiditis in an endemic goitre area. Cytopathology 1994; 5(1): 33–40.
Shabb NS, Salti I. Subacute thyroiditis: fine-needle aspiration cytology of 14 cases presenting with thyroid nodules. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34(1): 18–23.
Shabb NS, Tawil A, Gergeos F, Saleh M, Azar S. Multinucleated giant cells in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: their diagnostic significance. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 21(5): 307–12.

Riedel’s thyroiditis

Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Harigopal M, Sahoo S, Recant WM, DeMay RM. Fine-needle aspiration of Riedel’s disease: report of a case and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 30(3): 193–7.
Papi G, Corrado S, Carapezzi C, De Gaetani C, Carani C. Riedel’s thyroiditis and fibrous variant of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study. J Endocrinol Invest 2003; 26(5): 444–9.
Papi G, Corrado S, Cesinaro AM, et al. Riedel’s thyroiditis: clinical, pathological and imaging features. Int J Clin Pract 2002; 56(1): 65–7.
Pusztaszeri M, Triponez F, Pache JC, Bongiovanni M. Riedel’s thyroiditis with increased IgG4 plasma cells: evidence for an underlying IgG4-related sclerosing disease? Thyroid 2012; 22(9): 964–8.
Yasmeen T, Khan S, Patel SG, et al. Clinical case seminar: Riedel’s thyroiditis: report of a case complicated by spontaneous hypoparathyroidism, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, and Horner’s syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87(8): 3543–7.

Graves’ disease

Anderson SR, Mandel S, LiVolsi VA, Gupta PK, Baloch ZW. Can cytomorphology differentiate between benign nodules and tumors arising in Graves’ disease? Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31(1): 64–7.
Cantalamessa L, Baldini M, Orsatti A, et al. Thyroid nodules in Graves disease and the risk of thyroid carcinoma. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159(15): 1705–8.
Carnell NE, Valente WA. Thyroid nodules in Graves’ disease: classification, characterization, and response to treatment. Thyroid 1998; 8(7): 571–6.
Centeno BA, Szyfelbein WM, Daniels GH, Vickery AL. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland in patients with prior Graves’ disease treated with radioactive iodine: morphologic findings and potential pitfalls. Acta Cytol 1996; 40: 1189–97.
Das DK. Marginal vacuoles (fire-flare appearance) in fine needle aspiration smears of thyroid lesions: does it represent diffusing out of thyroid hormones at the base of follicular cells? Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34(4): 277–83.
Elsheikh TM, Cochand-Priollet B, Patricio de Agustin P, Sidawy MK, Zarka MA. Benign. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
Jayaram G, Singh B, Marwaha RK. Grave’s disease. Appearance in cytologic smears from fine needle aspirates of the thyroid gland. Acta Cytol 1989; 33(1): 36–40.
Liel Y, Zirkin HJ, Sobel RJ. Fine needle aspiration of the hot thyroid nodule. Acta Cytol 1988; 32(6): 866–7.
Sahin M, Guvener ND, Ozer F, et al. Thyroid cancer in hyperthyroidism: incidence rates and value of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in this patient group. J Endocrinol Invest 2005; 28(9): 815–18.
Slowinska-Klencka D, Klencki M, Sporny S, Popowicz B, Lewinski A. Cytologic appearance of toxic nodular goiter after thyrostatic treatment. A karyometric study. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 2003; 25(1): 39–46.
Wang CY, Chang TJ, Chang TC, et al. Thyroidectomy or radioiodine? The value of ultrasonography and cytology in the assessment of nodular lesions in Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Am Surg 2001; 67(8): 721–6.

Amyloid goiter

Cibas ES. Thyroid. In Cibas ES, Ducatman BS, eds. Cytology: Diagnostic Principles and Clinical Correlates. 3rd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier, 2009.
Lucas A, Sanmarti A, Salinas I, Llatjos M, Foz M. Amyloid goiter. Diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid. J Endocrinol Invest 1989; 12(1): 43–6.
Nijhawan VS, Marwaha RK, Sahoo M, Ravishankar L. Fine needle aspiration cytology of amyloid goiter. A report of four cases. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(3): 830–4.

