Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-888d5979f-x5hg2 Total loading time: 1.183 Render date: 2021-10-28T09:50:12.713Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

3 - Volcanotectonic Deformation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 April 2020

Agust Gudmundsson
Royal Holloway, University of London
Get access


Polygenetic volcanoes, to a first approximation, behave as is they are elastic. When subject to loading such as magmatic excess pressure in a chamber or overpressure in a dike, the volcano deformation is, so long as the loading is small, roughly linear elastic. When related to pressure changes in the source chamber, the measured deformation is referred to as inflation when the volcano surface rises (during magma-pressure increase) and as deflation when the surface falls or subsides (during magma-pressure decrease). If the loading generates stresses that reach the strength of the rock, then fractures form or reactivate. Slip on shear fractures, that is, faults, commonly triggers earthquakes, which can be used to monitor the state of stress in the volcano as well as magma movement through dike or sheet propagation. Some stresses are sufficiently large to form or reactivate the boundary faults of grabens or the ring-faults of collapse calderas. Similarly, the stresses may result in lateral or sector collapses, that is, landslides. The earthquake activity in volcanoes is treated in Chapter 4, and vertical and lateral collapses in Chapter 5.

Understanding the Structure, Deformation and Dynamics of Volcanoes
, pp. 87 - 178
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Acocella, V., 2007. Understanding caldera structure and development: an overview of analogue models compared to natural calderas. Earth-Science Reviews, 85, 125160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acocella, V., Cifelli, F., Funiciello, R., 2000. Analogue models of collapse calderas and resurgent domes. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 104, 8196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al Shehri, A., Gudmundsson, A., 2018. Modelling of surface stresses and fracturing during dyke emplacement: application to the 2009 episode at Harrat Lunayyir, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 356, 278303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, E. M., 1936. The dynamics of formation of cone sheets, ring dykes and cauldron subsidences. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 56, 128163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnett, Z. A., Gudmundsson, A., 2014. Numerical modelling of dykes deflected into sills to form a magma chamber. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 281, 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonafede, M., Dragoni, M., Quareni, F., 1986. Displacement and stress fields produced by a centre of dilation and by a pressure source in a viscoelastic half-space: application to the study of ground deformation and seismic activity at Campi Flegrei, Italy. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 87, 455485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cloos, E., 1955. Experimental analysis of fracture patterns. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 66, 241256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, J. W., Milner, D. M., Spinks, K. D. 2005. Calderas and caldera structures: a review. Earth-Science Reviews, 69, 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delaney, P. T., McTigue, D. F., 1994. Volume of magma accumulation or withdrawal estimated from surface uplift or subsidence, with application to the 1960 collapse of Kilauea Volcano. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56, 417424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dzurisin, D., 2006. Volcano Deformation: New Geodetic Monitoring Techniques. Berlin: Springer Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fagents, S. A., Gregg, T. K. P., Lopes, R. M. C. (eds.), 2013. Modeling Volcanic Processes: The Physics and Mathematics of Volcanism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fialko, Y., Khazan, Y., Simons, M., 2001. Deformation due to a pressurized horizontal circular crack in an elastic half-space, with applications to volcano geodesy. Geophysical Journal International, 146, 181190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fossen, H., 2016. Structural Geology, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Fossen, H., Gabrielsen, R. H., 1996. Experimental modelling of extensional fault systems by use of plaster. Journal of Structural Geology, 18, 673687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gautneb, H., Gudmundsson, A., 1992. Effect of local and regional stress fields on sheet emplacement in West Iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 51, 339356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geshi, N., Shimano, T., Chiba, T., Nakada, S., 2002. Caldera collapse during the 2000 eruption of Miyakejima volcano, Japan. Bulletin of Volcanology, 64, 5568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geyer, A., Marti, J., 2014. A short review of our current understanding of the development of ring faults during collapse caldera formation. Frontiers in Earth Science, 2, doi:10.3389/feart.2014.00022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., 1995. Infrastructure and mechanics of volcanic systems in Iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 64, 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., 1998. Magma chambers modeled as cavities explain the formation of rift zone central volcanoes and their eruption and intrusion statistics. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 74017412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., 2003. Surface stresses associated with arrested dykes in rift zones. Bulletin of Volcanology, 65, 606619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., 2006. How local stresses control magma-chamber ruptures, dyke injections, and eruptions in composite volcanoes. Earth-Science Reviews, 79, 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., 2007. Conceptual and numerical models of ring-fault formation. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 164, 142160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., 2009. Toughness and failure of volcanic edifices. Tectonophysics, 471, 2735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., 2011a. Rock Fractures in Geological Processes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., 2011b. Deflection of dykes into sills at discontinuities and magma-chamber formation. Tectonophysics, 500, 5064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., 2012a. Strengths and strain energies of volcanic edifices: implications for eruptions, collapse calderas, and landslides. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12, 22412258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., 2012b. Magma chambers: formation, local stresses, excess pressures, and compartments. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 237–238, 1941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., Nilsen, K., 2006. Ring-faults in composite volcanoes: structures, models and stress fields associated with their formation. In Troise, C., De Natle, G., Kilburn, C. R. .J. (eds.), Mechanism of Activity and Unrest at Large Calderas. Geological Society of London Special Publications, 269. London: Geological Society of London, pp. 83108.Google Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., Philipp, L., 2006. How local stress fields prevent volcanic eruptions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158, 257268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., Lotveit, I. F., 2012. Sills as fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs: examples and models. In Spence, G. H., Redfern, J., Aguilera, R, et al. (eds.), Advances in the Study of Fractured Reservoirs. Geological Society of London Special Publications, 374. London: Geological Society of London, pp. 251271.Google Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., Friese, N., Galindo, I., Philipp, S. L., 2008. Dike-induced reverse faulting in a graben. Geology, 36, 123126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gudmundsson, A., Lecoeur, N., Mohajeri, N., Thordarson, T., 2014. Dike emplacement at Bardarbunga, Iceland, induces unusual stress changes, caldera deformation, and earthquakes. Bulletin of Volcanology, 76, 869, doi:10.1007/s00445-014-0869-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Isida, M., 1955. On the tension of a semi-infinite plate with an elliptic hole. Scientific Papers of the Faculty of Engineering, Tokushima University. 5, 7595.Google Scholar
Jaeger, J. C., Cook, N. G. W., Zimmerman, R. W., 2007. Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics, 4th edn. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Janssen, V., 2008. GPS-Based Volcano Deformation. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag.Google Scholar
Johnson, D. J., Sigmundsson, F., Delaney, P. T., 2000. Comment on ‘‘Volume of magma accumulation or withdrawal estimated from surface uplift or subsidence, with application to the 1960 collapse of Kilauea Volcano’’ by T. T. Delaney and D. F. McTigue. Bulletin of Volcanology, 61, 491493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kusumoto, S., Gudmundsson, A., 2014. Displacement and stress fields around rock fractures opened by irregular overpressure variations. Frontiers in Earth Science, 2, doi:10.3389/feart.2014.00007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kusumoto, S., Geshi, N., Gudmundsson, A., 2013. Inverse modeling for estimating fluid-overpressure distributions and stress intensity factors from arbitrary open-fracture geometry. Journal of Structural Geology, 46, 9298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Love, A. E. H., 1927. A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. New York, NY: Dover.Google Scholar
Lu, Z., Dzurisin, D., 2014. InSAR Imaging of Aleutian Volcanoes: Monitoring a Volcanic Arc from Space. Berlin: Springer Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martì, J., Gudmundsson, A., 2000. The Las Canadas caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands): an overlapping collapse caldera generated by magma-chamber migration. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 103, 161173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marti, J., Ablay, G. J., Redshaw, L. T., Sparks, R. S. J., 1994. Experimental studies of collapse calderas. Journal Geological Society London, 151, 919929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marti, J., Geyer, A., Folch, A., Gottsmann, J., 2008. A review on collapse caldera modelling. In Gottsmann, J., Marti, J. (eds), Caldera Volcanism: Analysis, Modelling and Response. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 233283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McClay, K. R., Ellis, P. G., 1987. Analogue models of extensional fault geometries. In Coward, M. P., Dewey, J. F., Hancock, P. L. (eds), Continental Extensional Tectonics. Geological Society of London Special Publications, 28. London: Geological Society of London, pp. 109125.Google Scholar
