Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Cited by 31
Cambridge University Press
Online publication date:
November 2016
Print publication year:
Online ISBN:

Book description

It is widely assumed that a well-designed and well-implemented constitution can help ensure religious harmony in modern states. Yet how correct is this assumption? Drawing on groundbreaking research from Sri Lanka, this book argues persuasively for another possibility: when it comes to religion, relying on constitutional law may not be helpful, but harmful; constitutional practice may give way to pyrrhic constitutionalism. Written in a lucid and direct style, and aimed at both specialists and non-specialists, Buddhism, Politics and the Limits of Law explains why constitutional law has deepened, rather than diminished, conflicts over religion in Sri Lanka. Examining the roles of Buddhist monks, civil society groups, political coalitions and more, the book provides the first extended study of the legal regulation of religion in Sri Lanka as well as the first book-length analysis of the intersections of Buddhism and contemporary constitutional law.


'There is nothing the study of law and religion needs more than deeply informed political and religious histories of postcolonial states and societies. This is exactly what this book offers. In an exhaustively researched legal ethnography of the treatment of religion in Sri Lankan constitutionalism, Benjamin Schonthal explores how Sri Lankans have wrestled with the tensions generated by a legal order that guarantees religious rights while also granting to the majority religion of Buddhism its 'rightful place'. Is it possible for the state to protect a tradition without interfering in it? Who speaks for Buddhism in these debates? This sobering story of the limits of law is a must-read for scholars of religion and politics, Buddhist studies, and comparative constitutional law.'

Elizabeth Shakman Hurd - Northwestern University, Illinois

'Based on field observation, interviews, and a host of multilingual documents that include court records, parliamentary debates, and media reports, this work is a rich and vivid contribution to the study of religion, law, and politics in Sri Lanka. Meticulous in its detail, and strikingly imaginative in its conception, the work shows how the top-down constitutionalist attempt to negotiate an inequality of religions alongside an equality of citizens has led to the accomplishment of neither, and, even worse, the stimulation of the very conflicts and disharmonies the constitutionalist effort was meant to adjudicate and resolve in the first place. The work also yields fresh perspectives on the idea of ‘the Buddhist State', a concept that has a long history and ongoing importance, particularly today, in South and Southeast Asia.'

H. L. Seneviratne - Professor Emeritus, University of Virginia and author of The Work of Kings: The New Buddhism in Sri Lanka

'Constitutions are supposed to resolve social and political cleavages, but can also exacerbate them. In this wonderfully rich and original study of Sri Lanka, Schonthal exposes how constitutional language provides new fuel for political conflict over religion, providing a cautionary tale. A great theoretical and empirical contribution to the literature on comparative constitutional law.'

Tom Ginsburg - Leo Spitz Professor of International Law and Professor of Political Science, University of Chicago

'All in all, this is a book that stands as an exemplar of how a dedicated scholar trained in relevant languages and working across disciplines on a single country case study can produce methodologically and conceptually significant research. And it is a book that challenges socio-legal researchers seeking to contest rather than simply affirm the received wisdom on the religious politics of comparative constitutional law to take more seriously those places, like Sri Lanka, and traditions, like Buddhism, that are usually relegated to the literature’s margins. With Buddhism, Politics, and the Limits of Law, at least, Sri Lanka’s experiences with pyrrhic constitutionalism shall now not be left out of the conversation.'

Nick Cheesman Source: Law and Society Review

'Schonthal’s account is meticulously researched and filled with fascinating details. Reading his historical account of the constitutional discourse culminating in the Buddhism chapter, one gets a unique glimpse into the personalities and ideologies that shape constitutional change in Sri Lanka.'

Jaclyn L. Neo Source: ICON

'Anyone interested in how Constitutions manage religion should read this book. In addition, scholars who find themselves surrounded by an unwavering faith in the Constitution will have their assumptions about the inherent goodness of constitutional law shaken. The arguments in this book have long-lasting and broad implications for the way in which we think about and study law and religion. Schonthal’s book has resonance not only for contemporary debates in other Buddhist majority countries that constitutionally recognize Buddhism, such as Myanmar and Thailand, but also for broader debates over the relationship between religion and constitutional law.'

Melissa Crouch Source: Asian Journal of Law and Society

'It is an impressive volume - eminently readable, compellingly narrated, and creatively written.'

Chad M. Bauman Source: Commonwealth & Comparative Politics

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.



A note on references: The following list refers only to the published sources, including published pamphlets, used for this research. References to other archival sources – including draft laws, bills, petitions, legal submissions, documents from the case files, interview transcripts, newspaper reports and other unpublished materials – appear in the footnotes of the individual chapters of this book.