Atypia of undetermined significance (AUS)/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS)

Alexander EK, Kennedy GC, Baloch ZW, et al. Preoperative diagnosis of benign thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. N Engl J Med 2012; 367(8): 705–15.
Bongiovanni M, Krane JF, Cibas ES, Faquin WC. The atypical thyroid fine-needle aspiration: past, present, and future. Cancer Cytopathol 2012; 120(2): 73–86.
Chen JC, Pace SC, Chen BA, et al. Yield of repeat fine-needle aspiration biopsy and rate of malignancy in patients with atypia or follicular lesion of undetermined significance: the impact of the Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology. Surgery 2012; 152(6): 1037–44.
Duick DS, Klopper J, Diggans JC, et al. The impact of benign gene expression classifier test results on the endocrinologist–patient decision to operate on patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate FNA cytopathology. Thyroid 2012; 22(10): 996–1001.
Hodak SP, Rosenthal DS, American Thyroid Association Clinical Affairs Committee. Information for clinicians: commercially available molecular diagnosis testing in the evaluation of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration specimens. Thyroid 2013; 23(2): 131–4.
Krane J, Nayar R, Renshaw A. Atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 37–49.
Nayar R, Ivanovic M. The indeterminate thyroid FNA: experience from an academic center using terminology similar to that proposed in the 2007 NCI thyroid reporting guidelines. Cancer Cytopathol 2009; 117(3): 195–202.
Nikiforov YE, Ohori NP, Hodak SP, et al. Impact of mutational testing on the diagnosis and management of patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules: a prospective analysis of 1056 FNA samples. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96(11): 3390–7.
Renshaw AA. Subclassification of atypical cells of undetermined significance in direct smears of fine-needle aspirations of the thyroid: distinct patterns and associated risk of malignancy. Cancer Cytopathol 2011; 119(5): 322–7.
Shi Y, Ding X, Klein M, et al. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration with atypia of undetermined significance: a necessary or optional category? Cancer 2009; 117(5): 298–304.

Neoplasm

Follicular neoplasm
Baloch ZW, Fleisher S, LiVolsi VA, Gupta PK. Diagnosis of “follicular neoplasm”: a gray zone in thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 26(1): 41–4.
Barbaro D, Simi U, Lopane P, et al. Thyroid nodules with microfollicular findings reported on fine-needle aspiration: invariably surgical treatment? Endocr Pract 2001; 7(5): 352–7.
Deandrea M, Ragazzoni F, Motta M, et al. Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation. Thyroid 2010; 20(10): 1077–83.
Ersoz C, Firat P, Uguz A, Kuzey GM. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of solitary thyroid nodules: how far can we go in rendering differential cytologic diagnoses? Cancer 2004; 102(5): 302–7.
Giorgadze T, Rossi ED, Fadda G, et al. Does the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of “Hürthle-cell neoplasm/follicular neoplasm with oncocytic features” denote increased risk of malignancy? Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31(5): 307–12.
Greaves TS, Olvera M, Florentine BD, et al. Follicular lesions of thyroid: a 5-year fine-needle aspiration experience. Cancer 2000; 90(6): 335–41.
Henry MR, DeMay RM, Berezowski K. Follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 51–58.
Sidawy MK, Del Vecchio DM, Knoll SM. Fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: correlation between cytology and histology and evaluation of discrepant cases. Cancer 1997; 81(4): 253–9.
Tulecke MA, Wang HH. ThinPrep for cytologic evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions: correlation with histologic findings. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 30(1): 7–13.
Zeppa P, Benincasa G, Lucariello A, Palombini L. Association of different pathologic processes of the thyroid gland in fine needle aspiration samples. Acta Cytol 2001; 45(3): 347–52.
Hürthle cell neoplasm
Alaedeen DI, Khiyami A, McHenry CR. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimen with a predominance of Hürthle cells: a dilemma in the management of nodular thyroid disease. Surgery 2005; 138(4): 650–6; discussion 656–7.
Blumenfeld W, Nair R, Mir R. Diagnostic significance of papillary structures and intranuclear inclusions in Hürthle-cell neoplasms of the thyroid. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20(4): 185–9.
Elliott DD, Pitman MB, Bloom L, Faquin WC. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of Hürthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland: a cytomorphologic study of 139 cases with statistical analysis. Cancer 2006; 108(2): 102–9.
Faquin WC, Michael CW, Renshaw AA, Vielh P. Follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 59–74.
Giorgadze T, Rossi ED, Fadda G, et al. Does the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of “Hürthle-cell neoplasm/follicular neoplasm with oncocytic features” denote increased risk of malignancy? Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31(5): 307–12.
Gonzalez JL, Wang HH, Ducatman BS. Fine-needle aspiration of Hürthle cell lesions. A cytomorphologic approach to diagnosis. Am J Clin Pathol 1993; 100(3): 231–5.
Kini SR, Miller JM, Hamburger JI. Cytopathology of Hürthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland by fine needle aspiration. Acta Cytol 1981; 25(6): 647–52.
Nguyen GK, Husain M, Akin MR. Cytodiagnosis of benign and malignant Hürthle cell lesions of the thyroid by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20(5): 261–5.
Renshaw AA. Hürthle cell carcinoma is a better gold standard than Hürthle cell neoplasm for fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid: defining more consistent and specific cytologic criteria. Cancer 2002; 96(5): 261–6.
Roh MH, Jo VY, Stelow EB, et al. The predictive value of the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis “suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type” in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Am J Clin Pathol 2011; 135(1): 139–45.
Yang YJ, Khurana KK. Diagnostic utility of intracytoplasmic lumen and transgressing vessels in evaluation of Hürthle cell lesions by fine-needle aspiration. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001; 125(8): 1031–5.

Follicular neoplasm

Baloch ZW, Fleisher S, LiVolsi VA, Gupta PK. Diagnosis of “follicular neoplasm”: a gray zone in thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 26(1): 41–4.
Barbaro D, Simi U, Lopane P, et al. Thyroid nodules with microfollicular findings reported on fine-needle aspiration: invariably surgical treatment? Endocr Pract 2001; 7(5): 352–7.
Deandrea M, Ragazzoni F, Motta M, et al. Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation. Thyroid 2010; 20(10): 1077–83.
Ersoz C, Firat P, Uguz A, Kuzey GM. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of solitary thyroid nodules: how far can we go in rendering differential cytologic diagnoses? Cancer 2004; 102(5): 302–7.
Giorgadze T, Rossi ED, Fadda G, et al. Does the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of “Hürthle-cell neoplasm/follicular neoplasm with oncocytic features” denote increased risk of malignancy? Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31(5): 307–12.
Greaves TS, Olvera M, Florentine BD, et al. Follicular lesions of thyroid: a 5-year fine-needle aspiration experience. Cancer 2000; 90(6): 335–41.
Henry MR, DeMay RM, Berezowski K. Follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 51–58.
Sidawy MK, Del Vecchio DM, Knoll SM. Fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: correlation between cytology and histology and evaluation of discrepant cases. Cancer 1997; 81(4): 253–9.
Tulecke MA, Wang HH. ThinPrep for cytologic evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions: correlation with histologic findings. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 30(1): 7–13.
Zeppa P, Benincasa G, Lucariello A, Palombini L. Association of different pathologic processes of the thyroid gland in fine needle aspiration samples. Acta Cytol 2001; 45(3): 347–52.

Hürthle cell neoplasm

Alaedeen DI, Khiyami A, McHenry CR. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimen with a predominance of Hürthle cells: a dilemma in the management of nodular thyroid disease. Surgery 2005; 138(4): 650–6; discussion 656–7.
Blumenfeld W, Nair R, Mir R. Diagnostic significance of papillary structures and intranuclear inclusions in Hürthle-cell neoplasms of the thyroid. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20(4): 185–9.
Elliott DD, Pitman MB, Bloom L, Faquin WC. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of Hürthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland: a cytomorphologic study of 139 cases with statistical analysis. Cancer 2006; 108(2): 102–9.
Faquin WC, Michael CW, Renshaw AA, Vielh P. Follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 59–74.
Giorgadze T, Rossi ED, Fadda G, et al. Does the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of “Hürthle-cell neoplasm/follicular neoplasm with oncocytic features” denote increased risk of malignancy? Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31(5): 307–12.
Gonzalez JL, Wang HH, Ducatman BS. Fine-needle aspiration of Hürthle cell lesions. A cytomorphologic approach to diagnosis. Am J Clin Pathol 1993; 100(3): 231–5.
Kini SR, Miller JM, Hamburger JI. Cytopathology of Hürthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland by fine needle aspiration. Acta Cytol 1981; 25(6): 647–52.
Nguyen GK, Husain M, Akin MR. Cytodiagnosis of benign and malignant Hürthle cell lesions of the thyroid by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20(5): 261–5.
Renshaw AA. Hürthle cell carcinoma is a better gold standard than Hürthle cell neoplasm for fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid: defining more consistent and specific cytologic criteria. Cancer 2002; 96(5): 261–6.
Roh MH, Jo VY, Stelow EB, et al. The predictive value of the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis “suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type” in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Am J Clin Pathol 2011; 135(1): 139–45.
Yang YJ, Khurana KK. Diagnostic utility of intracytoplasmic lumen and transgressing vessels in evaluation of Hürthle cell lesions by fine-needle aspiration. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001; 125(8): 1031–5.

Suspicious for malignancy

Castro-Gomez L, Cordova-Ramirez S, Duarte-Torres R, Alonso de Ruiz P, Hurtado-Lopez LM. Cytologic criteria of cystic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Acta Cytol 2003; 47(4): 590–4.
Chhieng DC, Cohen JM, Cangiarella JF. Cytology and immunophenotyping of low- and intermediate-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas with a predominant small-cell component: a study of 56 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 24(2): 90–7.
Cibas ES, Ali SZ. NCI Thyroid FNA State of the Science Conference. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology. Am J Clin Pathol 2009; 132(5): 658–65.
Faquin WC, Cibas ES, Renshaw AA. “Atypical” cells in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens of benign thyroid cysts. Cancer 2005; 105(2): 71–9.
Granter SR, Cibas ES. Cytologic findings in thyroid nodules after 131iodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. Am J Clin Pathol 1997; 107: 20–5.
Hodak SP, Rosenthal DS, American Thyroid Association Clinical Affairs Committee. Information for clinicians: commercially available molecular diagnosis testing in the evaluation of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration specimens. Thyroid 2013; 23(2): 131–4.
Lerma E, Arguelles R, Rigla M, et al. Comparative findings of lymphocytic thyroiditis and thyroid lymphoma. Acta Cytol 2003; 47(4): 575–80.
Mahajan A, Lin X, Nayar R. Thyroid Bethesda reporting category, ‘suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma’, pitfalls and clues to optimize the use of this category. Cytopathology 2013; 24(2): 85–91.
Renshaw AA. “Histiocytoid” cells in fine-needle aspirations of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: frequency and significance of an under-recognized cytologic pattern. Cancer 2002; 96(4): 240–3.
Wang HH, Filie AC, Clark DP, Powers CN. Suspicious for malignancy. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 75–90.
Weber D, Brainard J, Chen L. Atypical epithelial cells, cannot exclude papillary carcinoma, in fine needle aspiration of the thyroid. Acta Cytol 2008; 52(3): 320–4.
Zhang Y, Fraser JL, Wang HH. Morphologic predictors of papillary carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid with ThinPrep preparations. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 24(6): 378–83.

Malignant

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)
Auger M, Stelow EB, Yang GCH, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma and variants. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 91–116.
Brandwein-Gensler M, Urken M, Wang B. Collision tumor of the thyroid: a case report of metastatic liposarcoma plus papillary thyroid carcinoma. Head Neck 2004; 26(7): 637–41.
Chuah KL, Hwang JS, Ng SB, et al. Cytologic features of cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: a case report. Acta Cytol 2005; 49(1): 75–80.
Das DK, Mallik MK, Sharma P, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma and its variants in fine needle aspiration smears. A cytomorphologic study with special reference to tall cell variant. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(3): 325–36.
Das DK, Sharma PN. Diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine needle aspiration smears: factors that affect decision making. Acta Cytol 2009; 53(5): 497–506.
Khurana KK, Truong LD, LiVolsi VA, Baloch ZW. Cytokeratin 19 immunolocalization in cell block preparation of thyroid aspirates. An adjunct to fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003; 127(5): 579–83.
Mesonero CE, Jugle JE, Wilbur DC, Nayar R. Fine-needle aspiration of the macrofollicular and microfollicular subtypes of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Cancer 1998; 84(4): 235–44.
Moreira AL, Waisman J, Cangiarella JF. Aspiration cytology of the oncocytic variant of papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(2): 137–41.
Ohori NP, Schoedel KE. Cytopathology of high-grade papillary thyroid carcinomas: tall-cell variant, diffuse sclerosing variant, and poorly differentiated papillary carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20(1): 19–23.
Solomon A, Gupta P. Baloch Z, LiVolsi V. Distinguishing tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma from usual variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in cytologic specimens. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27(3): 143–8.
Wu HH, Jones JN, Grzybicki DM, Elsheikh TM. Sensitive cytologic criteria for the identification of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 2003; 29(5): 262–6.
Ylagan LR, Dehner LP, Huettner PC, Lu D. Columnar cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Report of a case with cytologic findings. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(1): 73–7.
Medullary carcinoma
Aulicino MR, Szporn AH, Dembitzer R, et al. Cytologic findings in the differential diagnosis of C-cell hyperplasia and medullary carcinoma by fine needle aspiration. A case report. Acta Cytol 1998; 42(4): 963–7.
Cakir M, Altunbas H, Balci MK, Karayalcin U, Karpuzoglu G. Medullary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant. Endocr Pathol 2002; 13(1): 75–9.
Dedivitis RA, Di Giovanni JH, Silva GF, Marinho LC, Guimaraes AV. [Oncocytic variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma: case report]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2004; 48(2): 315–17.
Duskova J, Janotova D, Svobodova E, Novak Z, Tretinik P. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma. A report of two cases. Acta Cytol 2003; 47(1): 71–7.
Dustin SM, Jo VY, Hanley KZ, Stelow EB. High sensitivity and positive predictive value of fine-needle aspiration for uncommon thyroid malignancies. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40(5): 416–21.
Forrest CH, Frost FA, de Boer WB, et al. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: accuracy of diagnosis of fine-needle aspiration cytology. Cancer 1998; 84(5): 295–302.
Ibarrola de Andres C, Castellano Megias VM, Ballestin Carcavilla C, et al. Hepatic metastases from the spindle cell variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma: report of a case with diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 2001; 45(6): 1022–6.
Kakudo K, Miyauchi A, Ogihara T, et al. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Giant cell type. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1978; 102(9): 445–7.
Kini SR, Miller JM, Hamburger JI, et al. Cytopathologic features of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Arch Pathol Med 1984; 108: 156–9.
Pigman MB, Oertel YC, Geisinger KR. Medullary thyroid carcinoma. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 117–28.
Trimboli P, Rossi F, Baldelli R, et al. Measuring calcitonin in washout of the needle in patients undergoing fine needle aspiration with suspicious medullary thyroid cancer. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40(5): 394–8.
Poorly differentiated carcinoma (insular/trabecular/solid carcinoma)
Bongiovanni M, Faquin WC. Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 129–138.
Cibas ES, Ali SZ, NCI Thyroid FNA State of the Science Conference. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology. Am J Clin Pathol 2009; 132(5): 658–65.
Guiter GE, Auger M, Ali SZ, Allen EA, Zakowski MF. Cytopathology of insular carcinoma of the thyroid. Cancer 1999; 87(4): 196–202.
Kuhel WI, Kutler DI, Santos-Buch CA. Poorly differentiated insular thyroid carcinoma. A case report with identification of intact insulae with fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 1998; 42(4): 991–7.
Layfield LJ, Gopez EV. Insular carcinoma of the thyroid: report of a case with intact insulae and microfollicular structures. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 23(6): 409–13.
Pereira EM, Maeda SA, Alves F, Schmitt FC. Poorly differentiated carcinoma (insular carcinoma) of the thyroid diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA). Cytopathology 1996; 7(1): 61–5.
Pietribiasi F, Sapino A, Papotti M, Bussolati G. Cytologic features of poorly differentiated ‘insular’ carcinoma of the thyroid, as revealed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Am J Clin Pathol 1990; 94(6): 687–92.
Sironi M, Collini P, Cantaboni A. Fine needle aspiration cytology of insular thyroid carcinoma. A report of four cases. Acta Cytol 1992; 36(3): 435–9.
Anaplastic carcinoma
Bauman ME, Tao LC. Cytopathology of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with anaplastic transformation. A case report. Acta Cytol 1995; 39(3): 525–9.
Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Febles-Perez C, Sobrinho-Simoes M. Cytologic features of fine needle aspirates of papillary and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid with anaplastic transformation. A case report. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(4): 1356–60.
Dustin SM, Jo VY, Hanley KZ, Stelow EB. High sensitivity and positive predictive value of fine-needle aspiration for uncommon thyroid malignancies. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40(5): 416–21.
Fortson JK, Durden FL Jr, Patel V, Darkeh A. The coexistence of anaplastic and papillary carcinomas of the thyroid: a case presentation and literature review. Am Surg 2004; 70(12): 1116–19.
Guarda LA, Peterson CE, Hall W, Baskin HJ. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: cytomorphology and clinical implications of fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 1991; 7(1): 63–7.
Kumar PV, Torabinejad S, Omrani GH. Osteoclastoma-like anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Report of two cases. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(4): 1345–8.
Luze T, Totsch M, Bangerl I, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytodiagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma and malignant haemangioendothelioma of the thyroid in an endemic goitre area. Cytopathology 1990; 1(5): 305–10.
Mai DD, Mai KT, Shamji FM. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma developing from a Hürthle cell tumor: a case report. Acta Cytol 2001; 45(5): 761–4.
Saunders CA, Nayar R. Anaplastic spindle-cell squamous carcinoma arising in association with tall-cell papillary cancer of the thyroid: a potential pitfall. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 21(6): 413–18.
Staerkel GA, Ljung BE, Shidham V, Frable WJ, Rosai J. Undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 139–52.
Malignant lymphoma
Al-Marzooq YM, Chopra R, Younis M, et al. Thyroid low-grade B-cell lymphoma (MALT type) with extreme plasmacytic differentiation: report of a case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration and flow cytometric study. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31(1): 52–6.
Cha C, Chen H, Westra WH, Udelsman R. Primary thyroid lymphoma: can the diagnosis be made solely by fine-needle aspiration? Ann Surg Oncol 2002; 9(3): 298–302.
Das DK, Gupta SK, Francis IM, Ahmed MS. Fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of thyroid: a report of four cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1993; 9(6): 639–45.
Dustin SM, Jo VY, Hanley KZ, Stelow EB. High sensitivity and positive predictive value of fine-needle aspiration for uncommon thyroid malignancies. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40(5): 416–21.
Gupta N, Nijhawan R, Srinivasan R, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of primary thyroid lymphoma: a report of ten cases. Cytojournal 2005; 2: 21.
Layfield LJ, Waisman J, Atkins KA. Metastatic tumors and lymphomas. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 153–66.
Lu JY, Lin CW, Chang TC, Chen YC. Diagnostic pitfalls of fine-needle aspiration cytology and prognostic impact of chemotherapy in thyroid lymphoma. J Formos Med Assoc 2001; 100(8): 519–25.
Matsuzuka F, Miyauchi A, Katayama S, et al. Clinical aspects of primary thyroid lymphoma: diagnosis and treatment based on our experience of 119 cases. Thyroid 1993; 3(2): 93–9.
Morgen EK, Geddie W, Boerner S, Bailey D, Santos Gda C. The role of fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of thyroid lymphoma: a retrospective study of nine cases and review of published series. J Clin Pathol 2010; 63(2): 129–33.
Sangalli G, Serio G, Zampatti C, Lomuscio G, Colombo L. Fine needle aspiration cytology of primary lymphoma of the thyroid: a report of 17 cases. Cytopathology 2001; 12(4): 257–63.
Metastatic tumors
Bozbora A, Barbaros U, Kaya H, et al. Thyroid metastasis of malignant melanoma. Am J Clin Oncol 2005; 28(6): 642–3.
Hanna WC, Ponsky TA, Trachiotis GD, Knoll SM. Colon cancer metastatic to the lung and the thyroid gland. Arch Surg 2006; 141(1): 93–6.
Kihara M, Yokomise H, Yamauchi A. Metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland 19 years after nephrectomy: a case report. Auris Nasus Larynx 2004; 31(1): 95–100.
Layfield LJ, Waisman J, Atkins KA. Metastatic tumors and lymphomas. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 153–66.
Loo CK, Burchett IJ. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of neuroendocrine breast carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid. A case report. Acta Cytol 2003; 47(1): 83–7.
Maly A, Meir K, Maly B. Isolated carcinoid tumor metastatic to the thyroid gland: report of a case initially diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol 2006; 50(1): 84–7.
Michelow PM, Leiman G. Metastases to the thyroid gland: diagnosis by aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 1995; 13(3): 209–13.
Nenkov R, Radev R, Hristosov K, et al. Locally advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma with coexistent metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma in the thyroid gland and parathyroid adenoma. Thyroid 2005; 15(12): 1415–16.
Owens CL, Basaria S, Nicol TL. Metastatic breast carcinoma involving the thyroid gland diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(2): 110–15.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)

