Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-kpmwg Total loading time: 1.012 Render date: 2021-11-30T19:19:11.870Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

3 - Pre-Islamic Oasis Settlements in the Eastern Sahara

from Part II - Oasis Origins in the Sahara: A Region-by-Region Survey

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 March 2020

Martin Sterry
Affiliation:
University of Durham
David J. Mattingly
Affiliation:
University of Leicester
Get access

Summary

This chapter will review the evidence of early oasis development in Western Egypt and Eastern Libya, broadly following the course of the ‘route of the oases’, running west from the Nile to Siwa, then onwards to Awjila and al-Jufra in Libya, where it met the major north-south route from the Mediterranean to Garamantian Fazzan and beyond to Chad. The evidence presented for pre-Islamic oasis development is particularly strong in this part of the Sahara; indeed the origins of agriculture at some of the Egyptian oases went back to the third millennium BC and the route as a whole seems to have been well-developed by the fifth century BC.

We suggest that the ultimate origins of oasis agriculture in the Western Desert are to be sought in the Nile Valley and the Fayum, with a package of plants and irrigation techniques first developed there, then adopted in the oasis depressions of the Western Desert – notably Kharga, Dakhla, Farfara, Bahariya and Siwa (Fig. 3.1).

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abboudy Ibrahim, M. 1992. The western desert of Egypt in the classical writings. In Carratelli 1992, 209–17.
Abd el-Ghany, M. 1992. The oases in Roman Egypt in the light of papyri. In Carratelli 1992, 312.
Agut-Labordère, D. 2018. The agricultural landscape of Ayn Manawir (Kharga oasis, Egypt) through the Persian period ostraca (Vth–IVth century BC). In Purdue et al. 2018, 359–77.
Aufderheide, A.C., Nissenbaum, A. and Cartmell, L. 2004. Radiocarbon date recovery from bitumen-containing Egyptian embalming resins. Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 31: 8796.Google Scholar
Bagnall, R.S. 1997. The Kellis Agricultural Account Book (P. Kell. IV Gr. 96) Dakhleh Oasis Project: Monograph 7. Oxford: Oxbow Books (Oxbow Monograph 92).Google Scholar
Bagnall, R.S., Davoli, P. and Hope, C.A. (eds). 2013. The Oasis Papers 6: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of the Dakhleh Oasis Project. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Ball, J. 1942. Egypt in the Classical Geographers. Cairo: Government Press.Google Scholar
Ball, J. and Beadnell, H.J.L. 1903. Baharia Oasis: Its topography and geology. Cairo: Survey Department, Public Works Ministry.Google Scholar
Barich, B.E. and Hassan, F.A. 1990. Il Sahara e le oasi: Farafra nel deserto occidentale egiziano. Sahara 3: 5362.Google Scholar
Bashendi, M. 2013. Cemeteries in Dakhleh. In Bagnall et al. 2013, 249–62.
Bates, O. 1914. The Eastern Libyans. London: MacMillan (reprint 1970).Google Scholar
Beadnell, H.J.L. 1901. Farafra Oasis: Its Topography and Geology. Cairo: National Printing Department.Google Scholar
Belgrave, C.D. 1923. Siwa: The Oasis of Jupiter Ammon. London: John Lane, The Bodley Head Ltd.Google Scholar
Boozer, A. 2010. Memory and microhistory of an Empire: domestic contexts in Roman Amheida, Egypt. In Borić, D. (ed.), Archaeology and Memory. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 138–57.Google Scholar
Boozer, A. 2011. Forgetting to remember in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. In Bommas, M. (ed.), Cultural Memory and Identity in Ancient Societies. London and New York: Continuum Publishers, 109–26.Google Scholar
Boozer, A. 2012. Globalizing Mediterranean identities: The overlapping spheres of Egyptian, Greek, and Roman worlds at Trimithis. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 25.2: 93116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boozer, A. 2013a. Archaeology on Egypt’s edge: Archaeological research in the Dakhleh Oasis, 1819–1977. Ancient West and East 12: 117–56.Google Scholar
