Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-dc8c957cd-k7f5t Total loading time: 0.775 Render date: 2022-01-29T01:19:57.256Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

2 - Women and Constitution-Making in Post-Communist Romania*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 March 2019

Ruth Rubio-Marín
Affiliation:
Universidad de Sevilla
Helen Irving
Affiliation:
University of Sydney
Get access

Summary

Explores the history of women’s participation in constitution-making in post-communist Romania, and identifies five key ‘constitutional moments’ since 1989, finding that, in none, was a gender agenda explicitly pursued, nor did a critical mass of women, let alone feminists, rise up as key actors in the process of constitution-making or reform. The more recent constitutional moments, however, include a turn to popular participation that has created some space for women’s issues to be debated. Developments post-2015, the authors argue, may yet galvanise activists to engage more deeply with policy-making and to learn to articulate their demands in constitutional terms. To explain these conclusions, the chapter traverses the history of the development of women’s rights in Romania, and provides background on the state of, or rather lack of, a feminist movement in pre-1989 Romania and its very recent fledgling beginnings.
Type
Chapter
Information
Women as Constitution-Makers
Case Studies from the New Democratic Era
, pp. 81 - 152
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Primary Sources

Ackerman, B., 1991. We the People: Foundations (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
Baciu, A., 1988. The Role of the 1923 Constitution in Consolidating National Unity. The Evolution of the Constitutional Matter in Interwar Romania (Rolul Constitutiei din 1923 in Consolidarea Unitatiii Nationale. Evolutia Problemei Constitutionale in Romania Interbelica) (Bucuresti: Editura Stiintifica si Enciclopedica).Google Scholar
Blandiana, A., 2013. False Treatise of Manipulation (Fals Tratat de Manipulare) (Bucuresti: Humanitas).Google Scholar
Bucur, I., 2014. Year 1990: Parties, Ideologies and Political Mobilization (Anul 1990: Partide, Ideologii si Mobilizare Politica) (Bucuresti: IRRD).Google Scholar
Chiva, C., 2017. Gender, Institutions and Political Representation: Reproducing Male Dominance in Europe’s New Democracies (London: Palgrave Macmillan).Google Scholar
Cornea, D., 2006. The Power of Fragility (Puterea Fragilitatii) (Bucuresti: Humanitas).Google Scholar
Cornea, D., 2009. Journal: Last Notebooks (Jurnal: Ultimele Caiete) (Bucuresti: Fundatia Academia Civica, Centrul International de Studii asupra Comunismului).Google Scholar
Corrin, C. (ed.), 1992. Superwomen and the Double Burden: Women’s Experience of Change in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union (London: Scarlet Press).Google Scholar
Deletant, D., 1995. Ceausescu and the Securitate: Coercion and Dissent in Romania, 1965–1989 (London: Hurst Hurst & Company).Google Scholar
Focseneanu, E., 2009. The Constitutional History of Romania (1859–2003) [Istoria Constitutionala a Romaniei (1859–2003)], vol. III (self-published by E. Focseneanu).
Funk, N. and Mueller, M. (eds.), 1993. Gender Politics and Post-Communism: Reflections from Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union (New York: Routledge).Google Scholar
Gallagher, T., 2008. Modern Romania: The End of Communism, the Failure of Democratic Reform, and the Theft of a Nation (New York University Press).Google Scholar
Ioncica, D., Stanga, O. and Puiu, V., 1998. The Genesis of the Romanian Constitution of 1991: The Works of the Constituent Assembly (Geneza Constitutiei Romaniei 1991: Lucrarile Adunarii Constituante) (Bucuresti: Regia Autonoma ‘Monitorul Oficial’).Google Scholar
Iorgovan, A., 1998. The Odyssey of Drafting the Constitution (Odiseea Elaborarii Constitutiei) (Targu Mures: Editura Uniunii Vatra Romaneasca).Google Scholar
Jaquette, J. S. and Wolchik, S. L. (eds.), 1998. Women and Democracy: Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press).Google Scholar
Jinga, L. M., 2015. Gender and Representation in Communist Romania: 1944–1989 (Gen si Reprezentare in Romania Comunista: 1944–1989) (Iasi: Polirom).Google Scholar
Kligman, G., 1998. The Politics of Duplicity: Controlling Reproduction in Ceausescu’s Romania (Berkeley: University of California Press).Google Scholar
Lane, J. -E., 1996. Constitutions and Political Theory (Manchester University Press).Google Scholar
Levy, R., 2001. Ana Pauker: The Rise and Fall of a Jewish Communist (Berkeley: University of California Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Long, K. S., 1996. We All Fought for Freedom: Women in Poland’s Solidarity Movement (Boulder, CO: Westview Press).Google Scholar
Miroiu, M., 2004. The Road to Autonomy. Political Feminist Theories (Drumul catre Autonomie. Teorii Politice Feministe) (Iasi: Polirom).Google Scholar
Pavel, D. and Huiu, I., 2003. ‘We Can Succeed Together Only’: An Analytical History of the Democratic Convention, 1989–2000 (‘Nu Putem Reuşi Decit Impreuna̮’: O Istorie Analitica a Conventiei Democratice, 1989–2000) (Iasi: Polirom).Google Scholar
