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1 - Women’s Movements and the Recognition of Gender Equality in the Constitution-Making Process in Morocco and Tunisia (2011–2014)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 March 2019

Ruth Rubio-Marín
Affiliation:
Universidad de Sevilla
Helen Irving
Affiliation:
University of Sydney
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Summary

Explores the history of women’s participation in constitution-making in Morocco and Tunisia, and outlines the strategies women have adopted to have their aspirations for constitutional equality heard. Comparing the two countries, it considers the debate about gender equality and complementarity and assesses the capability of historical feminist organisations to influence constitution-making process during the ‘transition to democracy.’ It argues that, despite the differences between the two countries, women’s movements in both have proved their importance as social actors, and in a new understanding of gender policies that affects the entire society from a political, juridical, economic and social perspective. In both countries, however, the central power used the narrative of gender equality for political objectives, mainly to advertise its democratic nature. Women’s rights and gender equality remain socially contested.
Type
Chapter
Information
Women as Constitution-Makers
Case Studies from the New Democratic Era
, pp. 31 - 80
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

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References

Primary Sources

Belhaj, Ahlem, former president of ATFD. Tunis, 8 July 2016.
Benjamia, Mounia, former president of ATFD. Tunis, 4 July 2016.
Ben Muhammad, Imen, Deputy of Nahda Party. Tunis, 12 July 2016.
Bouslama, Zayneb, activist of the 20 February Movement. Rabat, 26 August 2011.
Chekir, Hafidha, Jurist and member of ATFD and AFTURD. Tunis, 11 July 2016.
Cherif, Fatma, Association Tunisian Women (Nisā’ Tunisiyyāt). Tunis, 7 July 2016.
El-Barrad, Yousra, activist of the LDDF. Casablanca, 17 September 2014.
Maaruf, Salma, activist of the 20 February Movement. Rabat, 11 September 2014.
Riadi, Khadija, former president of AMDH. Rabat, 10 September 2014.
Sakhi, Montassir, scholar and activist of 20 February Movement. Rabat, 27 August 2011.
Tafnout, Amina, former member of the ADFM. Rabat, 25 October 2011.

Secondary Sources

Al-Bawsala: www.albawsala.com Feminist Spring for Democracy and Equality, blog: https://pfdemaroc.wordpress.com/.
France 24, ‘‘Complémentarité’ contre ‘égalité’ des sexes, la polémique enfle en Tunisie’, www.france24.com/fr/20120808-tunisie-droits-femmes-feminisme-complementarite-contre-egalite-sexes-projet-loi-polemique-constitution
Le Monde, ‘L’appel des femmes arabes pour la dignité et l’égalité’, 8 March 2012, in www.lemonde.fr/journee-de-la-femme/article/2012/03/08/l-appel-des-femmes-arabes-pour-la-dignite-et-l-egalite_1653328_1650673.html
OHCHR, ‘Tunisia: UN expert group calls for guarantees on gender equality and women’s rights advancement’, 14 January 2013, http://newsarchive.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=12924&LangID=E.
Petition Avaaz: ‘Protégez les droits de citoyenneté de la femme en Tunisie !’, 2 August 2012, www.avaaz.org/fr/petition/Protegez_les_droits_de_citoyennete_de_la_femme_en_Tunisie//?t
Search for Common Ground, Tunisian Women’s Dialogue Project: www.sfcg.org/tunisia/
UNDP, ‘New constitution a historic landmark on journey to democracy for Tunisia’, 27 January 2014, in http://open.undp.org/#project/00064278
UNDP, Activity Report, Project of Support to Constitution-building, Parliamentary Development and National Dialogue in Tunisia, May 2012–September 2014.
UNDP, ‘Appui Processus Constitutionnel Dialogue National’, in http://open.undp.org/#project/00064278
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