Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: October 2014

16 - Obsessive–compulsive disorder and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

from Section 4 - Social dysfunction and mental retardation

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


Abelson, J.F., Kwan, K.Y., O’Roak, B.J., et al. (2005) Sequence variants in SLITRK1 are associated with Tourette’s syndrome. Science 310: 317–320.
Acevedo, S.F., Ohtsu, H., Benice, T.S., Rizk-Jackson, A., and Raber, J. (2006a) Age-dependent measures of anxiety and cognition in male histidine decarboxylase knockout (Hdc–/–) mice. Brain Res 1071: 113–123.
Acevedo, S.F., Pfankuch, T., Ohtsu, H., and Raber, J. (2006b) Anxiety and cognition in female histidine decarboxylase knockout (Hdc(–/–)) mice. Behav Brain Res 168: 92–99.
Adams, K.H., Hansen, E.S., Pinborg, L.H., et al. (2005) Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder have increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in the caudate nuclei. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 8: 391–401.
Ahmari, S.E.Risbrough, V.B., Geyer, M.A., and Simpson, H.B. (2012) Impaired sensorimotor gating in unmedicated adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1216–1223.
Angoa-Perez, M., Kane, M.J., Briggs, D.I., et al. (2012) Genetic depletion of brain 5HT reveals a common molecular pathway mediating compulsivity and impulsivity. J Neurochem 121: 974–984.
Aoyama, K., Suh, S.W., Hamby, A.M., et al. (2006) Neuronal glutathione deficiency and age-dependent neurodegeneration in the EAAC1 deficient mouse. Nat Neurosci 9: 119–126.
Applegate, C.D. and Tecott, L.H. (1998) Global increases in seizure susceptibility in mice lacking 5-HT2C receptors: a behavioral analysis. Exp Neurol 154: 522–530.
Arnold, P.D., Sicard, T., Burroughs, E., Richter, M.A., and Kennedy, J.L. (2006) Glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1 associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63: 769–776.
Aruga, J., Yokota, N., and Mikoshiba, K. (2003) Human SLITRK family genes: genomic organization and expression profiling in normal brain and brain tumor tissue. Gene 315: 87–94.
Baxter, L.R., Jr. (2003) Basal ganglia systems in ritualistic social displays: reptiles and humans; function and illness. Physiol Behav 79: 451–460.
Baxter, L.R., Jr., Saxena, S., Brody, A.L., et al. (1996) Brain mediation of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms: evidence from functional brain imaging studies in the human and nonhuman primate. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry 1: 32–47.
Baxter, L.R., Jr., Schwartz, J.M., Guze, B.H., Bergman, K., and Szuba, M.P. (1990) PET imaging in obsessive compulsive disorder with and without depression. J Clin Psychiatry 51 Suppl: 61–70.
Bear, R.E., Fitzgerald, P., Rosenfeld, J.V., and Bittar, R.G. (2010) Neurosurgery for obsessive–compulsive disorder: contemporary approaches. J Clin Neurosci 17: 1–5.
Bebbington, P.E. (1998) Epidemiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Br J Psychiatry Suppl: 2–6.
Bendahan, A., Armon, A., Madani, N., Kavanaugh, M.P., and Kanner, B.I. (2000) Arginine 447 plays a pivotal role in substrate interactions in a neuronal glutamate transporter. J Biol Chem 275: 37436–37442.
Benkelfat, C., Nordahl, T.E., Semple, W.E., et al. (1990) Local cerebral glucose metabolic rates in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Patients treated with clomipramine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 47: 840–848.
Berardelli, A., Currà, A., Fabbrini, G., Gilio, F., and Manfredi, M. (2003) Pathophysiology of tics and Tourette syndrome. J Neurol 250: 781–787.
Berman, A.E., Chan, W.Y., Brennan, A.M., et al. (2011) N-acetylcysteine prevents loss of dopaminergic neurons in the EAAC1–/– mouse. Ann Neurol 69: 509–520.
Berridge, K.C., Aldridge, J.W., Houchard, K.R., and Zhuang, X. (2005) Sequential super-stereotypy of an instinctive fixed action pattern in hyper-dopaminergic mutant mice: a model of obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette’s. BMC Biol 3: 4.
Bessa, J.M., Ferreira, D., Melo, I., et al. (2009) The mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodeling. Mol Psychiatry 14: 764–773.
Bienvenu, O.J., Samuels, J.F., Riddle, M.A., et al. (2000) The relationship of obsessive-compulsive disorder to possible spectrum disorders: results from a family study. Biol Psychiatry 48: 287–293.