Auger M, Stelow EB, Yang GCH, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma and variants. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 91–116.
Brandwein-Gensler M, Urken M, Wang B. Collision tumor of the thyroid: a case report of metastatic liposarcoma plus papillary thyroid carcinoma. Head Neck 2004; 26(7): 637–41.
Chuah KL, Hwang JS, Ng SB, et al. Cytologic features of cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: a case report. Acta Cytol 2005; 49(1): 75–80.
Das DK, Mallik MK, Sharma P, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma and its variants in fine needle aspiration smears. A cytomorphologic study with special reference to tall cell variant. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(3): 325–36.
Das DK, Sharma PN. Diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine needle aspiration smears: factors that affect decision making. Acta Cytol 2009; 53(5): 497–506.
Khurana KK, Truong LD, LiVolsi VA, Baloch ZW. Cytokeratin 19 immunolocalization in cell block preparation of thyroid aspirates. An adjunct to fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003; 127(5): 579–83.
Mesonero CE, Jugle JE, Wilbur DC, Nayar R. Fine-needle aspiration of the macrofollicular and microfollicular subtypes of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Cancer 1998; 84(4): 235–44.
Moreira AL, Waisman J, Cangiarella JF. Aspiration cytology of the oncocytic variant of papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(2): 137–41.
Ohori NP, Schoedel KE. Cytopathology of high-grade papillary thyroid carcinomas: tall-cell variant, diffuse sclerosing variant, and poorly differentiated papillary carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20(1): 19–23.
Solomon A, Gupta P. Baloch Z, LiVolsi V. Distinguishing tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma from usual variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in cytologic specimens. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27(3): 143–8.
Wu HH, Jones JN, Grzybicki DM, Elsheikh TM. Sensitive cytologic criteria for the identification of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 2003; 29(5): 262–6.
Ylagan LR, Dehner LP, Huettner PC, Lu D. Columnar cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Report of a case with cytologic findings. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(1): 73–7.