Abeysekara, Ananda. Colors of the Robe: Religion, Identity, and Difference. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2002.
Abeysekara, Ananda. “Politics of Higher Ordination, Buddhist Monastic Identity, and Leadership at the Dambulla Temple in Sri Lanka.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 22, no. 2 (1999): 255280.
Abeysekara, Ananda. “The Saffron Army, Violence, Terror(ism): Buddhism, Identity and Difference in Sri Lanka.” Numen 48, no. 1 (2001): 146.
Ackerman, Bruce. “The Rise of World Constitutionalism.” Virginia Law Review 83, no. 4 (1997): 771797.
Ackerman, Bruce. We the People: Foundations. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1991.
Agrama, Hussein Ali. Questioning Secularism: Islam, Sovereignty, and the Rule of Law in Modern Egypt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.
Agrama, Hussein Ali. “Reflections on Secularism, Democracy, and Politics in Egypt.” American Ethnologist 39, no. 1 (2012): 2631.
All-Ceylon Buddhist Congress. 33rd Annual Sessions, Kandy December 29, 1951, English Translation of the Presidential Address by Dr. G.P. Malalasekera (Pamphlet). Borella, Colombo: The L.V. Press, December 29, 1951.
All-Ceylon Buddhist Congress. Bauddha Toraturu Parīkṣaka Sabhāvē Vārtāva. Colombo: Visidunu Prakāśakaya, 2006.
All-Ceylon Buddhist Congress. Buddhism and the State: Resolutions and Memorandum of the All Ceylon Buddhist Congress (Pamphlet). Maradana: Oriental Press, 1951.
All-Ceylon Hindu Congress. Inthu Oli: All-Ceylon Hindu Congress Golden Jubilee Commemoration. Colombo: All-Ceylon Hindu Congress, n.d.
Amerasinghe, A R B. The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka: The First 185 Years. Colombo: Sarvodaya Book Pub. Services, 1986.
Amarasinghe, C F. “The Legal Sovereignty of the Ceylon Parliament.” Public Law, (1966): 73–81.
Ames, Michael M. “Magical-animism and Buddhism: A Structural Analysis of the Sinhalese Religious System.” The Journal of Asian Studies 23, no. 1 (1964): 2152.
Amunugama, Sarath. “Buddhaputra and Bhumiputra?: Dilemmas of modern Sinhala Buddhist monks in relation to ethnic and political conflict.” Religion 21 (1991): 115139.
Anderson, M R. “Islamic Law and the Colonial Encounter in British India.” In Institutions and Ideologies: A SOAS South Asia Reader (London: Curzon Press Ltd., 1993): 165185.
Appleby, R Scott, Cizik, Richard, and Task Force on Religion and the Making of U.S. Foreign Policy. Engaging Religious Communities Abroad: A New Imperative for U.S. Foreign Policy. Chicago: Chicago Council on Global Affairs, 2010.
Arasaratnam, S. “The Ceylon Insurrection of April 1971: Some Causes and Consequences.” Pacific Affairs 45, no. 3 (1972): 356371.
Asad, Talal. Genealogies of Religion. New York: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.
Auerbach, Jerold S. Justice Without Law? Resolving Disputes Without Lawyers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Austin, Granville. The Indian Constitution: Cornerstone of a Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966.
Bajpai, Rochana. “Constituent Assembly Debates and Minority Rights.” Economic and Political Weekly 35, no. 21/22 (2000): 18371845.
Bali, Ali, and Lerner, Hanna (eds.). Constitution Writing, Religion and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.
Bandaranaike, S W R D. “Revision of the Constitution (Speech Made as Prime Minister, 7 Nov 1957).” In Towards a New Era: Selected Speeches of S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike. Edited by Wickramaratne, G E P De S. Colombo: Government Press, 1961.
Bandaranaike, S W R D. Speeches and Writings. Colombo: Government Press Ceylon, 1963.
Bandaranaike, S W R D. Towards a New Era: Selected Speeches of S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike, Made in the Legislature of Ceylon 1931–1959. 2nd ed. Colombo: Government Information Department, 1976.
Barron, Thomas J. “The Donoughmore Commission and Ceylon’s National Identity.” In Constitutions and National Identity: Proceedings of the Conference on “The Makings of Constitutions and the Development of National Identity” held in Honour of Professor George Shepperson at the University of Edinburgh, 3–6 July 1987. Edited by Barron, Thomas J, Edwards, Owen D and Storey, Patricia J. Edinburgh: Quadriga Publishers, 1993.
Bastin, Rohan. The Domain of Constant Excess: Plural Worship at the Munnesvaram Temples in Sri Lanka. New York: Berghahn Books, 2002.
Bastin, Rohan. “Saints, Sites and Religious Accommodation in Sri Lanka.” In Sharing the Sacra: The Politics and Pragmatics of Intercommunal Relations Around Holy Places. Edited by Bowman, Glenn. New York: Berghahn, 2012.
Bauddha Jathika Balavegaya (Buddhist National Force). Catholic Action – A Menace to Peace and Goodwill. Colombo: The Bauddha Pracharaka Press, March 1963.
Berger, Benjamin L. “The Cultural Limits of Legal Tolerance.” Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 21, no. 2 (2008): 245277.
Berger, B. Law’s Religion: Religious Difference and the Claims of Constitutionalism. Toronto: University of Toronto, 2016.
Berger, B. “The Virtues of Law in the Politics of Religious Freedom.” Journal of Law and Religion 29, no. 3 (2014): 378395.
Berkwitz, Stephen C. “Religious Conflict and the Politics of Conversion in Sri Lanka.” In Proselytization Revisited: Rights Talk, Free Markets and Culture Wars. Edited by Hackett, Rosalind I J. London: Equinox, 2008.
Berkwitz, S C. “Resisting the Global in Buddhist Nationalism: Venerable Soma’s Discourse of Decline and Reform.” Journal of Asian Studies 67, no. 1 (2008): 73106.
Bhagavan, Manu. “A New Hope: India, the United Nations and the Making of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” Modern Asian Studies 44, no. 02 (2010): 311347.
Bigelow, Anna. Sharing the Sacred: Practicing Pluralism in Muslim North India. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Blackburn, Anne M. Buddhist Learning and Textual Practice in Eighteenth‐Century Lankan Monastic Culture. Princeton, NJ; Oxford, UK: Princeton University Press, 2001.
Blackburn, Anne M. Locations of Buddhism: Colonialism and Modernity in Sri Lanka. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
Blount, Justin, Elkins, Zachary, and Ginsburg, Tom. “Does the Process of Constitution-Making Matter?” In Comparative Constitutional Design. Edited by Ginsburg, Tom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Bond, George. The Buddhist Revival in Sri Lanka. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, 1988.
Bouchard, Gerard, and Taylor, Charles. Building the Future: A Time for Reconciliation (Report Prepared for Commission De Consultation Sur Les Practiques D’Accommodement Reliées Aux Différences Culturelles, Province of Quebec). 2008.
Brown, Nathan J. Constitutions in a Nonconstitutional World: Arab Basic Laws and the Prospects for Accountable Government. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.