Penn, S., 2006. Solidarity’s Secret:The Women Who Defeated Communism in Poland (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press).Google Scholar
Putnam, R. D., 1976. The Comparative Study of Political Elites (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall).Google Scholar
Reading, A., 1992. Polish Women, Solidarity and Feminism (Basingstoke, Hampshire: MacMillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rueschemeyer, M. (ed.), 1998. Women in the Politics of Postcommunist Eastern Europe (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe).Google Scholar
Sadurski, W., 2012. Constitutionalism and the Enlargement of Europe (Oxford University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sadurski, W., 2014. Rights Before Courts: A Study of Constitutional Courts in Postcommunist States of Central and Eastern Europe, 2nd edn (Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sadurski, W., Czarnota, A. and Krygier, M. (eds.), 2005. Rethinking the Rule of Law after Communism (Budapest and New York: Central European University Press).Google Scholar
Saxonberg, S., 2014. Gendering Family Policies in Post-Communist Europe: A Historical-Institutional Analysis (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siani-Davies, P., 2005. The Romanian Revolution of December 1989 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
Waylen, G., 2007. Engendering Transitions: Women’s Mobilization, Institutions, and Gender Outcomes (New York: Oxford University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zamfir, C. and Filipescu, I. (eds.), 2015. Romanian Sociology: 1900–2010. A Social History (Sociologia Romaneasca: 1900–2010. O Istorie Sociala) (Cluj-Napoca: Editura Scoala Ardeleana, Eikon).Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

Cheschebec, R., 2012. ‘The achievement of female suffrage in Romania’, in Rodríguez-Ruiz, B. and Rubio-Marín, R. (eds.), The Struggle for Female Suffrage in Europe: Voting to Become Citizens (Leiden and Boston: Brill), pp. 357372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dobos, C., 2010. ‘Socio-economic measures to stimulate natality in “Eastern Europe”(Masuri socioeconomice de stimulare a natalitatii in “Europa de Est”)’, in Dobos, C. (ed.)., The Pronatalist Politics of Ceausescu Regime (Politica Pronatalista a Regimului Ceausescu), vol. I (Iasi: Polirom), pp. 189222.Google Scholar
Duculescu, V. and Adam, R, 2006. ‘Romania’, in Kellermann, A. E., Czuczai, J., Blockmans, S., Albi, A., Douma, W. Th. (eds.), The Impact of EU Accession on the Legal Orders of New EU Member States and (Pre-)Candidate Countries: Hopes and Fears (The Hague: TMC Asser Press), pp. 113141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fischer, M. E., 1985. ‘Women in Romanian politics: Elena Ceausescu, pronatalism, and the promotion of women’, in Wolchik, S. L. and Meyer, A. G. (eds.), Women, State, and Party in Eastern Europe (Durham, NC: Duke University Press), pp. 121137.Google Scholar
Fischer, M. E., 1998. ‘From tradition and ideology to elections and competition: The changing status of women in Romanian politics’, in Rueschemeyer, M. (ed.), Women in the Politics of Postcommunist Eastern Europe (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe), pp. 168195.Google Scholar
Gheorghe, C., Mark, L. and Vincze, E., 2018. ‘Towards an anti-racist feminism for social justice in Romania’, in Kóczé, A., Zentai, V., Jovanovic, J., Vincze, E. (eds.), The Romani Women’s Movement: Struggles and Debates in Central and Eastern Europe, 1st edn (Abingdon, Oxon and New York, Routledge), pp. 111134.Google Scholar
Goellner, R., 2014. ‘Die Verfassungsentwicklung in Rumaenien nach 1990’, in Bos, E. and Pocza, K. (eds.), Verfassungsgebung in konsolidierten Demokratien (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag), pp. 175191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grunberg, L., 2000. ‘Women’s NGOs in Romania’, in Gal, S. and Kligman, G. (eds.), Reproducing Gender: Politics, Publics, and Everyday Life after Socialism (Princeton University Press), pp. 307336.Google Scholar
Hein, M. and Gherghina, S., 2016. ‘Romania’, in Fruhstorfer, A. and Hein, M. (eds.), Constitutional Politics in Central and Eastern Europe: From Post-Socialist Transition to the Reform of Political Systems (Wiesbaden: Springer VS), pp. 173197.Google Scholar
Iancu, B., 2015. ‘Separation of powers and the rule of law in Romania: The crisis in concepts and contexts’, in von Bogdandy, A. and Sonnevend, P. (eds.), Constitutional Crisis in the European Constitutional Area (Oxford: Hart Publishing), pp. 153170.Google Scholar
Institutul Revolutiei Romane din Decembrie 1989 (Bucuresti), 2009. Documents Regarding the Romanian Revolution from December 1989. The Activity of the Provisory Council of National Unity (1 February - 11 May 1990) [Documente Privind Revoluția Romana din Decembrie 1989. Activitatea Consiliului Provizoriu de Uniune Nationala (1 februarie - 11 mai 1990)], vol. I (Cluj-Napoca: MEGA).
