Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: November 2019

18 - Rank changes in female chimpanzees in Taï National Park

Summary

The social life of female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) differs between subspecies, with females in East African field sites often described as avoiding association to avoid competition, while females in Taï have been shown to be more gregarious, spending most of their time in close contact with each other, probably to avoid predation. This close association leads to increased levels of direct competition for resources, possibly increasing the benefit of having a higher dominance rank and challenging dominant group members. Female chimpanzees in Gombe have been shown to queue for rank rather than challenge others. Here, we show that female dyads in Taï do change their dominance rank at times, with at least six clear rank changes recorded in the Taï North and South communities. We discuss life events that could facilitate rank challenges. The increased flexibility in the female dominance hierarchy potentially adds a level of complexity not seen in East African chimpanzees.

Albers, P. C. H. & de Vries, H. (2001). Elo-rating as a tool in the sequential estimation of dominance strengths. Animal Behaviour, 61, 489495. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2000.1571
Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227267. https://doi.org/10.1080/14794802.2011.585831
Boesch, C. (1991). The effects of leopard predation on grouping patterns in forest chimpanzees. Behaviour, 117, 220241. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853991X00544
Boesch, C. & Boesch, H. (1989). Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Tai National Park. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 78, 547573. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330780410
Boesch, C. & Boesch-Achermann, H. (2000). The Chimpanzees of the Taï Forest: Behavioural Ecology and Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bygott, J. D. (1979). Agonistic behaviour, dominance and social structure in wild chimpanzees of the Gombe National Park. In Hamburg, D. A. & McCown, E. R. (eds.), The Great Apes (pp. 405427). Menlo Park: Benjamin/Cummings.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. & Huchard, E. (2013). Social competition and selection in males and females. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 368(1631), 2013007420130074. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0074
de Waal, F. B. M. (1982). Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Douglas, P. H., Ngomo Ngonga, A. C. & Hohmann, G. (2017). A novel approach for dominance assessment in gregarious species: ADAGIO. Animal Behaviour, 123, 2132. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ANBEHAV.2016.10.014
Foerster, S., Franz, M., Murray, C. M., Gilby, I. C., Feldblum, J. T., Walker, K. K., et al. (2016). Chimpanzee females queue but males compete for social status. Scientific Reports, 6, 111. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep35404
Foerster, S., McLellan, K., Schroepfer-Walker, K., Murray, C. M., Krupenye, C., Gilby, I. C., et al. (2015). Social bonds in the dispersing sex: Partner preferences among adult female chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 105, 139152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.04.012
Gomes, C. M. & Boesch, C. (2009). Wild chimpanzees exchange meat for sex on a long-term basis. PLoS ONE, 4(4), e5116. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005116
Gomes, C. M. & Boesch, C. (2011). Reciprocity and trades in wild West African chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65, 21832196. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-011–1227–x
Gomes, C. M., Mundry, R. & Boesch, C. (2009). Long-term reciprocation of grooming in wild West African chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276(1657), 699706. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.1324
Isbell, L. A. (1991). Contest and scramble competition: Patterns of female aggression and ranging behavior among primates. Behavioral Ecology, 2, 143155. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/2.2.143
Kaufmann, J. H. (1983). On the definitions and functions of dominance and territoriality. Biological Reviews, 58, 120. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1983.tb00379.x
Langergraber, K. E., Mitani, J. & Vigilant, L. (2009). Kinship and social bonds in female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology, 71, 840851. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20711
Laporte, M. N. C. & Zuberbühler, K. (2010). Vocal greeting behaviour in wild chimpanzee females. Animal Behaviour, 80, 467473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.06.005
Lehmann, J. & Boesch, C. (2005). Bisexually bonded ranging in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 57, 525535. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-004–0891–5
Lehmann, J. & Boesch, C. (2009). Sociality of the dispersing sex: The nature of social bonds in West African female chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Animal Behaviour, 77, 377387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.09.038