Boozer, A. 2013b. Frontiers and borderlands in imperial perspectives: Exploring Rome’s Egyptian frontier. American Journal of Archaeology 117.2: 275–92.Google Scholar
Boozer, A. 2015a. A Late Roman-Egyptian House in the Dakhla Oasis: Amheida House B2. New York: Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, New York University Press.Google Scholar
Boozer, A. 2015b. The social impact of trade and migration: The Western Desert in Pharaonic and post-Pharaonic times. In Riggs, C. (ed.), Oxford Handbooks Online in Archaeology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935413.013.37.Google Scholar
Bousquet, B. 1996. Tell-Douch et sa région. Géographie d’une limite de milieu à une frontière d’empire. Cairo: IFAO.Google Scholar
Bowen, G.E. and Hope, C.A. 2003. The Oasis Papers 3: Proceedings of the Third International Conference of the Dakhleh Oasis Project. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Bowman, A. 1989. Egypt after the Pharaohs. Berkeley: California University Press.Google Scholar
Bravard, J.-P., Mostafa, A., Davoli, P., Adelsberger, K.A., Ballet, P., Garcier, R., Calcagnile, L. and Quarta, G. 2016a. Construction and deflation of irrigation soils from the Pharaonic to the Roman period at Amheida (Trimithis), Dakhla Depression, Egyptian Western Desert. Géomorphologie 22.3: 305–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bravard, J.-P., Mostafa, A., Garcier, R., Tallet, G., Ballet, P, Chevalier, Y. and Tronchère, H. 2016b. Rise and fall of an Egyptian oasis: artesian flow, irrigation soils, and historical agricultural development in El-Deir, Kharga depression, Western Desert of Egypt. Geoarchaeolgy 31.6: 467–86.Google Scholar
Carpentiero, G. 2016. Continuity and change in Hellenistic town planning in Fayum (Egypt). Between tradition and innovation. In Mugnai et al. 2016, 73100.
Carratelli, G. (ed.). 1992. Roma et l’Egitto nell’antichità classica. Cairo 6–9 Febbraio 1989. Rome: Istituto poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato.Google Scholar
Chaveau, M. 2001. Les qanâts dans les ostraca de Manawir. In Briant, P. (ed.), Irrigation et drainage dans l’antiquité, qanâts et canalisations souterraines en Iran, Egypte et en Grèce. Paris: Thotm editions, 137–42.Google Scholar
Chaveau, M. 2005. Irrigation et exploitation de la terre dans l’oasis de Kharga à l’époque perse. Les cahiers de recherches de l’institut de papyrologie et égyptologie de Lille 25: 157–63.Google Scholar
Churcher, C.S. and Mills, A.J. 1999. Reports from the Survey of Dakhleh Oasis 1977–87. Dakhleh Oasis Project Monograph 2. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Colin, F. 2000. Les peuples Libyens de la Cyrénaique à l’Egypte d’après les sources de l’antiquité classique. Louvain: Académie Royale de Belgique.Google Scholar
D’Anastasio, R. 2009. Proposal for a project on the anthropological and paleopathological study and preservation of the human mummies from Jarabub (Lybia). In Menozzi 2009, 5152.
D’Anastasio, R., Vitullo, G. and Urso, M. 2009. Studio preliminare antropometrico e paleopatologico delle mummie e dei reperti ossei da Giarabub e ora al magazzino di Cirene. In Menozzi 2009, 4551.
D’Ercole, V. and Martellone, A. 2006. Ricognizione preliminare nell’oasi di Giarabub. In Fabricotti and Menozzi 2006, 457–66.
D’Ercole, V. and Martellone, A. 2009. Ricognizione preliminare nell’oasi di Giarabub. In Menozzi 2009, 5767.
De Slane, M.G. 1859. Description de l’Afrique septentrionale par el-Bekri. Paris: Imprimerie impériale.Google Scholar
Davoli, P. 1998: L’archeologia urbana nel Fayyum di età ellenistica e romana. Napoli: G. Procaccini.Google Scholar