Buddha śāsana janādhipati komiṣan (Presidential Commission on the Buddha Sasana). Buddha śāsana janādhipati komiṣan vārtāva (Report of the Presidential Commission on Buddha Sasana). Colombo: Sri Lanka Government Printing Department, 2002.
Buddhist Committee of Enquiry of the All-Ceylon Buddhist Congress. The Betrayal of Buddhism. Balangoda: Dharmavijaya Press, 1956.
Burgers, Jan H. “The Road to San Francisco: The Revival of the Human Rights Idea in the Twentieth Century.” Human Rights Quarterly 14, no. 4 (1992): 447477.
Carbine, Jason A. “Yaktovil: The Role of the Buddha and Dhamma.” In The Life of Buddhism. Edited by Reynolds, Frank and Carbine, Jason. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
Carter, John Ross. “A History of Early Buddhism.” Religious Studies 13, no. 3 (1977): 263287.
Catholic Union of Ceylon. Companion to the Buddhist Commission Report: A Commentary on the Report. Colombo: Catholic Union Press, 1957.
Centre for Policy Alternatives. Attacks on Places of Religious Worship in Post-War Sri Lanka. Colombo: CPA Publications, 2013.
Ceylon Board of Ministers. “Reform of the Constitution (Memorandum From Ministers to HMG From 11 Sept 1944).” In Sessional Paper 14 of 1944. Colombo: Ceylon Government Press, September 1944.
Ceylon Board of Ministers. “Statement by the Ministers on the Reforms Declaration by His Majesty’s Government.” In Sessional Paper 19. Colombo: Ceylon Government Press, June 1943.
Ceylon Daily News. The Ceylon Daily News Parliament of Ceylon 1960. Colombo: Lake House, 1960.
Ceylon Daily News. The Ceylon Daily News Parliament of Ceylon 1965. Colombo: Lake House, 1965.
Ceylon Daily News. The Ceylon Daily News Parliament of Ceylon 1970. Colombo: Lake House, 1970.
Ceylon Daily News. Ceylon Daily News’ Parliament of Sri Lanka, 1977. Colombo: Associated Newspapers of Ceylon, 1978.
Ceylon National Congress. 25 Years – but Yet! (Pamphlet). Colombo: n.p., 1946.
Chandoke, Neera. “Individual and Group Rights a View From India.” In India’s Living Constitution: Ideas, Practices, Controversies. Edited by Hasan, Zoya, Sridharan, E and Sudharshan, R. London: Anthem, 2005.
Chatterjee, Nandini. “English Law, Brahmo Marriage, and the Problem of Religious Difference: Civil Marriage Laws in Britain and India.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 52, no. 3 (2010): 524552.
Choudhry, Sujit. “Bridging Comparative Politics and Comparative Constitutional Law: Constitutional Design in Divided Societies.” In Constitutional Design for Divided Societies: Integration or Accommodation? (2008): 3–40.
Choudhry, Sujit. Constitutional Design for Divided Societies: Integration or Accommodation? New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Cohn, Bernard S. Colonialism and Its Forms of Knowledge: The British in India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Colebrooke, W M G. The Colebrooke-Cameron Papers: Documents on British Colonial Policy in Ceylon, 1796–1833. Edited by Mendis, G C. London: Oxford University Press, 1956.
Colonial Government of Ceylon. “1801 Charter of Justice.” In A Collection of the Legislative Acts of His Majesty’s Government of Ceylon. Colombo: Printed at the Government Press by N Berbman, 1821.
Colonial Government of Ceylon. A Collection of the Legislative Acts of His Majesty’s Government of Ceylon. Colombo: Printed at the Govt. Press by N. Berbman, 1821.
Colonial Government of Ceylon. “Reform of the Constitution.” In Ceylon Sessional Paper XVII. Colombo: Ceylon Government Press, 1943.
Comaroff, John L. “Reflections on the Rise of Legal Theology: Law and Religion in the Twenty-First Century.” Social Analysis 53, no. 1 (2009): 193216.
Comaroff, Jean, and Comaroff, John L. “Reflections on Liberalism, Policulturalism, and ID-ology: Citizenship and Difference in South Africa.” Social Identities 9, no. 4 (2003): 445473.
Comaroff, Jean, and Comaroff, John LTheory From the South: Or, How Euro-America Is Evolving Toward Africa. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2012.
Constituent Assembly. Constituent Assembly Committee Reports. Colombo: Ceylon Government Press, 1971.
Constituent Assembly. Constituent Assembly Debates. Colombo: Ceylon Government Press, 1971.
Constituent Assembly. Reports of the Committees of the Constituent Assembly to Consider the Draft Constitution. Colombo: Department of Government Printing, 1972.
Cooray, Joseph A L. Constitutional and Administrative Law of Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Colombo: Hansa Publishers Ltd., 1973.
Cooray, Joseph A L. “Human Rights and Their Protection in Ceylon.” In Constitutional Government and Human Rights in a Developing Society. Colombo: Colombo Apothecaries Publishers, 1969.
Cooray, Joseph A L. “The Revision of the Constitution.” In Constitutional Government and Human Rights in a Developing Society. Colombo: Colombo Apothecaries Publishers, 1969.
Cooray, L J M. Constitutional Government in Sri Lanka 1796–1977. Colombo: Stamford Lake Publishers, 2005.
Cossman, Brenda, and Kapur, Ratna. “Secularism: Bench-Marked by Hindu Right.” Economic and Political Weekly 31, no. 38 (1996): 26132617, 2619–2627, 2629–2630.
Crouch, Melissa. “Personal Law and Colonial Legacy: State-Religion Relations and Islamic Law in Myanmar.” In Islam and the State in Myanmar: Muslim-Buddhist Relations and the Politics of Belonging. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2016.
De, Rohit. “Rebellion, Dacoity, and Equality: The Emergence of the Constitutional Field in Postcolonial India.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 34, no. 2 (2014): 260278.
Deegalle, Mahinda. Buddhism, Conflict, and Violence in Modern Sri Lanka. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Deegalle, Mahinda. “Politics of the Jathika Hela Urumaya Monks: Buddhism and Ethnicity in Contemporary Sri Lanka.” Contemporary Buddhism 5, no. 2 (2004): 83103.
De Silva, Colvin R. Ceylon Under the British Occupation, 1795–1833 (2 Vols). Colombo: Colombo Apothecaries, 1953.
De Silva, Colvin R. Safeguards for the Minorities in the 1972 Constitution. Colombo: Young Socialist Publication, 1987.
De Silva, K M. British Documents on the End of Empire: Sri Lanka. London: Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, 1997. Vol. I, lxii.
De Silva, K M. A History of Sri Lanka. Colombo: Vijitha Yapa Publications, 2005.
De Silva, K M. “Ivor Jennings and Sri Lanka’s Passage to Independence.” Asia Pacific Law Review 13, no. 1 (2005): 118.
De Silva, K M. Social Policy and Missionary Organizations in Ceylon: 1840–1855. London: Longmans, 1965.
De Silva, K M, and Wriggins, W Howard. J.R. Jayewardene of Sri Lanka: A Political Biography. 2 Vols. London: Anthony Blond Quartet, 1988.
De Silva, Rangita. “JAL Cooray: A Pioneer Lankan Constitutional Lawyer and Human Rights Jurist.” Sri Lanka Journal of International Law 6 (1994): 116.