McTigue, D. F., 1987. Elastic stress and deformation near a finite spherical magma body: resolution of the point source paradox. Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 12931–12940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Melan, E., 1932. Point force at internal point in a semi-infinite plate. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 12, 343346 (in German).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mindlin, R. D., 1936. Force at a point in the interior of a semi-infinite solid. Physics, 7, 195202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mogi, K., 1958. Relations between eruptions of various volcanoes and the deformations of the ground surfaces around them. Bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute University of Tokyo, 36, 99134.Google Scholar
Niemczyk, O. (ed.), 1943. The Fractures of Iceland (Spalten auf Island). Stuttgart: Wittwer (in German).Google Scholar
Okada, Y., 1985. Surface deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a half-space. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 75, 11351154.Google Scholar
Okada, Y., 1992. Internal deformation due to shear and tensile faults in half-space. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 82, 10181040.Google Scholar
Philipp, S., Philipp, S.L., Afsar, F., Gudmundsson, A., 2013. Effects of mechanical layering on the emplacement of hydrofractures and fluid transport in reservoirs. Frontiers of Earth Science, 1, doi:10.3389/feart.2013.00004.Google Scholar
Pollard, D. D., Fletcher, R. C., 2005. Fundamentals of Structural Geology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Pollard, D. D., Johnson, A. M., 1973. Mechanics of growth of some laccolithic intrusions in the Henry mountains, Utah, II. Bending and failure of overburden layers and sill formation. Tectonophysics, 18, 311354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pollard, D. D., Delaney, P. T., Duffield, W. A., Endo, E. T., Okamura, A. T., 1983. Surface deformation in volcanic rift zones. Tectonophysics, 94, 541584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Press, F. 1965. Displacements, strains, and tilts at teleseismic distances. Journal of Geophysical Research, 70, 23952412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramberg, H., 1967. Gravity, Deformation and the Earth’s Crust. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Rubin, A. M., Pollard, D. D., 1988. Dike-induced faulting in rift zones of Iceland and Afar. Geology, 16, 413417.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruch, J., Acocella, V., Geshi, N., Nobile, A., Corbi, F., 2012. Kinematic analysis of vertical collapse on volcanoes using experimental models time series. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, doi:10.1029/2012JB009229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saada, A. S., 2009. Elasticity Theory and Applications, 2nd edn. London: Roundhouse.Google Scholar
Sadowsky, M. A., Sternberg, E., 1947. Stress concentration around an ellipsoidal cavity in an infinite body under arbitrary plane stress perpendicular to the axis of revolution of cavity. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 14, A191A201.Google Scholar
Sadowsky, M. A., Sternberg, E., 1949. Stress concentration around a triaxial ellipsoidal cavity. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 16, 149157.Google Scholar
Savin, G. N., 1961. Stress Concentration Around Holes. New York, NY: Pergamon.Google Scholar
Segall, P., 2010. Earthquake and Volcano Deformation. Princeton (New Jersey): Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Segall, P., Llenos, A. L., Yun, S. H., Bradley, A. M., Syracuse, E. M., 2013. Time-dependent dike propagation from joint inversion of seismicity and deformation data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, doi:10.1002/2013JB010251.Google Scholar
Sigmundsson, F., Hooper, A., Hreinsdottir, S., et al., 2015. Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bardarbunga Volcanic System, Iceland. Nature, 517, 191–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sigurdsson, H., Houghton, B. F., McNutt, S. R., Rymer, H., Stix, J. (eds.), 2000. Encylopedia of Volcanoes. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Sigurdsson, O., 1980. Surface deformation of the Krafla Fissure Swarm in two rifting events. Journal of Geophysical Research, 47, 154159.Google Scholar
Sneddon, I. N., Lowengrub, M., 1969. Crack Problems in the Classical Theory of Elasticity. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
Soutas-Little, R. W., 1973. Elasticity. New York, NY: Dover.Google Scholar
Steketee, J. A., 1958a. On Volterra’s dislocations in a semi-infinite elastic medium. Canadian Journal of Physics, 36, 192205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steketee, J. A., 1958b. Some geophysical applications of the elasticity theory of dislocation. Canadian Journal of Physics, 36, 11681198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, R. J. 1969. Theoretical size of hydraulically induced horizontal fractures and corresponding surface uplift in an idealized medium. Journal of Geophysical Research, 74, 59956011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Timoshenko, S., Goodier, J. N., 1970. Theory of Elasticity, 3rd edn. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Volterra, V., 1907. On the equilibrium of multiply connected elastic bodies. Annales scientifiques de l’École Normale Supérieure, 24, 401517 (in French; English translation).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weertman, J., 1996. Dislocation Based Fracture Mechanics. London: World Scientific.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zobin, V. M., 2003. Introduction to Volcanic Seismology. London: Elsevier.Google Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats