Abramovich, S., Schunn, C., & Higashi, R. M. (2013). Are badges useful in education? It depends upon the type of badge and expertise of learner. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(2), 217–32. doi: 10.1007/s11423-013-9289-2.
Anderson, J. R. (1982). Acquisition of cognitive skill. Psychological Review, 89(4), 369–406. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.89.4.369.
Anderson, T. & McGreal, R. (2012). Disruptive pedagogies and technologies in universities. Educational Technology & Society, 15(4), 380–89.
Bandura, A. (2000). Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(3), 75–8.
Barab, S., Zuiker, S., Warren, S., Hickey, D., Ingram-Goble, A., Kwon, E. J., ... Herring, S. C. (2007). Situationally embodied curriculum: Relating formalisms and contexts. Science Education, 91(5), 750–82. doi: 10.1002/sce.20217.
Blackburn, R. D., Porto, S. C., & Thompson, J. J. (2016). Competency-based education and the relationship to digital badges. In Muilenburg, L. Y. & Berge, Z. L. (Eds.), Digital badges in education: Trends, issues, and cases (pp. 30–8). New York, NY: Routledge.
Brown, J. S. (2012). Cultivating the entrepreneurial learner in the 21st century. [YouTube video]. Keynote address at the 2012 Digital Media and Learning Conference. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SoRV0BEwvEU.
Brown, J. S. & Adler, R. P. (2008). Open education, the long tail, and learning 2.0. EDUCAUSE Review, 43(1), 16–20.
Buckingham, J. (2014). Open digital badges for the uninitiated. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, 18(1), 1–11.
Cameron, J., Banko, K. M., & Pierce, W. D. (2001). Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues. The Behavior Analyst, 24(1), 1–44.
Case, R. (1996). Changing views of knowledge and their impact on educational research and practice. In Olson, D. R. & Torrance, N. (Eds.), Handbook of education and human development (pp. 75–99). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Casilli, C. & Hickey, D. (2016). Transcending conventional credentialing and assessment paradigms with information-rich digital badges. The Information Society, 32(2), 117–29. doi: 10.1080/01972243.2016.1130500.
Chen, G. & Kanfer, R. (2006). Toward a systems theory of motivated behavior in work teams. Research in Organizational Behavior, 27, 223–67. doi: 10.1016/s0191-3085(06)27006-0.
Cordova, D. I. & Lepper, M. R. (1996). Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: Beneficial effects of contextualization, personalization, and choice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(4), 715–30.
Davis, K. & Singh, S. (2015). Digital badges in afterschool learning: Documenting the perspectives and experiences of students and educators. Computers & Education, 88, 72–83. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu/2015.04.011.
Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6), 627–68. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627.
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19(2), 109–34. doi: 10.1016/0092-6566(85).
Engle, R. A. (2006). Framing interactions to foster generative learning: A situative explanation of transfer in a community of learners classroom. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(4), 451–498. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15327809jls1504
Engle, R. A. & Conant, F. R. (2002). Guiding principles for fostering productive disciplinary engagement: Explaining an emergent argument in a community of learners classroom. Cognition and Instruction, 20(4), 399–483. doi: 10.1207/S1532690XCI2004_1.
Everhart, D., Derryberry, A., Knight, E., & Lee, S. (2016). The role of endorsement in Open Badges ecosystems. In Ifenthaler, D., Belin-Mularski, N., & Mah, D., (Eds.), Foundation of digital badges and micro-credentials (pp. 221–35). New York, NY: Springer.
Filsecker, M. & Hickey, D. T. (2014). A multilevel analysis of the effects of external rewards on elementary students' motivation, engagement and learning in an educational game. Computers & Education, 75, 136–48. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.02.008.
Gardner, H. (1992). Assessment in context: The alternative to standardized testing. In Gifford, B. R. & O'Connor, M. C. (Eds.), Changing assessments: Alternative views of aptitude, achievement, and instruction (pp. 77–120). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Greene, D., Sternberg, B., & Lepper, M. R. (1976). Overjustification in a token economy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34(6), 1219–34. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1249.
Greeno, J. G. (1998). The situativity of knowing, learning, and research. American Psychologist, 53(1), 5–26. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.53.1.5.
Halverson, R. (2004). Accessing, documenting, and communicating practical wisdom: The phronesis of school leadership practice. American Journal of Education, 111(1), 90–121. doi: 0195-6744/2004/11101-0004$05.00
Hickey, D. T. (2003). Engaged participation versus marginal nonparticipation: A stridently sociocultural approach to achievement motivation. The Elementary School Journal, 103(4), 401–29. doi: 0013-5984/2003/10304-0006$05
Hickey, D. T. & Willis, J. E. (2015). Research designs for studying individual and collaborative learning with digital badges. In Proceedings of the Second Annual Open Badges in Education Workshop, Poughkeepsie, NY (pp. 36–40). Retrieved from http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1358/paper5.pdf. Hickey, D. T. & Willis, J. E. (2017). Where badges appear to work better. Final Report of the Design Principles Documentation Project. Indiana University. Center for Research on Learning and Technology. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2DPDfinalreport.
Hickey, D. T. & Zuiker, S. J. (2012). Multilevel assessment for discourse, understanding, and achievement. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 21(4), 522–82. doi: 10.1080/10508406.2011.652320.