De Silva, Viveka S. An Assessment of the Contribution of the Judiciary Towards Good Governance. Colombo: Sri Lanka Foundation and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2005.
De Smith, S A. The New Commonwealth and Its Constitutions. London: Stevens and Sons, 1964.
DeVotta, Neil. Blowback: Linguistic Nationalism, Institutional Decay and Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004.
DeVotta, N, and Stone, J. “Jathika Hela Urumaya and Ethno-religious Politics in Sri Lanka.” Pacific Affairs 81, no. 1 (2008): 3151.
Dharmadasa, K N O. “Buddhism and Politics in Modern Sri Lanka.” In Bhikshuva Saha Lankā Samājeya. Edited by Sobhita, Maduluvave et al. Colombo: Dharmadhutasrama Pirivena, 1997.
Dharmadasa, K N O. “Buddhist Interests, Activists and Pressure Groups.” In History and Politics, Millennial Perspectives: Essays in Honour of K.M. De Silva. Edited by Peiris, Gerald and de A Samarasinghe, S W R. Kandy: International Centre for Ethnic Studies, 1999.
Diamond, Larry Jay. Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
Dias, Reginald F. A Commentary on the Ceylon Criminal Procedure Code. Ceylon: Colombo Apothecaries Publishers, 1935.
Donoughmore Commission. Report of the Special Commission on the Ceylon Constitution. Colombo: Ceylon Government Press, 1929.
Edrisinha, Rohan, Gomez, Mario, Thamilmaran, V T, and Welikala, Asanga. Power-sharing in Sri Lanka: Constitutional and Political Documents 1926–2008. Colombo: Centre for Policy Alternatives and Berghof Foundation for Conflict Studies, 2009.
Elkins, Zachary, Ginsburg, Tom, and Melton, James. The Endurance of National Constitutions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Elshtain, Jean B. “Religion and Democracy.” Journal of Democracy 20, no. 2 (2009): 517.
Ewing, K D. “Law and the Constitution: Manifesto of the Progressive Party.” Modern Law Review 67 (2004): 734752.
Feldman, Noah. “Review of Hamoudi, Negotiating in Civil Conflict.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 47, no. 1 (2015): 177178.
Feldman, Noah, and Martinez, Roman. “Constitutional Politics and Text in the New Iraq: An Experiment in Islamic Democracy.” Fordham Law Review 75, no. 2 (2006): 883920.
Fernando, W N Oshan. The Effects of Evangelical Christianity on State Formation in Sri Lanka. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California at Santa Barbara, September 2011.
Foley, Michael. The Silence of Constitutions: Gaps, “abeyances,” and Political Temperament in the Maintenance of Government. New York: Routledge, 1991.
Gair, James W, and Karunatillake, W S. Literary Sinhala Inflected Forms with a Transliteration Guide. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 1976.
Ginsburg, Tom, and Dixon, Rosalind. “Deciding Not to Decide: Deferral in Constitutional Design.” International Journal of Constitutional Law 9, no. 3–4 (2011): 636672.
Ginzburg, Carlo. The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.
Glendon, Mary Ann. Rights Talk: The Impoverishment of Political Discourse. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993.
Glendon, Mary Ann. A World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New York: Random House, 2001.
Go, Julian. “Modeling States and Sovereignty: Postcolonial States in Africa and Asia.” In Making a World After Empire: The Bandung Moment and Its Political Afterlives. Edited by Lee, Christopher. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2010.
Godden, Lee, and Casinader, Niranjan. “The Kandyan Convention 1815: Consolidating the British Empire in Colonial Ceylon.” Comparative Legal History 1, no. 2 (2013): 211242.
Goonesekere, R K W. Fundamental Rights and the Constitution: A Case Book. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Law & Society Trust, 2003.
Goonetileke, H A I, and Jennings, Ivor. The Road to Peradeniya: An Autobiography. Colombo: Lake House, 2005.
Gordon, Sarah Barringer. “‘Free’ Religion and ‘Captive’ Schools: Protestants, Catholics, and Education, 1945–1965.” DePaul Law Review 56 (2006): 11771220.
Gottschalk, Peter. Beyond Hindu and Muslim: Multiple Identity in Narratives From Village India. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Government of Ceylon. Buddha Śasana Komiṣan Vārtāva (Buddha Sasana Commission Report). Colombo: Government Press, 1959.
Government of Ceylon. Ceylon Legislative Council Debates. Colombo: Government Printers, 1928.
Government of Ceylon. Ceylon Legislative Enactments. Colombo: Ceylon Government Press, 1956.
Government of Ceylon. “Decision of the Constitutional Court on Pirivena Education Bill.” In Decisions of the Constitutional Court of Sri Lanka (Vol. IV). Colombo: Registry of the Constitutional Court, 1976.
Government of Ceylon. “Decision of the Constitutional Court on Places and Objects of Worship Bill.” In Decisions of the Constitutional Court of Sri Lanka. Colombo: Registry of the Constitutional Court, 1973.
Government of Ceylon. Interim Report of the Buddha Sasana Commission (Sessional Paper XXV of 1957). Colombo: Government Press, November 1957.
Government of Ceylon. The Joint Select Committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives Appointed to Consider the Revision of the Constitution (Parliamentary Series No. 30, 3rd Session of 6th Parliament). Colombo: Government Press, June 6, 1968.
Government of Ceylon. Report from the Joint Select Committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives Appointed to Consider the Revision of the Constitution Together with Minutes of Proceedings (Parliamentary Series No. 12). Colombo: Government Press, April 4, 1958.
Government of Sri Lanka. Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. 1978.
Government of Sri Lanka. Hansard Debates, House of Representatives. Colombo: Government Press.
Government of Sri Lanka. “Report of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry into the incidents which took place between 13 August and 15 September, 1977,” Sessional Paper no. VII. Colombo: Government Publications Bureau, 1980.
Government of Sri Lanka. Report from the Select Committee of the National State Assembly Appointed to Consider the Revision of the Constitution (Parliamentary Series No. 14). Colombo: Government Publications Office, 1978.
Gunatilleke, Gehan. The Chronic and the Acute: Post-war Religious Violence in Sri Lanka. Colombo: International Centre for Ethnic Studies and Equitas, 2015.
Habermas, Jurgen. “Why Europe Needs a Constitution.” New Left Review 11 (2001): 526.
Hamburger, Philip. Separation of Church and State. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.
Hamoudi, Haider. Negotiating in Civil Conflict: Constitutional Construction and Imperfect Bargaining in Iraq. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.
Hertzke, Allen D, and Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Lobbying for the Faithful: Religious Advocacy Groups in Washington, D.C. Pew Forum, May 2012.