Bienvenu, O.J., Wang, Y., Shugart, Y.Y., et al. (2009) Sapap3 and pathological grooming in humans: results from the OCD collaborative genetics study. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 150B: 710–720.
Blazer, D.G., Kessler, R.C., McGonagle, K.A., and Swartz, M.S. (1994) The prevalence and distribution of major depression in a national community sample: the National Comorbidity Survey. Am J Psychiatry 151: 979–986.
Blier, P. (2003) The pharmacology of putative early-onset antidepressant strategies. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 13: 57–66.
Bloch, M.H., Landeros-Weisenberger, A., Kelmendi, B., et al. (2006) A systematic review: antipsychotic augmentation with treatment refractory obsessivecompulsive disorder. Mol Psychiatry 11: 622–632.
Breiter, H.C., Rauch, S.L., Kwong, K.K., et al. (1996) Functional magnetic resonance imaging of symptom provocation in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53: 595–606.
Broocks, A., Pigott, T.A., Hill, J.L., et al. (1998) Acute intravenous administration of ondansetron and m-CPP, alone and in combination, in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): behavioral and biological results. Psychiatry Res 79: 11–20.
Bruins Slot, L.A., Bardin, L., Auclair, A.L., Depoortere, R., and Newman-Tancredi, A. (2008) Effects of antipsychotics and reference monoaminergic ligands on marble burying behavior in mice. Behav Pharmacol 19: 145–152.
Cagniard, B., Balsam, P.D., Brunner, D., and Zhuang, X. (2006) Mice with chronically elevated dopamine exhibit enhanced motivation, but not learning, for a food reward. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 1362–1370.
Campbell, K.M., de Lecea, L., Severynse, D.M., et al. (1999a) OCD-like behaviors caused by a neuropotentiating transgene targeted to cortical and limbic D1+ neurons. J Neurosci 19: 5044–5053.
Campbell, K.M., McGrath, M.J., and Burton, F.H. (1999b) Differential response of cortical-limbic neuropotentiated compulsive mice to dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol 371: 103–111.
Campbell, K.M., Veldman, M.B., McGrath, M.J., and Burton, F.H. (2000) TS+OCD-like neuropotentiated mice are supersensitive to seizure induction. Neuroreport 11: 2335–2338.
Capecchi, M.R. (1997) Hox genes and mammalian development. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 62: 273–281.
Carlsson, M.L. (2000) On the role of cortical glutamate in obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention–deficit hyperactivity disorder, two phenomenologically antithetical conditions. Acta Psychiatr Scand 102: 401–413.
Cedarbaum, J.M. and Aghajanian, G.K. (1977) Catecholamine receptors on locus coeruleus neurons: pharmacological characterization. Eur J Pharmacol 44: 375–385.
Chamberlain, S.R., Fineberg, N.A., Blackwell, A.D., Robbins, T.W., and Sahakian, B.J. (2006) Motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania. Am J Psychiatry 163: 1282–1284.
Chamberlain, S.R., Fineberg, N.A., Menzies, L.A., et al. (2007) Impaired cognitive flexibility and motor inhibition in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 164: 335–338.
Chen, S.K., Tvrdik, P., Peden, E., et al. (2010) Hematopoietic origin of pathological grooming in Hoxb8 mutant mice. Cell 141: 775–785.
Cheng-Shannon, J., McGough, J.J., Pataki, C., and McCracken, J.T. (2004) Second-generation antipsychotic medications in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14: 372–394.
Chou-Green, J.M., Holscher, T.D., Dallman, M.F., and Akana, S.F. (2003) Compulsive behavior in the 5-HT2C receptor knockout mouse. Physiol Behav 78: 641–649.
Coffey, B.J., Biederman, J., Smoller, J.W., et al. (2000) Anxiety disorders and tic severity in juveniles with Tourette’s disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39: 562–568.
Creese, I., Feinberg, A.P., and Snyder, S.H. (1976) Butyrophenone influences on the opiate receptor. Eur J Pharmacol 36: 231–235.
Cromwell, H.C. and Berridge, K.C. (1996) Implementation of action sequences by a neostriatal site: a lesion mapping study of grooming syntax. J Neurosci 16: 3444–3458.
Cronbach, L.J. and Meehl, P.E. (1955) Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychol Bull 52: 281–302.
Dalla, C., Antoniou, K., Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z., Balthazart, J., and Bakker, J. (2005) Male aromatase-knockout mice exhibit normal levels of activity, anxiety and “depressive-like” symptomatology. Behav Brain Res 163: 186–193.