Hidi, S. (2016). Revisiting the role of rewards in motivation and learning: Implications of neuroscientific research. Educational Psychology Review, 28(1), 61–93. doi: 10.1007/s10648-015-9307-5.
Hidi, S. & Anderson, V. (2014). Situational interest and its impact on reading and expository writing. In Renninger, A., Hidi, S., & Krapp, A., (Eds.), The Role of interest in learning and development (pp. 215–38). New York, NY: Psychology Press. (Reprinted from 1992).
Hidi, S. & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 111–27. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep4102_4.
Järvelä, S., Volet, S., & Järvenoja, H. (2010). Research on motivation in collaborative learning: Moving beyond the cognitive–situative divide and combining individual and social processes. Educational Psychologist, 45(1), 15–27. doi: 10.1080/00461520903433539.
Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Weigel, M., Clinton, K., & Robison, A. J. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kohn, A. (1999). Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A's, praise, and other bribes. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Kohn, A. (2014). Keynote presentation at the 12th Annual e-Portfolio, Open Badges, and Identity Conference, London, England. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_98XcxJqkw.
Kruchten, P. (2004). The rational unified process: An introduction. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley.
Lamal, P. A. (1990). Behavioral analysis of societies and cultural practices. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Lepper, M. R., Greene, D., & Nisbett, R. E. (1973). Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the “overjustification” hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28(1), 129–37.
Mallon, M. (2013). Gaming and gamification. Public Services Quarterly, 9(3), 210–21. doi: 10.1080/15228959.2013.815502.
Malone, T. W. & Lepper, M. R. (1987). Making learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning. In Snow, R. E. & Farr, M. J. (Eds.), Aptitude, learning, and instruction, Vol. 3, conative and affective process analysis (pp. 223–53). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Metzger, E. C., Lubin, L., Patten, R. T., & Whyte, J. (2016). Applied gamification: Creating reward systems for organizational professional development. In D. Ifenthaler, N. Belin-Mularski, & D. Mah (Eds.) Foundation of digital badges and micro-credentials (pp. 457–66). NYC, NY: Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-15425-1.
Moss, P. A. (2003). Reconceptualizing validity for classroom assessment. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 22(4), 13–25. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3992.2003.tb00140.x.
National Research Council. (2001). Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Nicholson, S. (2012). A user-centered theoretical framework for meaningful gamification. Games, Learning & Society, 8(1), 223–30.
Nolen, S. B., Horn, I. S., & Ward, C. J. (2015). Situating motivation. Educational Psychologist, 50(3), 234–47. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2015.1075399.
Olneck, M. (2015). Whom will digital badges empower? Sociological perspectives on digital badges. In Hickey, D. T., Jovanovic, J., Lonn, S., & Willis, J.E. III (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Open Badges in Education Workshop (pp. 5–11), Workshop, Poughkeepsie, NY. Retrieved from http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1358/paper1.pdf
Oyserman, D. (2015). Pathways to success through identity-based motivation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Pink, D. H. (2011). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Penguin.
Rieber, L. P. (1996). Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games. Educational Technology Research and Development, 44(2), 43–58. doi: 10.1007/BF02300540.
Shavelson, R. J., Baxter, G. P., & Pine, J. (1992). Research news and comment: Performance assessments: Political rhetoric and measurement reality. Educational Researcher, 21(4), 22–7. doi: 10.3102/0013189X021004022.
Shepard, L. A. (2000). The role of assessment in a learning culture. Educational Researcher, 29(7), 4–14.
Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. Santa Monica, CA: Simon and Schuster.
Steele, J. L., Lewis, M., Santibanez, L., Faxon-Mills, S., Rudnick, B., Stecher, B., & Hamilton, L. (2014). Competency-based education in three pilot programs: Examining implementation and outcomes. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved from www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR732.html.
Todorov, J. C. (2013). Conservation and transformation of cultural practices through contingencies and metacontingencies. Behavior and Social Issues, 22, 64–73. doi: 10.521/bsi.v.22i0.4612.
Torrance, H. (2012). Formative assessment at the crossroads: Conformative, deformative and transformative assessment. Oxford Review of Education, 38(3), 323–42. doi: 10.1080/03054985.2012.689693.
Tran, C., Schenke, K., & Hickey, D. T. (2014). Design principles for motivating learning with digital badges: Consideration of contextual factors of recognition and assessment. In Polman, J. L., Kyza, E. A., O'Neill, D. K., Tabak, I., Penuel, W. R., Jurow, A. S., ... D'Amico, L. (Eds.), Learning and becoming in practice: The International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS) 2014, Volume 1 (pp. 1027–1032). Boulder, CO: The International Society of the Learning Sciences.
Xenos, M. & Foot, K. (2008). Not your father's Internet: The generation gap in online politics. In Bennett, W. L. (Ed.), Civic life online: Learning how digital media can engage youth, (pp. 51–70). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Young, J. R. (2012). “Badges” earned online pose challenge to traditional college diplomas. The Education Digest, 78(2), 48–52.
Yowell, C. M. (2014). Presentation at the Open Badges Summit to Reconnect Learning. Retrieved from http://vimeo.com/87127953.
Yowell, C. M. & Smylie, M. A. (1999). Self-regulation in democratic communities. The Elementary School Journal, 99(5), 469–90. doi: 10.1086/461936.