Heslop, Luke A. “On Sacred Ground: The Political Performance of Religious Responsibility.” Contemporary South Asia 22 no. 1 (2014): 2136.
Hirschl, Ran. Comparative Matters: The Renaissance of Comparative Constitutional Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
Hirschl, Ran. Constitutional Theocracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.
Hirschl, Ran. Towards Juristocracy: The Origins and Consequences of the New Constitutionalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.
Holt, John. Buddha in the Crown: Avalokitesvara in the Buddhist Traditions of Sri Lanka. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Holt, John. The Buddhist Vishnu. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
Holt, John. The Religious World of Kīrti Śrī: Buddhism, Art, and Politics in Late Medieval Sri Lanka. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Horowitz, Donald L. A Democratic South Africa?: Constitutional Engineering in a Divided Society. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991.
Hurd, Elizabeth Shakman. Beyond Religious Freedom: The New Global Politics of Religion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2015.
Irwin, Collin. ‘War and Peace’ and the APRC Proposals. Colombo: Centre for Policy Alternatives and Peace Polls, May 2010. (Accessed October 15, 2014).
Ismail, Qadri. “Unmooring Identity: The Antinomies of Muslim Elite Self-Formation in Sri Lanka.” In Unmaking the Nation: The Politics of Identity and History in Modern Sri Lanka. Edited by Jeganathan, Pradeep. Colombo: Social Scientists Association, 1995.
Jacobsohn, Gary J. Constitutional Identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.
Jayawickrama, Nihal. Human Rights: The Sri Lankan Experience 1947–1981. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. University of London, SOAS, September 1983.
Jacobsohn, Gary J. “Reflections on the Making and Content of the 1972 Constitution: An Insider’s Perspective.” In The Sri Lankan Republic at 40: Reflections on Constitutional History, Theory, Practice. Edited by Welikala, Asanga. Colombo: Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2012.
Jeffries, Charles J. Ceylon: The Path to Independence. London: Pall Mall Press, 1962.
Jenkins, Laura D. “Legal Limits on Religious Conversion in India.” Law & Contemporary Problems 71 (2008): 109.
Jennings, W Ivor. The Approach to Self-Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956.
Jennings, W Ivor. The Constitution of Ceylon. Bombay: Oxford University Press, 1949.
Jennings, W Ivor. “D.S. Senanayake and Independence.” Ceylon Historical Journal 5, no. 1–4 (1955): 1622.
Jennings, W Ivor. Law and the Constitution. London: University of London, 1933.
Jennings, W Ivor. “Limitations on a ‘Sovereign’ Parliament.” Cambridge Law Journal 22 (1964): 177180.
Jennings, W Ivor. “The Making of a Dominion Constitution.” Law Quarterly Review 65 (1949): 456479.
Jennings, W Ivor. Nationalism and Political Development in Ceylon (Institute of Pacific Studies Secretariat Paper, Series 9, Number 10). New York: Institute of Pacific Relations, 1950.
Jennings, W Ivor. “Politics in Ceylon Since 1954.” Pacific Affairs 27, no. 4 (1954): 338352.
Jennings, W Ivor, and Tambiah, H W. The Dominion of Ceylon: The Development of Its Laws and Constitution, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1970.
Josephson, Jason A. The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.
Kagan, Robert A. Adversarial Legalism: The American Way of Law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
Kahn, Paul W. “Comparative Constitutionalism in a New Key.” Michigan Law Review (2003): 2677–2705.
Kahn, Paul W. The Cultural Study of Law: Reconstructing Legal Scholarship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
Kapferer, Bruce. A Celebration of Demons: Exorcism and the Aesthetics of Healing in Sri Lanka. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983.
Kapferer, Bruce. Legends of People, Myths of State: Violence, Intolerance, and Political Culture in Sri Lanka and Australia. London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988.
Kearney, Robert. Communalism and Language in the Politics of Ceylon. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1967.
Kemper, Steven. “The Buddhist Monkhood, the Law, and the State in Colonial Sri Lanka.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 26, no. 3 (1984): 401427.
Kemper, Steven. “Buddhism Without Bhikkhus: The Sri Lanka Vinaya Vardana Society.” In Religion and Legitimation of Power in Sri Lanka. Edited by Smith, Bardwell L. Chambersberg, PA: Anima, 1978, 212235.
Kemper, Steven. The Presence of the Past: Chronicles, Politics, and Culture in Sinhala Life. Ithaca,NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.
Kissane, Bill. “The Illusion of State Neutrality in a Secularising Ireland.” West European Politics 26, no. 1 (2003): 7394.
Kumarasingham, Harshan (ed.). Constitution‐Maker: Selected Writings of Sir Ivor Jennings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Kumarasingham, Harshan. The Road to Temple Trees. Colombo: Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2015.
Kuru, Ahmet T. Muslim Politics Without an “Islamic” State: Can Turkey’s Justice and Development Party Be a Model for Arab Islamists? (Policy Briefing). Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, February, 2013.
Lanka Bauddha Mandalaya. An Event of Dual Significance. Colombo: Ceylon Ministry of Home Affairs, 1955.
Larson, Gerald (ed.). Religion and Personal Law in Secular India: A Call to Judgment. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2001.
Larsson, Tomas. “Monkish Politics in Southeast Asia: Religious Disenfranchisement in Comparative and Theoretical Perspective.” Modern Asian Studies 49, no. 1 (2015): 143.
Laski, Harold J. Liberty in the Modern State. New York: Harper, 1930.
Laski, Harold J. The Rise of European Liberalism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1997.
Latour, Bruno. The Making of Law: An Ethnography of the Conseil D’Etat. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2010.
Lauren, Paul G. “First Principles of Racial Equality: History and the Politics and Diplomacy of Human Rights Provisions in the United Nations Charter.” Human Rights Quarterly 5, no. 1 (1983): 126.
Laycock, Douglas. “Formal, Substantive, and Disaggregated Neutrality Toward Religion.” DePaul Law Review 39, no. 4 (1990): 9931018.
Lerner, Hanna. “Constitutional Impasse, Democracy and Religion in Israel.” In Constitution Writing, Religion and Democracy. Edited by Bali, Asli and Lerner, Hanna. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.
Lerner, Hanna. Making Constitutions in Deeply Divided Societies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Lerner, Hanna. “Permissive Constitutions, Democracy, and Religious Freedom in India, Indonesia, Israel, and Turkey.” World Politics 65, no. 4 (2013): 609655.