Massino, J., 2004. ‘Women’s anonymity in the aesthetics of Ceausescu’s Romania (Anonimatul femeii in estetica Romaniei ceausiste)’, in Ciupala, A. (ed.), About Women and Their History in Romania (Despre Femei si Istoria lor in Romania) (Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti), pp. 137157.Google Scholar
Miroiu, M., 2015. ‘On women, feminism and democracy’, in Stan, L. and Vancea, D. (eds.), Post-Communist Romania at Twenty-Five: Linking Past, Present, and Future (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books), pp. 87105.Google Scholar
Molocea, A., 2015. ‘Reconstructing Romanian feminism within women’s movement (1990–2000) [(Re)Constructia feminismului romanesc in cadrul miscarii de femei (1990–2000)]’, in Miroiu, M. (ed.), Environmental and Feminist Movements in Romania (1990–2014) [Miscari Feministe si Ecologiste in Romania (1990–2014)] (Iasi: Polirom), pp. 1987.Google Scholar
Nimu, A., 2016. ‘Nongovernmental organizations for women’s rights: Contextual approaches, personal experiences (Organizatii neguvernamentale pentru drepturile femeilor: Abordari contextuale, experiente personale’, in Nimu, A. et al. (eds.), Civil Society, Democracy and Institution Building (Societate Civila, Democratie si Constructie Institutionala) (Iasi: Polirom), pp. 103122.Google Scholar
Olteanu, C. L., 2004. ‘The cult of Elena Ceausescu in the 1980s (Cultul Elenei Ceausescu in anii ’80)’, in Ciupala, A. (ed.), About Women and Their History in Romania (Despre Femei si Istoria lor in Romania) (Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti), pp. 158179.Google Scholar
Parau, C., 2013. ‘Romania’s transnational constitution: A tradition of elite learning and self-empowerment’, in Galligan, D. and Versteeg, M. (eds.), The Social and Political Foundations of Constitutions (Cambridge University Press), pp. 497531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pavel, D., 2014. ‘The myth of “the founding father” of the post-communist democracy – Corenliu Coposu (Mitul “parintelui fondator” al democratiei postcomuniste – Corneliu Coposu’, in Fulger, C. and Zarojanu, T. C. (eds.), The Senior Corneliu Coposu (Seniorul Corneliu Coposu) (Bucuresti: Humanitas), pp. 6275.Google Scholar
Roth, S., 2008. ‘Introduction’, in Roth, S. (ed.), Gender Politics in the Expanding European Union: Mobilization, Inclusion, Exclusion (Oxford: Berghahn Books), pp. 116.Google Scholar
Sadurski, W., 2001. ‘Conclusions: On the relevance of institutions and the centrality of constitutions in post-communist transitions’, in Zielonka, J. (ed.), Democratic Consolidation in Eastern Europe, vol. 1: Institutional Engineering (Oxford University Press), pp. 455474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stan, L., 2014. ‘Women as anti-communist dissidents and secret police collaborators’, in Andreescu, F. C. and Shapiro, M. J. (eds.), Genre and the (Post)Communist Woman. Analyzing Transformations of the Central and Eastern European Female Ideal (Abingdon, Oxon and New York: Routledge), pp. 8097.Google Scholar
Stanescu-Stanciu, T., 2011. ‘Introductive study. A new Central and South-East Europe and its new political structure: Constitutional corpus. Romania (Studiu introductiv. Noua Europa Centrala si de Sud-Est si noile sale structuri politice. Corpusuri constitutionale. Romania)’, in Stanescu-Stanciu, T. and Neacsu, F. (eds.), The First Constitution of Post-1989 Romania. Documents (Prima Constitutie a Romaniei Postdecembriste. Documente), vol. I (Ploiesti: Karta-Graphic), pp. 1371.Google Scholar
Vese, V., 2001. ‘The condition of women in Romania during the communist period’, in Isaacs, A. K. (ed.), Political Systems and Definitions of Gender Roles (Edizioni Plus - Universita di Pisa), pp. 269272.Google Scholar
Vlad, I., 2015. ‘Developments within Romanian women’s movement after 2000 (Dezvoltari in miscarea de femei dupa 2000)’, in Miroiu, M. (ed.), Environmental and Feminist Movements in Romania (1990–2014) [Miscari Feministe si Ecologiste in Romania (1990–2014)] (Iasi: Polirom), pp. 89187.Google Scholar
Andreescu, G., 2012. ‘The draft law regarding the life-long trauma of women requesting abortion services (Proiectul de lege privind traumatizarea pe viata a femeilor care solicita intreruperea sarcinii)’, Noua Revista de Drepturile Omului 8(1), pp. 2848.Google Scholar
Ana, A., 2017. ‘The role of the feminist movement participation during the winter 2012 mobilisations in Romania’, Europe-Asia Studies 69(9), pp. 14731498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borza, I., 2010. ‘A lacking legitimacy in the transposition of the EU’s equal opportunity directives: The case of Romania’, Women’s Studies International Forum 33(1), pp. 4753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blokker, P., 2013. ‘Constitution-making in Romania: From reiterative crises to constitutional moment?’, Romanian Journal of Comparative Law 3(2), pp. 187204.Google Scholar