Davison, K. (2012) Autoimmunity in psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry 200: 353–355.
de Mathis, M.A., Diniz, J.B., Hounie, A.G., et al. (2013) Trajectory in obsessive–compulsive disorder comorbidities. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 23: 594–601.
Deng, H., Le, W.D., Xie, W.J., and Jankovic, J. (2006) Examination of the SLITRK1 gene in Caucasian patients with Tourette syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand 114: 400–402.
Denys, D., Zohar, J., and Westenberg, H.G. (2004) The role of dopamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: preclinical and clinical evidence. J Clin Psychiatry 65: 11–17.
Dere, E., De Souza-Silva, M.A., Spieler, R.E., et al. (2004) Changes in motoric, exploratory and emotional behaviours and neuronal acetylcholine content and 5-HT turnover in histidine decarboxylase-KO mice. Eur J Neurosci 20: 1051–1058.
Di Bella, D.D., Catalano, M., Cavallini, M.C., Riboldi, C., and Bellodi, L. (2000) Serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Mol Psychiatry 5: 233–234.
Dickel, D.E., Veenstra-VanderWeele, J., Cox, N.J., et al. (2006) Association testing of the positional and functional candidate gene SLC1A1/EAAC1 in early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63: 778–785.
Drexhage, R.C., Weigelt, K., van Beveren, N., et al. (2011) Immune and neuroimmune alterations in mood disorders and schizophrenia. Int Rev Neurobiol 101: 169–201.
Dringen, R. (2000) Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain. Prog Neurobiol 62: 649–671.
Dulawa, S.C., Holick, K.A., Gundersen, B., and Hen, R. (2004) Effects of chronic fluoxetine in animal models of anxiety and depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 29: 1321–1330.
Egashira, N., Okuno, R., Shirakawa, A., et al. (2012) Role of 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptors in marble-burying behavior in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 35: 376–379.
Eidelberg, D., Moeller, J.R., Antonini, A., et al. (1997) The metabolic anatomy of Tourette’s syndrome. Neurology 48: 927–934.
Ercan-Sencicek, A.G., Stillman, A.A., Ghosh, A.K., et al. (2010) L-histidine decarboxylase and Tourette’s syndrome. N Engl J Med 362: 1901–1908.
Fabbrini, G., Pasquini, M., Aurilia, C., et al. (2007) A large Italian family with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: clinical study and analysis of the SLITRK1 gene. Mov Disord 22: 2229–2234.
Fineberg, N.A. and Gale, T.M. (2005) Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 8: 107–129.
Fisher, C.R., Graves, K.H., Parlow, A.F., and Simpson, E.R. (1998) Characterization of mice deficient in aromatase (ArKO) because of targeted disruption of the cyp19 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 6965–6970.
Frade, J.M. and Barde, Y.A. (1998) Microglia-derived nerve growth factor causes cell death in the developing retina. Neuron 20: 35–41.
Gaffney, G.R., Perry, P.J., Lund, B.C., et al. (2002) Risperidone versus clonidine in the treatment of children and adolescents with Tourette’s syndrome. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41: 330–336.
Geyer, M. and Markou, A. (1995) Animal models of psychiatric disorders. In F. Bloom and D. Kupfer (eds) Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress. New York: Raven Press, pp. 787–798.
Ghanizadeh, A. and Mosallaei, S. (2009) Psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. Brain Dev 31: 15–19.
Gilbert, D.L., Dure, L., Sethuraman, G., et al. (2003) Tic reduction with pergolide in a randomized controlled trial in children. Neurology 60: 606–611.
Gilbert, D.L., Sethuraman, G., Sine, L., Peters, S., and Sallee, F.R. (2000) Tourette’s syndrome improvement with pergolide in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Neurology 54: 1310–1315.
Gillman, M.A. and Sandyk, R. (1985) Tourette syndrome and the opioid system. Psychiatry Res 15: 161–162.
Goetz, C.G., Tanner, C.M., Wilson, R.S., et al. (1987) Clonidine and Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome: double-blind study using objective rating methods. Ann Neurol 21: 307–310.
Golden, G.S. (1974) Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome following methylphenidate administration. Dev Med Child Neurol 16: 76–78.
Grant, J.E., Odlaug, B.L., and Kim, S.W. (2009) N-acetylcysteine, a glutamate modulator, in the treatment of trichotillomania: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 66: 756–763.
Greer, J.M. and Capecchi, M.R. (2002) Hoxb8 is required for normal grooming behavior in mice. Neuron 33: 23–34.
Hamik, A. and Peroutka, S.J. (1989) 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) interactions with neurotransmitter receptors in the human brain. Biol Psychiatry 25: 569–575.