Leve, Lauren. “‘Secularism Is a Human Right!’: Double-binds of Buddhism, Democracy, and Identity in Nepal.” In The Practice of Human Rights: Tracking Law Between the Global and the Local. Edited by Goodale, Mark and Merry, Sally Engle. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Levi, G. “On Microhistory.” In New Perspectives on Historical Writing. Edited by Burke, Peter. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991.
Lijphart, Arend. “Constitutional Design for Divided Societies.” Journal of Democracy 15, no. 2 (2004): 96109.
Lombardi, Clark B. “Designing Islamic Constitutions: Past Trends and Options for a Democratic Future.” International Journal of Constitutional Law 11, no. 3 (2013): 615645.
Lombardi, Clark B. “Islamic Law as a Source of Constitutional Law in Egypt: The Constitutionalization of the Sharia in a Modern Arab State.” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 37 (1998): 81123.
Magnússon, Sigurður G, and Szíjártó, István. What Is Microhistory?: Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge, 2013.
Maithripala Senanayeke Felicitation Committee. “S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike, the Progenitor of the People’s Constitution.” In Maithripala Senanayeke Felicitation Volume. Dehiwala, Sri Lanka: Tissara Press, 1972.
Malagodi, Mara. “The End of a National Monarchy: Nepal’s Recent Constitutional Transition From Hindu Kingdom to Secular Federal Republic.” Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 11, no. 2 (2011): 234251.
Malagodi, Mara. “‘The Oriental Jennings’: An Archival Investigation into Sir Ivor Jennings’ Constitutional Legacy in South Asia.” Legal Information Management 14, no. 1 (2014): 3337.
Malalgoda, Kitsiri. Buddhism in Sinhalese Society, 1750–1900: A Study of Religious Revival and Change. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.
Malalgoda, Kitsiri. “Concepts and Confrontations: A Case Study of Agama.” In Collective Identities Revisited (Vol. 1). Edited by Roberts, Michael. Colombo: Marga Institute Press, 1997.
Mamdani, Mahmood. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Manor, James. The Expedient Utopian: Bandaranaike and Ceylon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Marasinghe, M LCeylon: A Conflict of Constitutions.” The International and Comparative Law Quarterly 20, no. 4 (1971): 645674.
Marasinghe, L. “Sir William Ivor Jennings.” In Legal Personalities: Volume 1. Colombo: Law and Society Trust, 2005.
Marga Institute. Social Image of the Judiciary in Sri Lanka. Colombo: Marga Press, 2004.
Matthews, Bruce. “Buddhist Activism in Sri Lanka.” In Questioning the Secular State: The Worldwide Resurgence of Religion in Politics. Edited by Westerlund, David. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
Matthews, Bruce. “Christian Evangelical Conversions and the Politics of Sri Lanka.” Pacific Affairs 80, no. 3 (2007): 455472.
Mazie, Steven V. Israel’s Higher Law: Religion and Liberal Democracy in the Jewish State. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006.
Mazower, Mark No Enchanted Palace: The End of Empire and the Ideological Origins of the United Nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Mazower, M. “The Strange Triumph of Human Rights, 1933–1950.” The Historical Journal 47, no. 2 (2004): 379398.
McCleary, Rachel M, and van der Kuijp, Leonard WJ. “The Market Approach to the Rise of the Geluk School, 1419–1642.” The Journal of Asian Studies 69, no. 1 (2010): 149180.
McConnell, Michael W. “Why Is Religious Liberty the ‘First Freedom’?Cardozo Law Review 21 (2000): 12431265.
McDaniel, Justin. The Lovelorn Ghost and the Magical Monk: Practicing Buddhism in Modern Thailand. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.
McGilvray, Dennis B. “Dutch Burghers and Portuguese Mechanics: Eurasian Ethnicity in Sri Lanka.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 24, no. 2 (1982): 235263.
Meegama, Ananda. Philip Gunawardena and the 1956 Revolution in Sri Lanka. Colombo: Godage, 2009.
Moore, Mick. The State and Peasant Politics in Sri Lanka. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Morsink, Johannes. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, Drafting, and Intent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.
Moustafa, Tamir. “Liberal Rights Versus Islamic Law? The Construction of a Binary in Malaysian Politics.” Law & Society Review 47, no. 4 (2013): 771802.
Moyn, Samuel. The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.
de Munck, Victor C. “Sufi and Reformist Designs: Muslim Identity in Sri Lanka.” In Buddhist Fundamentalism and Minority Identities in Sri Lanka. Edited by Bartholomeusz, Tessa J and de Silva, Chandra R. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1998.
Nadaraja, Tambyah. The Legal System of Ceylon in Its Historical Setting. Leiden: Brill, 1972.
Nadesan, S. Some Comments on the Constituent Assembly and the Draft Basic Resolutions. Colombo: Printed by Lake House Printers & Publishers for Nadaraja, 1971.
Nedostup, Rebecca. Superstitious Regimes: Religion and the Politics of Chinese Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.
Nu, U. Burma Under the Japanese, Pictures and Portraits. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1954.
Nussbaum, Martha. Liberty of Conscience: In Defense of America’s Tradition of Religious Equality. New York: Basic Books, 2010.
Obeyesekere, Gananath. “The Buddhist Pantheon in Ceylon and Its Extension.” In Anthropological Studies in Theravada Buddhism. Edited by Nash, Manning. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966.
Obeyesekere, Gananath. “Religious Symbolism and Political Change in Sri Lanka.” In The Two Wheels of Dhamma: Essays on the Theravada Tradition in India and Ceylon. Edited by Smith, Bardwell L. Boston, MA: American Academy of Religion, 1972.
Obeyesekere, Gananath. “Representations of the Wildman in Sri Lanka.” In Beyond Primitivism: Indigenous Religious Traditions and Modernity. Edited by Olupona, Jacob K. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Obeyesekere, Gananath. “Social Change and the Deities: Rise of the Kataragama Cult in Modern Sri Lanka.” Man n.s. 12, no. 3/4 (1977): 377396.
O’Brien, Robert, and Stasi, Bernard. The Stasi Report: The Report of the Committee of Reflection on the Application of the Principle of Secularity in the Republic. Buffalo, NY: William S Hein & Co, 2005.
Paramasivam, K, and Lindholm, James. A Basic Tamil Reader and Grammar. Evanston, IL: Tamil Language Study Association, 1980.
Parkinson, Charles. Bills of Rights and Decolonization: The Emergence of Domestic Human Rights Instruments in Britain’s Overseas Territories. London: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Peebles, Patrick. The History of Sri Lanka. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2006.
Peiris, Denzil. 1956 and After: Background to Parties and Politics in Ceylon Today. Colombo: Lake House, 1958.