Blokker, P., 2017. ‘The Romanian constitution and civic engagement’, Vienna Journal on International Constitutional Law 11(3), pp. 437455.Google Scholar
Brodeala, E., 2017. ‘The changing status of women as others in the Romanian constitution’, Vienna Journal on International Constitutional Law 11(4), pp. 541564.Google Scholar
Cormos, G., 2010. ‘Romanian women under political repression during the communist era’, Scientific Journal of Humanistic Studies 1(3), pp. 1828.Google Scholar
Cotoi, C., 2011. ‘Jottings on the history of Romanian sociology’, Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai-Sociologia 56(1), pp. 135149.Google Scholar
Dahlerup, D. and Gaber, M. A., 2017. ‘The legitimacy and effectiveness of gender quotas in politics in CE Europe’, Teorija in Praksa 54(2), pp. 307316.Google Scholar
Dima, B., 2011. ‘The commission for a new constitution - A civil society prospective on the process of constitutional revision’, Romanian Journal of Comparative Law 2(1), pp. 151172.Google Scholar
Gherghina, S. and Miscoiu, S., 2016. ‘Crowd-sourced legislation and politics’, Problems of Post-Communism 63(1), pp. 2736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghodsee, K., 2011. ‘On feminism, philosophy and politics in post-communist Romania: An interview with Mihaela Miroiu (Bucharest, 17 May 2010)’, Women’s Studies International Forum 34(4), pp. 302307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harsanyi, D. P., 1994. ‘Romania’s women’, Journal of Women’s History 5(3), pp. 3054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Janova, M. and Sineau, M., 1992. ‘Women’s participation in political power in Europe’, Women’s Studies International Forum 15(1), pp. 115128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kenney, P., 1999. ‘The gender of resistance in communist Poland’, The American Historical Review 104(2), pp. 399425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kligman, G., 1990. ‘Reclaiming the public: A reflection on creating civil society in Romania’, East European Politics and Societies 4(3), pp. 393438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leveel, L., 2012. ‘Simone de Beauvoir and Romania: A distant gaze (circa 1965–1977)’, Colloquia. Journal of Central European History 19, pp. 116127.Google Scholar
Miroiu, M., 2007. ‘Communism was a state patriarchy, not state feminism’, Aspasia 1(1), pp. 197201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miroiu, M., 2010. ‘A mind of our own. Gender studies in Romania’, Aspasia 4(1), pp. 157167.Google Scholar
Moskoff, W., 1982. ‘The problem of the “double burden” in Romania’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology 23(1–2), pp. 7988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perju, V., 2015. ‘The Romanian double executive and the 2012 constitutional crisis’, International Journal of Constitutional Law 13(1), pp. 246278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petrescu, C., 2014. ‘A genderless protest: Women confronting Romanian communism’, Annals of the University of Bucharest 16(2), pp. 79101.Google Scholar
Popa, R. M., 2016. ‘“We opposed it”: The National Council of Women and the ban on abortion in Romania’, Aspasia 10(1), pp. 152160.Google Scholar
Rostas, R, 2011. ‘The second marginalisation of the Bucharest sociological school’, ACUM 5(1), pp. 6980.Google Scholar
Tanasescu, S., 2013. ‘The revision of the constitution is not a panacea and we should not have too high expectations from a simple modification of legal rules (‘Revizuirea constitutiei nu este un panaceu si nu ar trebui sa avem asteptari prea mari de la o simpla modificare de norme juridice)’, Pandectele Romane, (12), pp. 15–18.
Tanasescu, S., 2014. ‘Should the Romanian constitution be revised? (Trebuie revizuita Constitutia Romaniei?)’, Dreptul, (5), pp. 11–13.
Wald, P. M., 1993. ‘Some Unsolirefd Advice to My Women Friends in Eastern Europe’, SMU Law Review 46(3), pp. 557583.Google Scholar
Cheschebec, R, 2005. ‘Feminist Ideologies and Activism in Romania (Approx. 1890s-1940s): Nationalism and Internationalism in Romanian Projects for Women’s Emancipation’, unpublished PhD thesis, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary, History Department 2005/2
Mihai, T., 2016. ‘The Political Representation of Romanian Women, in the Context of Europeanization (Reprezentarea Politica a Femeilor din Romania, in Contextul Europenizarii)’, unpublished PhD thesis, Scoala Nationala de Studii Administrative si Politice (National School of Administrative and Political Studies), SNSPA, Bucharest, Romania.
Pietraru, D. I., 1996. ‘The Romanian Constitution of 1991: The ‘Stolen’ Constitution’, unpublished PhD thesis, New School of Social Research, New York, United States of America.
Ronnas, P., 1984.‘Urbanization in Romania. A Geography of Social and Economic Change Since Independence’, unpublished PhD thesis, Stockholm School of Economics.
2003 Regular Report on Romania’s Progress towards Accession, European Commission, 2003, www.ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/archives/pdf/key_documents/2003/rr_ro_final_en.pdf.
‘A part of the Romanian civil society denounces the deficient fashion in which the process of constitutional reform has taken place so far (O parte a societatii civile din Romania reclama modul defectuos in care s-a desfasurat pana in prezent procesul de reforma constitutionala)’, Romanian Global News, 2 July 2017 (Document on file with the authors).
Baluta, O., 28 May 2016. ‘Three millions of boyars (Trei milioane de jupani)’, Adevarul.Ro (blog), www.adevarul.ro/news/politica/trei-milioane-jupani-1_574952b55ab6550cb8634cea/index.html.
Boghiceanu, A., 19 February 2013. ‘The constitutional forum will have three axes: Territorial, thematic and academic (Forumul constitutional va avea trei axe: teritoriala, tematica si academica)’, Adevarul, www.adevarul.ro/news/politica/forumul-constitutional-trei-axe-teritoriala-tematica-academica-1_512318e900f5182b8579d06e/index.html.
Bosomitu, S., 2 December 2013. ‘In the age of “misery”. The Romanian sociology during the communist regime (1948–1977) [I]’, Cooperativa Gusti, www.cooperativag.ro/age-misery-romanian-sociology-communist-regime-1948-1977/.
Brodeală, E., 30 October 2018. ‘Human rights should not be subject to a popular vote: Lessons from Romania’s failed anti-LGBT referendum’, OxHRH (blog), http://ohrh.law.ox.ac.uk/human-rights-should-not-be-subject-to-a-popular-vote-lessons-from-romanias-failed-anti-lgbt-referendum/.
Constantinovici, C., 4 February 2014. ‘PNL MP Florica Chereches reactivates the anti-abortion law proposed by PDL in 2012 (Deputatul PNL Florica Chereches reactiveaza legea anti-avort propusa de PDL in 2012)’, Pandoras.Realitatea.Net, www.pandoras.realitatea.net/life/deputatul-pnl-forica-chereches-reactiveaza-legea-anti-avort-propusa-de-pdl-in-2012-32375.html.
Constitutional Forum: Final Report (Forum Constitutional: Raport Final), 2003, on file with the authors.
Constitutional Forum: Final Report (Forum Constitutional: Raport Final), 2013, on file with the authors.
Costea, A., 14 June 2014. ‘New president at the Union of Women from Bihor- Miorita Sateanu retired (Presedinte nou la uniunea femeilor din Bihor - Miorita Sateanu s-a Retras din Functie),” Crisana, www.crisana.ro/stiri/social-9/presedinte-nou-la-uniunea-femeilor-din-bihor-miorita-sateanu-s-a-retras-din-functie-15117.html.
Costea, A., 15 May 2017. ‘Hundreds of students responded to the invitation of the Union of Women from Bihor – They celebrated the Family Day through debates (Sute de elevi au raspuns invitatiei Uniunii Femeilor din Bihor - Au sarbatorit Ziua Familiei prin dezbateri)’, Crisana, www.crisana.ro/stiri/eveniment-1/sute-de-elevi-au-raspuns-invitatiei-uniunii-femeilor-bihor-au-sarbatorit-ziua-familiei-prin-dezbateri-157538.html.
Communique to the Country of the Front of National Salvation Council, published in the Official Gazette, Part I no.1 of 22 December 1989 (Comunicat catre tara al Consiliului Frontului Salvarii Nationale, publicat in Monitorul Oficial, Partea I no. 1 din 22 decembrie 1989).
‘Country strategies for the rule of law program for Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. Submitted to the U.S. Agency for International Development’, American Bar Association, Central and East European Law Initiative (CEELI), 23 August 1993, on file with the authors.
Dogioiu, I. E., 12 May 2017. ‘Traditional family? Jesus does not say anything on this subject. We care more about customs than people (Familia traditionala? Iisus nu spune nimic pe aceasta tema. Ne sunt mai dragi cutumele decat oamenii)’, Ziare.com, www.ziare.com/social/romani/familia-traditionala-iisus-nu-spune-nimic-pe-aceasta-tema-ne-sunt-mai-dragi-cutumele-decat-oamenii-interviu-1465223.
Dragan, F., 8 July 2017. ‘Oana Baluta: CpF wants to impose a totalitarian vision regarding people’s personal choices (Oana Baluta: CpF vrea sa impuna o viziune totala asupra alegerilor private ale oamenilor)’, Romania Libera, www.romanialibera.ro/special/documentare/oana-baluta--cpf-vrea-sa-impuna-o-viziune-totala-asupra-alegerilor-private-ale-oamenilor-457127.
European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission), 21–22 March 2014. Opinion on the Draft Law on the Review of the Constitution of Romania.
Feffer, J., 31 July 2014. ‘Empowering women in Romania’, John Feffer (blog), www.johnfeffer.com/empowering-women-in-romania/.
Filip, R., 8 June 2017. ‘I attended the launching of RESPECT Platform to find out how will they stop the Coalition for Family (Am fost la lansarea platformei RESPECT ca sa aflu cum vor opri Coalitia pentru Familie’, Vice, www.vice.com/ro/article/ywzw9w/ce-e-platforma-respect.
Gheorghiu, L., 9 February 2015. ‘Twenty-five years since the establishing of the first post-communist parliament - CPUN (25 de ani de la infiintarea primului parlament postdecembrist - CPUN)’, Cotidianul.ro, www.cotidianul.ro/25-de-ani-de-la-infiintarea-primului-parlament-postdecembrist-cpun/.
Ghilezan, M., 28 September 2009. ‘The curse of Elenas (Blestemul Elenelor)’, Observator Cultural no. 489, www.observatorcultural.ro/articol/blestemul-elenelor.
‘Liberty Counsel defends natural marriage in Romania’, press release on the Official Website of Liberty Council, 23 November 2016, www.lc.org/newsroom/details/112316-liberty-counsel-defends-natural-marriage-in-romania-1.
Lovatt, C., 12 July 1999. ‘The legacy of Elena Ceaușescu’, Central Europe Review 1(3), www.ce-review.org/99/3/women_lovatt3.html.Google Scholar
Miroiu, M. and Baconschi, T., 16 May 2017. ‘The traditional family in the constitution (Familia traditionala in constitutie)’, Revista 22, www.revista22.ro/70262750/familia-tradiional-n-constituie.html.
Official Statement of the Association of Romanian Families (document on file with the authors), www.variantacojocaru.ro/ConstitutiaPoporului/propuneri/propunere-Alianta-Familiilor-din-Romania.pdf.
Official Website of the Romanian Senate, www.senat.ro.
Open letter: The process of constitutional review must be transparent! (Scrisoare deschisa: Procesul de revizuire a constitutiei trebuie sa fie transparent!), ECPI, 13 March 2013, www.ecpi.ro/scrisoare-deschisa-procesul-de-revizuire-a-constitutiei-trebuie-sa-fie-transparent/.
Perju, V., 30 May 2013. ‘The analysis of the Final Report of the Constitutional Forum 2013 (Part I) (Analiza Raportului Final al Forumului Constitutional 2013 (Partea I)), Contributors.ro, www.contributors.ro/dezbatere/analiza-raportului-final-al-forumului-constitutional-2013-partea-i/.
Press Release – PSD Bihor (Comunicat de Press – PSD Bihor), AGERPRES, 12 November 2014, www.agerpres.ro/comunicate/2017/11/26/comunicat-de-presa-psd-bihor-11-31-03.
Press Release: The March for Life 2017 in Romania: 110,000 […] participants in 138 cities, The Official Website of the Romanian March for Life, 27 March 2017, www.marsulpentruviata.ro/press-release-march-life-2017-romania-110000-de-participants-138-cities.
NATO, 2004. ‘Romania – National Report’, www.nato.int/ims/2004/win/romania.pdf.
Tashman, B., 8 September 2015. ‘Liberty Counsel invokes communist Romania to denounce “persecution” of Kim Davis’, Right Wing Watch, www.rightwingwatch.org/post/liberty-counsel-invokes-communist-romania-to-denounce-persecution-of-kim-davis.
‘The civil society asks the parliament to respect and protect the diversity of family in Romania (Societatea civila cere parlamentului sa respecte si sa protejeze diversitatea familiei in Romania), Official Website of FRONT Association, 7 November 2016, www.feminism-romania.ro/activism/38-ong/1280-societatea-civila-cere-parlamentului-sa-respecte-si-sa-protejeze-diversitatea-familiei-in-romania.
‘The evolution of women’s representation in the parliament of Romania’, Electoral Permanent Authority of Romania, Department of Studies, Documentation and Monitoring of the Electoral Process, 2013, www.roaep.ro/prezentare/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/women_Parliament.pdf.
‘The first meeting of poet Ana Blandiana with Ion Iliescu, in December 1989. ‘This is when I understood that people like Doina Cornea and me were there to be put in the window’ (Prima intalnire a poetei Ana Blandiana cu Ion Iliescu, in Decembrie 1989. ‘Atunci am inteles ca oameni ca Doina Cornea si ca mine erau acolo sa fie pusi in vitrina’)’, Revolutions, 19 December 2014, www.revolutions.gandul.info/stiri/prima-intalnire-a-poetei-ana-blandiana-cu-ion-iliescu-in-decembrie-1989-atunci-am-inteles-ca-oameni-ca-doina-cornea-si-ca-mine-erau-acolo-sa-fie-pusi-in-vitrina-13732015.