Hanna, G.L., Veenstra-VanderWeele, J., Cox, N.J., et al. (2002) Genome-wide linkage analysis of families with obsessive–compulsive disorder ascertained through pediatric probands. Am J Med Genet 114: 541–552.
Hanna, G.L., Veenstra-Vanderweele, J., Cox, N.J., et al. (2007) Evidence for a susceptibility locus on chromosome 10p15 in early-onset obsessivecompulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 62: 856–862.
Heisler, L.K., Zhou, L., Bajwa, P., Hsu, J., and Tecott, L.H. (2007) Serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptors regulate anxiety-like behavior. Genes Brain Behav 6: 491–496.
Hemmings, S.M., Kinnear, C.J., Niehaus, D.J., et al. (2003) Investigating the role of dopaminergic and serotonergic candidate genes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 13: 93–98.
Hoenig, K., Hochrein, A., Quednow, B.B., Maier, W., and Wagner, M. (2005) Impaired prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 57: 1153–1158.
Hollander, E. and Pallanti, S. (2002) Current and experimental therapeutics of OCD. In K. Davis, et al. (eds) Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 1648–1665.
Hollander, E., Prohovnik, I., and Stein, D.J. (1995) Increased cerebral blood flow during m-CPP exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 7: 485–490.
Holstege, J.C., de Graaff, W., Hossaini, M., et al. (2008) Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105: 6338–6343.
Hu, X.Z., Lipsky, R.H., Zhu, G., et al. (2006) Serotonin transporter promoter gain-of-function genotypes are linked to obsessive–compulsive disorder. Am J Hum Genet 78: 815–826.
Hur, Y.M. and Jeong, H.U. (2008) Sex differences in genetic and environmental influences on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in South Korean adolescent and young adult twins. Twin Res Hum Genet 11: 314–320.
Jimenez-Gomez, C., Osentoski, A., and Woods, J.H. (2011) Pharmacological evaluation of the adequacy of marble burying as an animal model of compulsion and/or anxiety. Behav Pharmacol 22: 711–713.
Jones, M.E., Thorburn, A.W., Britt, K.L., et al. (2000) Aromatase-deficient (ArKO) mice have a phenotype of increased adiposity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 12735–12740.
Karagiannidis, I., Rizzo, R., Tarnok, Z., et al. (2012) Replication of association between a SLITRK1 haplotype and Tourette syndrome in a large sample of families. Mol Psychiatry 17: 665–668.
Katayama, K., Yamada, K., Ornthanalai, V.G., et al. (2010) Slitrk1-deficient mice display elevated anxiety-like behavior and noradrenergic abnormalities. Mol Psychiatry 15: 177–184.
Kermadi, I. and Joseph, J.P. (1995) Activity in the caudate nucleus of monkey during spatial sequencing. J Neurophysiol 74: 911–933.
Kessler, R.C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., et al. (2005) Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62: 593–602.
Khanna, S., John, J.P., and Reddy, L.P. (2001) Neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to mCPP in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 26: 209–223.
Kim, C.H., Cheon, K.A., Koo, M.S., et al. (2007) Dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia in obsessive-compulsive disorder, measured with [123I]IPT SPECT before and after treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Neuropsychobiology 55: 156–162.
Kim, S.J., Veenstra-VanderWeele, J., Hanna, G.L., et al. (2000) Mutation screening of human 5-HT(2B) receptor gene in early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Mol Cell Probes 14: 47–52.
King, R.A., Scahill, L., Vitulano, L.A., et al. (1995) Childhood trichotillomania: clinical phenomenology, comorbidity, and family genetics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34: 1451–1459.
Koran, L.M., Hanna, G.L., Hollander, E., et al. (2007) Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 164: 5–53.
Koran, L.M., Pallanti, S., and Quercioli, L. (2001) Sumatriptan, 5-HT(1D) receptors and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 11: 169–172.
Kubota, Y., Ito, C., Sakurai, E., et al. (2002) Increased methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity and behavioral sensitization in histamine-deficient mice. J Neurochem 83: 837–845.
Kurlan, R. (2003) Tourette’s syndrome: are stimulants safe? Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 3: 285–288.
Kurlan, R., Como, P.G., Miller, B., et al. (2002) The behavioral spectrum of tic disorders: a community-based study. Neurology 59: 414–420.
Lafleur, D.L., Pittenger, C., Kelmendi, B., et al. (2006) N-acetylcysteine augmentation in serotonin reuptake inhibitor refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychopharmacology 184: 254–256.
Leckman, J.F. (2002) Tourette’s syndrome. Lancet 360: 1577–1586.
