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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: November 2014

6 - Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)

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1. Mehta RL, Kellum JA, Shah SV, et al. Acute Kidney Injury Network: report of an initiative to improve outcomes in acute kidney injury. Crit Care 2007;11(2): R31. Available to download at
2. NCEPOD. Adding Insult to Injury. A review of the care of patients who died in hospital with a primary diagnosis of acute kidney injury (acute renal failure). 2009.

Further reading

Ashley C, Currie A. The Renal Drug Handbook, 3rd revised edn. Radcliffe Publishing, 2008.
Coresh J, Astor BC, Greene T, Eknoyan G, Levey AS. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: third national health and nutrition examination study. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 41(1): 1–12.
NICE. Acute kidney injury. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Clinical Guideline 169 (2013). Available to download at
NICE. Chronic kidney disease: early identification and management of chronic kidney disease in adults in primary and secondary care. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Clinical Guideline 73 (2008). Available to download at
RCPE UK Consensus Conference on ‘Management of acute kidney injury: the role of fluids, e alerts and biomarkers’, 16 and 17 November 2012, members of Consensus Panel: Feehally J (Co-Chair); Gilmore I (Co-Chair) et al.
The ASTRAL Investigators. Revascularization versus medical therapy for renal-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:1953–1962.