Medullary carcinoma

Aulicino MR, Szporn AH, Dembitzer R, et al. Cytologic findings in the differential diagnosis of C-cell hyperplasia and medullary carcinoma by fine needle aspiration. A case report. Acta Cytol 1998; 42(4): 963–7.
Cakir M, Altunbas H, Balci MK, Karayalcin U, Karpuzoglu G. Medullary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant. Endocr Pathol 2002; 13(1): 75–9.
Dedivitis RA, Di Giovanni JH, Silva GF, Marinho LC, Guimaraes AV. [Oncocytic variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma: case report]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2004; 48(2): 315–17.
Duskova J, Janotova D, Svobodova E, Novak Z, Tretinik P. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma. A report of two cases. Acta Cytol 2003; 47(1): 71–7.
Dustin SM, Jo VY, Hanley KZ, Stelow EB. High sensitivity and positive predictive value of fine-needle aspiration for uncommon thyroid malignancies. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40(5): 416–21.
Forrest CH, Frost FA, de Boer WB, et al. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: accuracy of diagnosis of fine-needle aspiration cytology. Cancer 1998; 84(5): 295–302.
Ibarrola de Andres C, Castellano Megias VM, Ballestin Carcavilla C, et al. Hepatic metastases from the spindle cell variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma: report of a case with diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 2001; 45(6): 1022–6.
Kakudo K, Miyauchi A, Ogihara T, et al. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Giant cell type. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1978; 102(9): 445–7.
Kini SR, Miller JM, Hamburger JI, et al. Cytopathologic features of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Arch Pathol Med 1984; 108: 156–9.
Pigman MB, Oertel YC, Geisinger KR. Medullary thyroid carcinoma. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 117–28.
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Poorly differentiated carcinoma (insular/trabecular/solid carcinoma)