Leckman, J.F., Hardin, M.T., Riddle, M.A., et al. (1991) Clonidine treatment of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48: 324–328.
Lennkh, C., Strnad, A., Bailer, U., et al. (1998) Comorbidity of obsessive compulsive disorder in patients with eating disorders. Eat Weight Disord 3: 37–41.
Leonard, H.L., Lenane, M.C., Swedo, S.E., et al. (1992) Tics and Tourette’s disorder: a 2- to 7-year follow-up of 54 obsessive–compulsive children. Am J Psychiatry 149: 1244–1251.
Li, X., May, R.S., Tolbert, L.C., et al. (2005) Risperidone and haloperidol augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a crossover study. J Clin Psychiatry 66: 736–743.
Liang, K.Y., Wang, Y., Shugart, Y.Y., et al. (2008) Evidence for potential relationship between SLC1A1 and a putative genetic linkage region on chromosome 14q to obsessive-compulsive disorder with compulsive hoarding. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 147B: 1000–1002.
Lochner, C. and Stein, D.J. (2010) Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders in obsessive–compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders. Psychopathology 43: 389–396.
Lombroso, P.J. and Scahill, L. (2008) Tourette syndrome and obsessive–compulsive disorder. Brain Dev 30: 231–237.
Lucey, J.V., Costa, D.C., Blanes, T., et al. (1995) Regional cerebral blood flow in obsessive-compulsive disordered patients at rest. Differential correlates with obsessive-compulsive and anxious-avoidant dimensions. Br J Psychiatry 167: 629–634.
MacLean, P.D. (1978) Effects of lesions of globus pallidus on species-typical display behavior of squirrel monkeys. Brain Res 149: 175–196.
Marin-Teva, J.L., Dusart, I., Colin, C., et al. (2004) Microglia promote the death of developing Purkinje cells. Neuron 41: 535–547.
Mason, A., Banerjee, S., Eapen, V., et al. (1998) The prevalence of Tourette syndrome in a mainstream school population. Dev Med Child Neurol 40: 292–296.
Mathews, C.A., Nievergelt, C.M., Azzam, A., et al. (2007) Heritability and clinical features of multigenerational families with obsessive–compulsive disorder and hoarding. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 144B: 174–182.
Matsumoto, T., Honda, S., and Harada, N. (2003) Alteration in sex-specific behaviors in male mice lacking the aromatase gene. Neuroendocrinology 77: 416–424.
McGrath, M.J., Campbell, K.M., and Burton, F.H. (1999a) The role of cognitive and affective processing in a transgenic mouse model of cortical-limbic neuropotentiated compulsive behavior. Behav Neurosci 113: 1249–1256.
McGrath, M.J., Campbell, K.M., Veldman, M.B., and Burton, F.H. (1999b) Anxiety in a transgenic mouse model of cortical-limbic neuro-potentiated compulsive behavior. Behav Pharmacol 10: 435–443.
McGuire, P.K., Bench, C.J., Frith, C.D., et al. (1994) Functional anatomy of obsessive-compulsive phenomena. Br J Psychiatry 164: 459–468.
Moriarty, J., Costa, D.C., Schmitz, B., et al. (1995) Brain perfusion abnormalities in Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome. Br J Psychiatry 167: 249–254.
Murray, C.J. and Lopez, A.D. (1996) Evidence-based health policy: lessons from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Science 274: 740–743.
Nestadt, G., Samuels, J., Riddle, M.A., et al. (2001) The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety and affective disorders: results from the Johns Hopkins OCD Family Study. Psychol Med 31: 481–487.
Nordstrom, E.J. and Burton, F.H. (2002) A transgenic model of comorbid Tourette’s syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder circuitry. Mol Psychiatry 7: 617–625.
O’Donnell, L., Robertson, K.M., Jones, M.E., and Simpson, E.R. (2001) Estrogen and spermatogenesis. Endocr Rev 22: 289–318.
O’Roak, B.J., Morgan, T.M., Fishman, D.O., et al. (2010) Additional support for the association of SLITRK1 var321 and Tourette syndrome. Mol Psychiatry 15: 447–450.
Ohtsu, H., Tanaka, S., Terui, T., et al. (2001) Mice lacking histidine decarboxylase exhibit abnormal mast cells. FEBS Lett 502: 53–56.
Oz, O.K., Hirasawa, G., Lawson, J., et al. (2001) Bone phenotype of the aromatase deficient mouse. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 79: 49–59.
Pallanti, S., Quercioli, L., and Bruscoli, M. (2004) Response acceleration with mirtazapine augmentation of citalopram in obsessive–compulsive disorder patients without comorbid depression: a pilot study. J Clin Psychiatry 65: 1394–1399.