‘The foundation of Romanian prolife movement’, on the Official Website of the Pro-Vita Bucuresti Organisation, www.provitabucuresti.ro/english/on-the-foundation-of-romanian-prolife-movement.
‘The new constitution: The amendment according to which family is based on the freely-consented marriage between a man and a woman, adopted (Noua constitutie: Amendamentul conform caruia familia se intemeiaza pe casatoria liber consimtita intre un barbat si o femeie, adoptat)’, Mediafax, 5 June 2013, www.mediafax.ro/social/noua-constitutie-amendamentul-conform-caruia-familia-se-intemeiaza-pe-casatoria-liber-consimtita-intre-un-barbat-si-o-femeie-adoptat-10930830.
The Facebook page of CpF, www.facebook.com/coalitiapentrufamilie/.
The Facebook page of ‘Feminism Pro Familie’, www.facebook.com/feminismprofamilie.
The Official Website of ACCEPT NGO, www.acceptromania.ro.
The Official Website of ACTEDO NGO, www.actedo.org.
The Official Website of ADF International, www.adfinternational.org.
The Official Website of ALEG NGO, www.aleg-romania.eu.
The Official Website of AnA NGO, www.anasaf.ro (this Website currently appears to be unclaimed).
The Official Website of Asociatia Front, www.feminism-romania.ro.
The Official Website of Asociatia Mame pentru Mame, www.mamepentrumame.ro.
The Official Website of Centrul Filia, www.centrulfilia.ro.
The Official Website of Centrul Parteneriat pentru Egalitate, www.cpe.ro.
The Official Website of ECPI NGO, www.ecpi.ro.
The Official Website of E-Romanja NGO, www.e-romnja.ro.
The Official Website of Liberty Council, www.lc.org.
The Official Website of Peter Costea, www.costea-parlamentuleuropean.ro.
The Official Website of Platforma Respect, www.platformarespect.ro.
The Official Website of the Association ‘Parents for religious teaching (Parinti pentru Ora de Religie)’, www.oradereligie.ro.
The Official Website of the Coalition for Family (Coalitia pentru Familie), www.coalitiapentrufamilie.ro.
The Official Website of the European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non-Discrimination, www.equalitylaw.eu/country/romania.
The Official Website of the Necuvinte NGO, www.necuvinte.ro.
The Official Website of the Pro Democracy Association (Asociatia Pro Democratia, APD), www.apd.ro.
The Official Website of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies, www.cdep.ro.
The Official Website of the Society for Contraceptive and Sexual Education (Societatea de Educatie Contraceptiva si Sexuala), www.secsromania.wordpress.com.
The Official Website of the Women’s Association of Romania (Asociatia Femeilor din Romania)’, www.afr.ro.
The Official Website of the Women’s Lobby, www.womenlobby.org/Romanian-Women-s-Lobby.
The Transcript of the Council of FSN from 27 December 1989 (Stenograma Sedintei CFSN din 27 Decembrie 1989), on file with the authors.
‘The Union of Women from Bihor – Archives (Uniunea Femeilor Din Bihor, Arhiva)’, BihorStiri.Ro, www.bihorstiri.ro/tag/uniunea-femeilor-bihor.
‘Women and Civil Society - The NGO Guide 2004 (Femeile si Societatea Civila - Ghidul Organizatiilor Nonguvernamentale 2004)’, Anasaf.ro, www.anasaf.ro/ro/ONG/U-Z/uniunea_femeilor.html.
The 1866 Constitution, published in the Official Gazette no. 142 of 1 June 1866 (Constitutia din 1866, publicata in Monitorul Official nr. 142 din 1 iunie 1866).
The 1923 Constitution, published in the Official Gazette no. 282 of 29 March 1923 (Constitutia din 1923, publicata in Monitorul Official nr. 282 din 29 martie 1923).
The 1938 Constitution, published in the Official Gazette no. 48 of 27 February 1938 (Constitutia din 1938, publicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 48 din 27 februarie 1938).
The 1948 Constitution, published in the Official Gazette no. 87a of 13 April 1948 (Constitutia din 1948, publicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 87 bis din 13 aprilie 1948).
The 1952 Constitution, published in the Official Bulletin no. 1 of 27 September 1952 (Constitutia din 1952, publicata in Buletinul Oficial nr. 1 din 27 septembrie 1952).
The 1965 Constitution, published in the Official Bulletin no. 1 of 21 August 1965 (Constitutia din 1965, publicata in Buletinul Oficial nr. 1 din 21 august 1965).
The 1991 Constitution, published in the Official Gazette no. 233 of 21 November 1991, republished with amendments in the Official Gazette no. 767 of 31 October 2003 (Constitutia din 1991, publicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 233 din 21 noiembrie 1991, republicata cu modificari in Monitorul Oficial nr. 767 din 31 octombrie 2003).
Decree 1/1989 on the abrogation of some laws, decrees and other normative acts, published in the Official Gazette no. 4 of 27 December 1989 (Decretul 1/1989 privind abrogarea unor legi, decrete şi alte acte normative, publicat in Monitorul Oficial nr. 4 din 27 decembrie 1989).
Decree 2/1989 on the establishment, organisation and functioning of the Council of the National Salvation Front and of the Territorial Councils of the National Salvation Front, published in the Official Gazette no. 4 of 27 December 1989 (Decretul 2/1989 privind constituirea, organizarea şi functionarea Consiliului Frontului Salvarii Nationale şi a consiliilor teritoriale ale Frontului Salvarii Nationale, publicat in Monitorul Oficial nr. 4 din 27 decembrie 1989).
Decree 31/1990 on paid leave for the care of children aged up to one year, published in the Official Gazette no. 12 of 19 January 1990 (Decretul 31/1990 privind concediul platit pentru ingrijirea copiilor in varsta de pana la un an, publicat in Monitorul Oficial nr. 12 din 19 ianuarie 1990).
Decree 51/1990 on the seniority in the workplace of the working wife who is accompanying her husband sent in a permanent mission abroad, published in the Official Gazette no. 20 of 6 February 1990 (Decree 51/1990 privind vechimea in munca a sotiei salariate care isi urmeaza sotul trimis in misiune permanenta in strainatate, publicat in Monitorul Oficial nr. 20 din 6 februarie 1990).
Decree 60/1990 on the retirement with age reduction of some employees, published in the Official Gazette no. 21 of 8 February 1990 (Decree 60/1990 privind pensionarea cu reducere de varsta a unor salariati, publicat in Monitorul Oficial nr. 21 din 8 februarie 1990).
Decree 81/1990 on the Provisional Council of National Union, published in the Official Gazette no. 27 of 10 February 1990 (Decretul 81/1990 privind Consiliul Provizoriu de Uniune Nationala, publicat in Monitorul Oficial nr. 27 din 10 februarie 1990).
Decree 92/1990 on the election of the Parliament and of the President of Romania, published in the Official Gazette no. 35 of 18 March 1990 (Decretul 92/1990 pentru alegerea Parlamentului şi a Presedintelui Romaniei, publicat in Monitorul Oficial nr. 35 din 18 martie 1990).
Law 167/1929 regarding the Organisation of Local Administration, published in the Official Gazette no. 170 of 3 August 1929 (Legea 167/1929 pentru organizarea administratiunii locale, publicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 170 din 3 august 1929).
Law 47/1992 on the Organisation and Functioning of the Constitutional Court, republished in the Official Gazette, Part I, no. 807 of 3 December 2010 (Legea 47/1992 privind organizarea si functionarea Curtii Constitutionale, republicata in Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 807 din 3 decembrie 2010).
Law 189/1999 on the exercise of the legislative initiative by citizens, published in the Official Gazette no. 611 of 14 December 1999 (Legea 189/1999 privind exercitarea initiativei legislative de catre cetateni, publicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 611 din 14 decembrie 1999).
Law 429/2003 regarding the revision of the Romanian Constitution, published in the Official Gazette no. 669 of 22 September 2003 (Legea 429/2003 de revizuire a Constitutiei Romaniei, publicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 669 din 22 septembrie 2003).
Decision 80/2014 of the Constitutional Court of Romania on the legislative proposal on the revision of the Romanian Constitution, published in the Official Gazette, Part I, no. 246 of 7 April 2014 (Decizia 80/2014 a Curtii Constitutionale a Romaniei asupra propunerii legislative privind revizuirea Constitutiei Romaniei, publicata in Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 246 din 7 April 2014).
Decision 580/2016 of the Constitutional Court of Romania on the Citizens’ Legislative Initiative entitled ‘Law on the Revision of the Romanian Constitution’, published in the Official Gazette no. 857 of 27 October 2016 (Decizia 580/2016 asupra initiativei legislative a cetatenilor intitulata „Lege de revizuire a Constitutiei Romaniei”, publicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 857 din 27 octombrie 2016).
Decision 539/2018 of the Constitutional Court of Romania on the constitutionality of the law to review the Romanian Costitution, published in the Official Gazette no. 798 of 27 September 2016 (Decizia 539/2018 asupra constitutionalitatii Legii de revizuire a Constitutiei Romaniei, publicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 798 din 18 septembrie 2018).
Legislative Proposal for the Revision of the Romanian Constitution, L233/2014 (Propunere Legislativa de Revizuire a Constitutiei Romaniei, L233/2014), 7 February 2014, on the Official Website of the Romanian Senate www.senat.ro/legis/PDF/2014/14L233FG.pdf.
*All links were accessed and functioning on 15 July 2018, unless otherwise stated.
1
Cited by

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×