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Cibas ES, Ali SZ, NCI Thyroid FNA State of the Science Conference. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology. Am J Clin Pathol 2009; 132(5): 658–65.
Guiter GE, Auger M, Ali SZ, Allen EA, Zakowski MF. Cytopathology of insular carcinoma of the thyroid. Cancer 1999; 87(4): 196–202.
Kuhel WI, Kutler DI, Santos-Buch CA. Poorly differentiated insular thyroid carcinoma. A case report with identification of intact insulae with fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 1998; 42(4): 991–7.
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Pereira EM, Maeda SA, Alves F, Schmitt FC. Poorly differentiated carcinoma (insular carcinoma) of the thyroid diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA). Cytopathology 1996; 7(1): 61–5.
Pietribiasi F, Sapino A, Papotti M, Bussolati G. Cytologic features of poorly differentiated ‘insular’ carcinoma of the thyroid, as revealed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Am J Clin Pathol 1990; 94(6): 687–92.
Sironi M, Collini P, Cantaboni A. Fine needle aspiration cytology of insular thyroid carcinoma. A report of four cases. Acta Cytol 1992; 36(3): 435–9.

Anaplastic carcinoma

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Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Febles-Perez C, Sobrinho-Simoes M. Cytologic features of fine needle aspirates of papillary and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid with anaplastic transformation. A case report. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(4): 1356–60.
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Guarda LA, Peterson CE, Hall W, Baskin HJ. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: cytomorphology and clinical implications of fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 1991; 7(1): 63–7.
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Saunders CA, Nayar R. Anaplastic spindle-cell squamous carcinoma arising in association with tall-cell papillary cancer of the thyroid: a potential pitfall. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 21(6): 413–18.
Staerkel GA, Ljung BE, Shidham V, Frable WJ, Rosai J. Undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. In: Ali SZ, Cibas ES, eds. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 1st edn. New York, NY: Springer, 2010; 139–52.

Malignant lymphoma

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Das DK, Gupta SK, Francis IM, Ahmed MS. Fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of thyroid: a report of four cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1993; 9(6): 639–45.
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Lu JY, Lin CW, Chang TC, Chen YC. Diagnostic pitfalls of fine-needle aspiration cytology and prognostic impact of chemotherapy in thyroid lymphoma. J Formos Med Assoc 2001; 100(8): 519–25.
Matsuzuka F, Miyauchi A, Katayama S, et al. Clinical aspects of primary thyroid lymphoma: diagnosis and treatment based on our experience of 119 cases. Thyroid 1993; 3(2): 93–9.
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Sangalli G, Serio G, Zampatti C, Lomuscio G, Colombo L. Fine needle aspiration cytology of primary lymphoma of the thyroid: a report of 17 cases. Cytopathology 2001; 12(4): 257–63.

Metastatic tumors

Bozbora A, Barbaros U, Kaya H, et al. Thyroid metastasis of malignant melanoma. Am J Clin Oncol 2005; 28(6): 642–3.
Hanna WC, Ponsky TA, Trachiotis GD, Knoll SM. Colon cancer metastatic to the lung and the thyroid gland. Arch Surg 2006; 141(1): 93–6.
Kihara M, Yokomise H, Yamauchi A. Metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland 19 years after nephrectomy: a case report. Auris Nasus Larynx 2004; 31(1): 95–100.
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Maly A, Meir K, Maly B. Isolated carcinoid tumor metastatic to the thyroid gland: report of a case initially diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol 2006; 50(1): 84–7.
Michelow PM, Leiman G. Metastases to the thyroid gland: diagnosis by aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 1995; 13(3): 209–13.
Nenkov R, Radev R, Hristosov K, et al. Locally advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma with coexistent metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma in the thyroid gland and parathyroid adenoma. Thyroid 2005; 15(12): 1415–16.
Owens CL, Basaria S, Nicol TL. Metastatic breast carcinoma involving the thyroid gland diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(2): 110–15.