Pauls, D.L. (2008) The genetics of obsessive compulsive disorder: a review of the evidence. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 148C: 133–139.
Pecina, S., Cagniard, B., Berridge, K.C., et al. (2003) Hyperdopaminergic mutant mice have higher “wanting” but not “liking” for sweet rewards. J Neurosci 23: 9395–9402.
Peghini, P., Janzen, J., and Stoffel, W. (1997) Glutamate transporter EAAC-1-deficient mice develop dicarboxylic aminoaciduria and behavioral abnormalities but no neurodegeneration. EMBO J 16: 3822–3832.
Penades, R., Catalan, R., Rubia, K., et al. (2007) Impaired response inhibition in obsessive compulsive disorder. Eur Psychiatry 22: 404–410.
Perani, D., Colombo, C., Bressi, S., et al. (1995) [18F]FDG PET study in obsessive-compulsive disorder. A clinical/metabolic correlation study after treatment. Br J Psychiatry 166: 244–250.
Peters, M.D., 2nd., Davis, S.K., and Austin, L.S. (1990) Clomipramine: an antiobsessional tricyclic antidepressant. Clin Pharm 9: 165–178.
Pigott, T.A., Hill, J.L., Grady, T.A., et al. (1993) A comparison of the behavioral effects of oral versus intravenous mCPP administration in OCD patients and the effect of metergoline prior to i.v. mCPP. Biol Psychiatry 33: 3–14.
Pigott, T.A., Zohar, J., Hill, J.L., et al. (1991) Metergoline blocks the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of orally administered m-chlorophenylpiperazine in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 29: 418–426.
Pittenger, C., Bloch, M.H., and Williams, K. (2011) Glutamate abnormalities in obsessive compulsive disorder: neurobiology, pathophysiology, and treatment. Pharmacol Ther 132: 314–332.
Pittenger, C., Krystal, J.H., and Coric, V. (2006) Glutamate-modulating drugs as novel pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder. NeuroRx 3: 69–81.
Price, R.A., Kidd, K.K., Cohen, D.J., et al. (1985) A twin study of Tourette syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42: 815–820.
Ralph-Williams, R.J., Paulus, M.P., Zhuang, X., et al. (2003) Valproate attenuates hyperactive and perseverative behaviors in mutant mice with a dysregulated dopamine system. Biol Psychiatry 53: 352–359.
Riddle, M.A., Rasmusson, A.M., Woods, S.W., and Hoffer, P.B. (1992) SPECT imaging of cerebral blood flow in Tourette syndrome. Adv Neurol 58: 207–211.
Robertson, K.M., O’Donnell, L., Jones, M.E., et al. (1999) Impairment of spermatogenesis in mice lacking a functional aromatase (cyp 19) gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 7986–7991.
Robertson, M.M. and Cavanna, A.E. (2007) The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a principal component factor analytic study of a large pedigree. Psychiatric Genet 17: 143–152.
Robins, L.N., Helzer, J.E., Weissman, M.M., et al. (1984) Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41: 949–958.
Rocha, F.F., Alvarenga, N.B., Lage, N.V., et al. (2011) Associations between polymorphic variants of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene and obsessive–compulsive disorder. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 33: 176–180.
Rosenberg, D.R., MacMaster, F.P., Keshavan, M.S., et al. (2000) Decrease in caudate glutamatergic concentrations in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder patients taking paroxetine. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39: 1096–1103.
Ross, J., Badner, J., Garrido, H., et al. (2011) Genomewide linkage analysis in Costa Rican families implicates chromosome 15q14 as a candidate region for OCD. Hum Genet 130: 795–805.
Rubin, R.T., Villanueva-Meyer, J., Ananth, J., Trajmar, P.G., and Mena, I. (1992) Regional xenon 133 cerebral blood flow and cerebral technetium 99m HMPAO uptake in unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and matched normal control subjects. Determination by high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49: 695–702.
Sandor, P. (2003) Pharmacological management of tics in patients with TS. J Psychosom Res 55: 41–48.
Sawle, G.V., Hymas, N.F., Lees, A.J., and Frackowiak, R.S. (1991) Obsessional slowness. Functional studies with positron emission tomography. Brain 114: 2191–2202.
Saxena, S., Brody, A.L., Ho, M.L., et al. (2002) Differential cerebral metabolic changes with paroxetine treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder vs major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59: 250–261.
Saxena, S., Brody, AL, Maidment, K.M., et al. (1999) Localized orbitofrontal and subcortical metabolic changes and predictors of response to paroxetine treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 21: 683–693.