Pfaffenberger, Bryan. “The Kataragama Pilgrimage: Hindu-Buddhist Interaction and Its Significance in Sri Lanka’s Polyethnic Social System.” The Journal of Asian Studies 38, no. 2 (1979): 253270.
Pfaffenberger, Bryan. “The Political Construction of Defensive Nationalism: The 1968 Temple-Entry Crisis in Northern Sri Lanka.” The Journal of Asian Studies 49, no. 1 (1990): 7896.
Phadnis, Urmila. Religion and Politics in Sri Lanka. London: Hurst & Co, 1976.
Preuss, Ulrich K. Constitutional Revolution: The Link Between Constitutionalism and Progress. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1995.
Rahula, Ven. Walpola. “Appendix II: The Vidyalankara Declaration.” In The Heritage of the Bhikkhu. New York: Grove Press, 1974.
Rahula, Ven. Walpola. The Heritage of the Bhikkhu. New York: Grove Press, 1974.
Redding, Jeffrey A. “Invisible Constitutions: Culture, Religion, and Memory: Secularism, the Rule of Law, and Sharia Courts: An Ethnographic Examination of a Constitutional Controversy.” Saint Louis University Law Journal 57 (2013): 339376.
Reynolds, Andrew. The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy. London: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Robbins, Joel. “The Globalization of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity.” Annual Review of Anthropology 33, no. 1 (2004): 117143.
Roberts, Michael (ed.). Documents of the Ceylon National Congress and Nationalist Politics in Ceylon 1929–1950. Colombo: National Archives Dept., 1965.
Roberts, Michael. Exploring Confrontation: Sri Lanka, Politics, Culture and History. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1994.
Roberts, Michael. “Noise as Cultural Struggle: Tom‐tom Beating, the British, and Communal Disturbances in Sri Lanka, 1880s–1930s.” In Mirrors of Violence: Communities, Riots, and Survivors in South Asia. Edited by Das, Veena. Studies in Society and Culture; New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Roberts, Michael. “Problems of Collective Identity in a Multi-ethnic Society: Sectional Nationalism vs Ceylonese Nationalism, 1900–1940.” In Collective Identities Revisited (Vol. 1). Colombo: Marga Institute Press, 1997.
Rogers, John D. Crime, Justice, and Society in Colonial Sri Lanka. London: Curzon Press, 1987.
Rogers, John D. “Early British Rule and Social Classification in Lanka.” Modern Asian Studies 38, no. 3 (2004): 625647.
Rogers, John D. “Post-Orientalism and the Interpretation of Premodern and Modern Political Identities: The Case of Sri Lanka.” The Journal of Asian Studies 53, no. 1 (1994): 1023.
Rosenfeld, Michel (ed.). Constitutionalism, Identity, Difference, and Legitimacy: Theoretical Perspectives. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994.
Rubin, B R. “Crafting a Constitution for Afghanistan.” Journal of Democracy 15, no. 3 (2004): 519.
Russell, Jane. Communal Politics Under the Donoughmore Constitution, 1931–1947, The Ceylon Historical Journal 26. Dehiwala, Sri Lanka: Tissara Prakasakayo, 1982.
Salomon, Noah. “The Ruse of Law: Legal Equality and the Problem of Citizenship in Multi-Religious Sudan.” In After Secular Law. Edited by Fallers Sullivan, Winnifred, Yelle, Robert A and Taussig-Rubbo, Mateo. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011.
Samaraweera, Vijaya. “An Act of Truth in a Sinhala Court of Law: On Truth, Lies and Judicial Proof Among the Sinhala Buddhists.” Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law 5 (1997): 133163.
Samaraweera, V. “Muslim Revivalist Movement, 1880–1915.” In Collective Identities, Nationalisms, and Protest in Modern Sri Lanka. Edited by Roberts, Michael. Colombo: Marga Institute, 1979.
Sapru, Tej B, Jayakar, Mukund R, Ayyangar, Narasimba G, and Prasad, Jagdish. Constitutional Proposals of the Sapru Committee. Bombay: Padma Publishers Limited, 1945.
Schalk, Peter‘Unity’ and ‘Sovereignty’: Key Concepts of a Militant Buddhist Organization in the Present Conflict in Sri Lanka.” Temenos 24 (1988): 5587.
Scheingold, Stuart A. The Politics of Rights: Lawyers, Public Policy, and Political Change. 2nd ed. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2004.
Scheppele, Kim L. “Constitutional Ethnography: An Introduction.” Law & Society Review 38, no. 3 (2004): 389406.
Schonthal, Benjamin. “Environments of Law: Islam, Buddhism, and the State in Contemporary Sri Lanka.” The Journal of Asian Studies 75, no. 1 (2016): 137156.
Schonthal, Benjamin. “The Legal Regulation of Buddhism in Contemporary Sri Lanka.” In Buddhism and Law: An Introduction. Edited by French, Rebecca R and Nathan, Mark A. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Schonthal, Benjamin, Moustafa, Tamir, Nelson, Matthew, and Shankar, Shylashri. “Is the Rule of Law an Antidote for Religious Tension? The Promise and Peril of Judicializing Religious Freedom.” American Behavioral Scientist 60, no. 8 (2015): 966986.
Schonthal, Benjamin, and Walton, Matthew J. “The (New) Buddhist Nationalisms? Symmetries and Specificities in Sri Lanka and Myanmar.” Contemporary Buddhism 17, no. 1 (2016): 135.
Scott, David. “Community, Number, and the Ethos of Democracy.” In Refashioning Futures: Criticism after Postcoloniality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.
Sen, Ronojoy. Articles of Faith: Religion, Secularism, and the Indian Supreme Court. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Seneviratne, H L. The Work of Kings: The New Buddhism in Sri Lanka. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Shapiro, Martin M. Courts: A Comparative and Political Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.
Shastri, Amita. “Sri Lanka’s Provincial Council System: A Solution to the Ethnic Problem?Asian Survey 32, no. 8 (1992): 723743.
Shastri, Amita. “The United National Party of Sri Lanka: Reproducing Hegemony.” In Political Parties in South Asia. Edited by Mitra, Subrata, Enskat, Mike and Spiess, Clemens. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
Sherwood, MarikaIndia at the Founding of the United Nations.” International Studies 33, no. 4 (1996): 407428.
Singer, Marshall R. The Emerging Elite: A Study of Political Leadership in Ceylon. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964.
Sinhala Commission. Report of the Sinhala Commission (Part II). Colombo: Samayawardhana Press, 2001.
Siriwardena, C D S. “The Idea of a Buddha Sasana Council.” In University Buddhist Annual Vol. 2. Edited by Gunasekere, Tilak. Colombo: University Buddhist Brotherhood of Colombo, 1959.
Smith, Donald E. “Political Monks and Monastic Reform.” In South Asian Politics and Religion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1966.
Smith, D E. “The Sinhalese Buddhist Revolution.” In South Asian Politics and Religion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1966.
Smith, Jonathan Z. Imagining Religion: From Babylon to Jonestown. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