Majolo, B., Lehmann, J., de Bortoli Vizioli, A. & Schino, G. (2012). Fitness-related benefits of dominance in primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 147, 652660. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22031
Mielke, A., Preis, A., Samuni, L., Gogarten, J. F., Wittig, R. M. & Crockford, C. (2018). Flexible decision-making in grooming partner choice in sooty mangabeys and chimpanzees. Royal Society Open Science, 5, 172143.
Mielke, A., Samuni, L., Preis, A., Gogarten, J. F., Crockford, C. & Wittig, R. M. (2017). Bystanders intervene to impede grooming in Western chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys. Royal Society Open Science, 4, 171296. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.171296
Miller, J. A., Pusey, A. E., Gilby, I. C., Schroepfer-Walker, K., Markham, A. C. & Murray, C. M. (2014). Competing for space: Female chimpanzees are more aggressive inside than outside their core areas. Animal Behaviour, 87(C), 147152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.10.023
Murray, C. M., Eberly, L. E. & Pusey, A. E. (2006). Foraging strategies as a function of season and rank among wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Behavioral Ecology, 17, 10201028. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arl042
Murray, C. M., Mane, S. V. & Pusey, A. E. (2007). Dominance rank influences female space use in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes: Towards an ideal despotic distribution. Animal Behaviour, 74, 17951804. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.03.024
Neumann, C., Duboscq, J., Dubuc, C., Ginting, A., Irwan, A. M., Agil, M., et al. (2011). Assessing dominance hierarchies: Validation and advantages of progressive evaluation with Elo-rating. Animal Behaviour, 82, 911921. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.07.016
Newton-Fisher, N. E. (2017). Modeling social dominance: Elo-ratings, prior history, and the intensity of aggression. International Journal of Primatology, 38, 427447. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-017–9952–2
Pusey, A. E. & Schroepfer-Walker, K. (2013). Female competition in chimpanzees. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 368(1631), 2013007720130077. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0077
Pusey, A. E., Williams, J. & Goodall, J. (1997). The influence of dominance rank on the reproductive success of female chimpanzees. Science, 277(5327), 828831. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5327.828
R Core Team. (2017). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Riedel, J., Franz, M. & Boesch, C. (2011). How feeding competition determines female chimpanzee gregariousness and ranging in the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. American Journal of Primatology, 73, 305313. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20897
Samuni, L., Preis, A., Mundry, R., Deschner, T., Crockford, C. & Wittig, R .M. (2017). Oxytocin reactivity during intergroup conflict in wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114, 268273. https://doi.org/10.1073/Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.1616812114
Sterck, E. H. M., Watts, D. P. & van Schaik, C. P. (1997). The evolution of female social relationships in nonhuman primates. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 41, 291309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002650050390
Surbeck, M., Girard-Buttoz, C., Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., et al. (2017). Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation. Royal Society Open Science, 4(5), 120. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.161081
Wakefield, M. L. (2008). Grouping patterns and competition among female Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology, 29, 907929. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-008–9280–7
Williams, J. M., Pusey, A. E., Carlis, J. V., Farm, B. P. & Goodall, J. (2002). Female competition and male territorial behaviour influence female chimpanzees’ ranging patterns. Animal Behaviour, 63, 347360. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2001.1916
Wittig, R. M. & Boesch, C. (2003). Food competition and linear dominance hierarchy among female chimpanzees of the Tai National Park. International Journal of Primatology, 24, 847867. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024632923180
Wittig, R. M. & Boesch, C. (2010). Receiving post-conflict affiliation from the enemy’s friend reconciles former opponents. PLoS ONE, 5(11), e13995. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013995
Wittiger, L. & Boesch, C. (2013). Female gregariousness in Western Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) is influenced by resource aggregation and the number of females in estrus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 67, 10971111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-013–1534–5
Wrangham, R. W. & Smuts, B. B. (1980). Sex differences in the behavioural ecology of chimpanzees in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 28, 1331.