Saxena, S. and Rauch, S.L. (2000) Functional neuroimaging and the neuroanatomy of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am 23: 563–586.
Scahill, L., Chappell, P.B., Kim, Y.S., et al. (2001) A placebo-controlled study of guanfacine in the treatment of children with tic disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 158: 1067–1074.
Scharf, J.M., Moorjani, P., Fagerness, J., et al. (2008) Lack of association between SLITRK1var321 and Tourette syndrome in a large family-based sample. Neurology 70: 1495–1496.
Scharf, J.M., Yu, D., Mathews, C.A., et al. (2012) Genome-wide association study of Tourette’s syndrome. Mol Psychiatry.
Schwartz, J.M., Stoessel, P.W., Baxter, L.R., Jr., Martin, K.M., and Phelps, M.E. (1996) Systematic changes in cerebral glucose metabolic rate after successful behavior modification treatment of obsessivecompulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53: 109–113.
Segal, N.L., Dysken, M.W., Bouchard, T.J., Jr., et al. (1990) Tourette’s disorder in a set of reared-apart triplets: genetic and environmental influences. Am J Psychiatry 147: 196–199.
Seignot, J.N. (1961) A case of tic of Gilles de la Tourette cured by R 1625. Annales medico-psychologiques 119: 578–579.
Shanahan, N.A., Velez, L.P., Masten, V.L., and Dulawa, S.C. (2011) Essential role for orbitofrontal serotonin 1B receptors in obsessive–compulsive disorder-like behavior and serotonin reuptake inhibitor response in mice. Biol Psychiatry 70: 1039–1048.
Sheppard, D.M., Bradshaw, J.L., Purcell, R., and Pantelis, C. (1999) Tourette’s and comorbid syndromes: obsessive compulsive and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A common etiology? Clin Psychol Rev 19: 531–552.
Shmelkov, S.V., Hormigo, A., Jing, D., et al. (2010) Slitrk5 deficiency impairs corticostriatal circuitry and leads to obsessive–compulsive-like behaviors in mice. Nat Med 16: 598–602.
Shugart, Y.Y., Samuels, J., Willour, V.L., et al. (2006) Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence for susceptibility loci on chromosomes 3q, 7p, 1q, 15q, and 6q. Mol Psychiatry 11: 763–770.
Sieg, K.G., Buckingham, D., Gaffney, G.R., Preston, D.F., and Sieg, K.G. (1993) Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT brain imaging of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome. Clin Nucl Med 18: 255.
Simpson, H.B., Lombardo, I., Slifstein, M., et al. (2003) Serotonin transporters in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a positron emission tomography study with [(11)C]McN 5652. Biol Psychiatry 54: 1414–1421.
Singer, H.S. and Minzer, K. (2003) Neurobiology of Tourette’s syndrome: concepts of neuroanatomic localization and neurochemical abnormalities. Brain Dev 25: S70–S84.
Stein, D.J., Goodman, W.K., and Rauch, S.L. (2000) The cognitive-affective neuroscience of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2: 341–346.
Stengler-Wenzke, K., Muller, U., Angermeyer, M.C., et al. (2004) Reduced serotonin transporter-availability in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 254: 252–255.
Stewart, S.E., Fagerness, J.A., Platko, J., et al. (2007) Association of the SLC1A1 glutamate transporter gene and obsessive–compulsive disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 144B: 1027–1033.
Stewart, S.E., Jenike, M.A., and Keuthen, N.J. (2005) Severe obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without comorbid hair pulling: comparisons and clinical implications. J Clin Psychiatry 66: 864–869.
Stewart, S.E., Yu, D., Scharf, J.M., et al. (2013) Genome-wide association study of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Mol Psychiatry 18: 788–798.
Stillman, A., Ercan-Sencicek, A.G., and State, M.W. (1993) Tourette disorder overview. In R.A. Pagon et al. (eds) Gene Reviews. Seattle, WA.
Swedo, S.E., Pietrini, P., Leonard, H.L., et al. (1992) Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Revisualization during pharmacotherapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49: 690–694.
Swedo, S.E., Schapiro, M.B., Grady, C.L., et al. (1989) Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 46: 518–523.
Swerdlow, N.R., Benbow, C.H., Zisook, S., Geyer, M.A., and Braff, D.L. (1993) A preliminary assessment of sensorimotor gating in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 33: 298–301.
Swerdlow, N.R. and Sutherland, A.N. (2005) Using animal models to develop therapeutics for Tourette syndrome. Pharmacol Ther 108: 281–293.