Smith, Steven D. Law’s Quandary. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.
Smooha, Sammy. “The Model of Ethnic Democracy: Israel As a Jewish and Democratic State.” Nations and Nationalism 8, no. 4 (2002): 475503.
Stepan, Alfred C. “Religion, Democracy, and the ‘Twin Tolerations.’” Journal of Democracy 11, no. 4 (2000): 3757.
Stirrat, R L. “Demonic Possession in Roman Catholic Sri Lanka.” Journal of Anthropological Research 33, no. 2 (1977): 133157.
Sullivan, Winnifred F. The Impossibility of Religious Freedom. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.
Sullivan, Winnifred F., Taussig-Rubbo, Mateo and Yelle, Robert A. (eds.). After Secular Law. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2012.
Sunstein, Cass R. “Incompletely Theorized Agreements.” Harvard Law Review 108, no. 7 (1995): 17331772.
Suntharalingam, C. Eylom: Beginnings of the Freedom Struggle: Dozen Documents by C. Sunatharalingam with “Candid Comments and Criticisms by Lord Soulbury” (Pamphlet). Jaffna: īzam pancāyutam, 1963.
Tambiah, Stanley Jeyaraja. Buddhism Betrayed? Religion, Politics, and Violence in Sri Lanka. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Tambiah, Stanley Jeyaraja. Leveling Crowds: Ethnonationalist Conflicts and Collective Violence in South Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
Tambiah, Stanley Jeyaraja. World Conqueror and World Renouncer: A Study of Buddhism and Polity in Thailand Against a Historical Background. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1976.
Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF). “The Vaddukoddai Resolution.” Logos 16, no. 3 (1977): 1025.
Tennekoon, N Serena. “Rituals of Development: The Accelerated Mahaväli Development Program of Sri Lanka.” American Ethnologist 15, no. 2 (1988): 294310.
Thier, J Alexander. “Making of a Constitution in Afghanistan.” New York Law School Law Review 51 (2006): 557579.
Thomas, Jolyon B. Japan’s Preoccupation with Religious Freedom. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Religion, Princeton University, 2014.
Turner, Alicia. Saving Buddhism: The Impermanence of Religion in Colonial Burma. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2014.
Udagama, Nelum Deepika. “The Fragmented Republic: Reflections on the 1972 Constitution of Sri Lanka.” Sri Lanka Journal of Humanities 39, no. 1–2 (2014): 8197.
Udagama, Nelum Deepika. “The Sri Lankan Legal Complex and the Liberal Project: Only Thus Far and No More.” In Fates of Political Liberalism in the British Post-colony: The Politics of the Legal Complex. Edited by Halliday, Terence C, Karpik, Lucien and Feeley, Malcolm M. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
United Nations General Assembly. Report of the Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, Heiner Bielefeldt to the General Assembly of the UN, 2013, ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=1686 (accessed August 15, 2015).
Vaithianathan, K, and All-Ceylon-Hindu Congress. Catholic Action and Thiruketheeswaram (Pamphlet). n.p., n.d.
van der Horst, Josine. Who Is He, What Is He Doing: Religious Rhetoric and Performances in Sri Lanka During R. Premadasa’s Presidency (1989–1993). Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1995.
Various Medical Men. Ceylon’s Uplift (Through Buddhism). Colombo: Lake House, 1940.
Vijayavardhana, D C. The Revolt in the Temple: Composed to Commemorate 2500 Years of the Land, the Race and the Faith. Colombo: Sinha Publishers, 1953.
Viswanathan, Gauri. Outside the Fold: Conversion, Modernity, Belief. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.
Waltz, Susan. “Universalizing Human Rights: The Role of Small States in the Construction of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” Human Rights Quarterly 23, no. 1 (2001): 4472.
Warnapala, Wiswa. Sri Lanka Freedom Party: A Political Profile. Colombo: Godage International, 2005.
Weeramantry, Lucian. Assassination of a Prime Minister: The Bandaranaike Murder Case. Geneva, Switzerland: S.A. Studer, 1969.
Weerasooria, W S. Buddhist Ecclesiastical Law: A Treatise on Sri Lankan Statute Law and Judicial Decisions on Buddhist Temples and Temporalities. Colombo: Postgraduate Institute of Management, 2011.
Weerawardana, I D S. Ceylon General Election 1956. Colombo: Gunasena and Sons, 1960.
Weerawardana, I D S. “The General Elections in Ceylon, 1952.” The Ceylon Historical Journal 2, no. 1–2 (1952): 109178.
Welikala, Asanga (ed.). Reforming Sri Lankan Presidentialism: Provenance, Problems and Prospects. Colombo: Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2015.
Whitecross, Richard W. “Buddhism and Constitutions in Bhutan.” In Buddhism and Law: An Introduction. Edited by French, Rebecca R and Nathan, Mark A. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Wickramasinghe, Nira. Ethnic Politics in Colonial Sri Lanka. New Delhi: Vikas, 1995.
Wickramasignhe, Nira. Sri Lanka in the Modern Age: A History. London: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Widner, Jennifer. “Constitution Writing and Conflict Resolution.” The Round Table 94, no. 381 (2005): 503518.
Wijemanne, Adrian. War and Peace in Post-colonial Ceylon, 1948–1991. Orient Blackswan, 1996.
Wilson, A J. “The Colombo Man, the Jaffna Man, and the Batticaloa Man.” In The Sri Lankan Tamils: Ethnicity and Identity. Edited by Manogaran, Chelvadurai and Pfaffenberger, Bryan. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.
Wilson, A J. Electoral Politics in An Emergent State: The Ceylon General Election of May 1970. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.
Wilson, A J. The Gaullist System in Asia: The Constitution of Sri Lanka (1978). London: Macmillan Press, 1980.
Wilson, A J. “Minority Safeguards in the Ceylon Constitution,” Ceylon Journal of Historical and Social Studies 1, no. 1 (1958): 7395.
Wilson, A J. Politics in Sri Lanka 1947–1979. London: Macmillan, 1974.
Winn, Peter A. “Legal Ritual.” Law and Critique 2, no. 2 (1991): 207232.
Winslow, Deborah. “A Political Geography of Deities: Space and the Pantheon in Sinhalese Buddhism.” The Journal of Asian Studies 43, no. 2 (1984): 273291.
Winslow, Deborah, and Woost, Michael D. Economy, Culture, and Civil War in Sri Lanka. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2004.
Wriggins, Howard. Ceylon: Dilemmas of a New Nation. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1960.
Young, Richard F, and Jebanesan, S. The Bible Trembled: The Hindu-Christian Controversies of Nineteenth-Century Ceylon. Vienna: Inst. für Indologie der Univ. Wien, 1995.
Young, Richard F, and Somaratna, G P V. Vain Debates: Buddhist-Christian Controversies of Nineteenth-Century Ceylon. Wien: Institut für Indologie der Universität Wien, 1996.
Zeghal, Malika. “The Implicit Shariah.” In Varieties of Religious Establishment. Edited by Sullivan, Winnifred Fallers and Beamon, Lori G. London: Ashgate, 2013.