Taj, M.J.R., Viswanath, B., Purushottam, M., et al. (2012) DRD4 gene and obsessive compulsive disorder: do symptom dimensions have specific genetic correlates? Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 41C: 18–23.
Tanaka, K., Watase, K., Manabe, T., et al. (1997) Epilepsy and exacerbation of brain injury in mice lacking the glutamate transporter GLT-1. Science 276: 1699–1702.
Tecott, L.H., Sun, L.M., Akana, S.F., et al. (1995) Eating disorder and epilepsy in mice lacking 5-HT2c serotonin receptors. Nature 374: 542–546.
Thomas, D.M., Angoa Pérez, M., Francescutti-Verbeem, D.M., Shah, M.M., and Kuhn, D.M. (2010) The role of endogenous serotonin in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum. J Neurochem 115: 595–605.
Thomsen, P.H. and Jensen, J. (1994) Obsessive–compulsive disorder: admission patterns and diagnostic stability. A case-register study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 90: 19–24.
Toda, K., Saibara, T., Okada, T., Onishi, S., and Shizuta, Y. (2001) A loss of aggressive behaviour and its reinstatement by oestrogen in mice lacking the aromatase gene (Cyp19). J Endocrinol 168: 217–220.
van den Buuse, M., Simpson, E.R., and Jones, M.E. (2003) Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in aromatase knock-out mice: effects of age and gender. Genes Brain Behav 2: 93–102.
van Grootheest, D.S., Cath, D.C., Beekman, A.T., and Boomsma, D.I. (2005) Twin studies on obsessive–compulsive disorder: a review. Twin Res Hum Genet 8: 450–458.
Verkerk, A.J., Mathews, C.A., Joosse, M., et al. (2003) CNTNAP2 is disrupted in a family with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder. Genomics 82: 1–9.
Wan, Y., Feng, G., and Calakos, N. (2011) Sapap3 deletion causes mGluR5-dependent silencing of AMPAR synapses. J Neurosci 31: 16685–16691.
Wang, Z., Maia, T.V., Marsh, R., et al. (2011) The neural circuits that generate tics in Tourette’s syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 168: 1326–1337.
Welch, J.M., Wang, D., and Feng, G. (2004) Differential mRNA expression and protein localization of the SAP90/PSD-95-associated proteins (SAPAPs) in the nervous system of the mouse. J Comp Neurol 472: 24–39.
Wendland, J.R., Moya, P.R., Kruse, M.R., et al. (2008) A novel, putative gain-offunction haplotype at SLC6A4 associates with obsessive–compulsive disorder. Hum Mol Genet 17: 717–723.
Willner, P. (1997) Validity, reliability and utility of the chronic mild stress model of depression: a 10-year review and evaluation. Psychopharmacology 134: 319–329.
Willour, V.L., Yao Shugart, Y., Samuels, J., et al. (2004) Replication study supports evidence for linkage to 9p24 in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Am J Hum Genet 75: 508–513.
Wright, A., Rickards, H., and Cavanna, A.E. (2012) Impulse-control disorders in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 24: 16–27.
Yalcin, I., Belzung, C., and Surget, A. (2008) Mouse strain differences in the unpredictable chronic mild stress: a four-antidepressant survey. Behav Brain Res 193: 140–143.
Zambaldi, C.F., Cantilino, A., Montenegro, A.C., et al. (2009) Postpartum obsessive–compulsive disorder: prevalence and clinical characteristics. Compr Psychiatry 50: 503–509.
Zhang, F., Aravanis, A.M., Adamantidis, A., de Lecea, L., and Deisseroth, K. (2007) Circuit-breakers: optical technologies for probing neural signals and systems. Nat Rev Neurosci 8: 577–581.
Zerangue, N. and Kavanaugh, M.P. (1996) Interaction of L-cysteine with a human excitatory amino acid transporter. J Physiol 493: 419–423.
Zhuang, X., Oosting, R.S., Jones, S.R., et al. (2001) Hyperactivity and impaired response habituation in hyperdopaminergic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 1982–1987.
Zimprich, A., Hatala, K., Riederer, F., et al. (2008) Sequence analysis of the complete SLITRK1 gene in Austrian patients with Tourette’s disorder. Psychiatric Genet 18: 308–309.
Zohar, J. and Insel, T.R. (1987) Obsessive–compulsive disorder: psychobiological approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and pathophysiology. Biol Psychiatry 22: 667–687.
Zuchner, S., Wendland, J.R., Ashley-Koch, A.E., et al. (2009) Multiple rare SAPAP3 missense variants in trichotillomania and OCD. Mol Psychiatry 14: 6–9.