Davoli, P. 2012. Reflections on urbanism in Graeco-Roman Egypt: A historical and regional perspective. In Subías, E., Azara, P., Carruesco, J., Fiz, I. and Cuesta, R. (eds), The Space of the City in Graeco-Roman Egypt: Image and Reality. Tarragona: Institut Català d’Arqueologia Clàssica, 6992.Google Scholar
Davoli, P. 2013. Amheida 2007–2009: New results from the excavations. In Bagnall et al. 2013, 263–78.
Denham, D. and Clapperton, H. 1826. Narration of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa in the Years 1822–1824. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
Di Vita, A. 1964. Il ‘limes’ Romano di Tripolitania nella sua concretezza archaeologica e nella sua realtà storica. Libya Antiqua 1: 6598.Google Scholar
Dospěl, M. and Suková, L. 2013. Bahriya Oasis. Recent Research into the Past of an Egyptian Oasis. Prague: Charles University.Google Scholar
Dunand, F., Heim, J.-L. and Lichtenberg, R. 2010. El-Deir. Nécropoles I. La nécropole Sud. Paris: Cybèle.Google Scholar
Dunand, F., Heim, J.-L. and Lichtenberg, R. 2012. El-Deir. Nécropoles II. Les nécropoles Nord et Nord-Est. Paris: Cybèle.Google Scholar
Dunand, F., Heim, J.-L. and Lichtenberg, R. 2013. Les nécropoles d’el-Deir (Oasis de Kharga). In Bagnall et al. 2013, 279–96.
Fabricotti, E. and Menozzi, O. 2006. Cirenaica: Studi, scavi e scoperte. Atti del X Convegno di Archeologia Cirenaica Chieti 24–26 Novembre 2003 Nuovi dati da città e territorio. Oxford: BAR S1488.Google Scholar
Fakhry, A. 1942. Recent Explorations in the Oases of the Western Desert. Cairo: French Institute of Oriental Archaeology.Google Scholar
Fakhry, A. 1942 /1950. Bahria Oasis, 2 vols. Cairo: Service des antiquités de l’Egypte.Google Scholar
Fakhry, A. 1944. Siwa Oasis. Its History and Antiquities. Cairo: Government Press.Google Scholar
Fakhry, A. 1950. The Oasis of Siwa. Its Customs, History and Monuments. Cairo: Wadi El-Nil Press.Google Scholar
Fakhry, A. 1973. The Oases of Egypt. I, Siwa. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.Google Scholar
Fakhry, A. 1974. The Oases of Egypt. II, Bahariyah and Farfara Oases. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.Google Scholar
Förster, F. 2013. Beyond Dakhla: The Abu Ballas trail in the Libyan Desert (SW Egypt). In Förster and Reimer 2013, 297–337.
Förster, F. 2015. Der Abu Ballas Weg. Eine pharanische Karawanenroute durch die Libysche Wüste. Africa Praehistorica 28. Cologne: Heinrich-Barth Institut.Google Scholar
Förster, F. and Reimer, H. 2013. Desert Road Archaeology in Ancient Egypt and Beyond. Cologne: Heinrich-Barth Institut.Google Scholar
Gallinaro, M. 2018. Mobility and Pastoralism in the Egyptian Western Desert. Steinplätze in the Holocene Regional Settlement Patterns. Firenze: All’Insegna del Giglio.Google Scholar
Gatto, M.C., Mattingly, D.J., Ray, N. and Sterry, M. (eds). 2019. Burials, Migration and Identity in the Ancient Sahara and Beyond. Trans-Saharan Archaeology Volume 2. Series editor Mattingly, D.J.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gautier, E.-F. 1970. Sahara. The Great Desert (translated from the French by D.F. Mayhew). London: Octagon.Google Scholar
Giddy, L.L. 1987. Egyptian Oases. Bahariya, Dakhla, Farafra and Kharga during Pharonic Times. Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd.Google Scholar
Gill, J.C.R. 2016. Dakhleh Oasis and the Western Desert of Egypt under the Ptolemies. Oxford: Oxbow Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonon, T. 2018. La gestion de l’eau dans le désert oriental égyptien durant les temps historiques, de l’époque perse à nos jours: Le site de ‘Ayn Manâwîr et la prospection du bassin sud de l’oasis de Kharga. In Purdue et al. 2018, 269–90.
Goodchild, R.G. 1954a. Tabula Imperii Romani: Lepcis Magna (Sheets H.33 1.33). Oxford: Society of Antiquaries of London.Google Scholar
Goodchild, R.G. 1954b. Tabula Imperii Romani: Cyrene (Sheets H.34 I.34). Oxford: Society of Antiquaries of London.Google Scholar
Gosline, S.L. 1990. Bahariya Oasis Expedition. Season Report for 1988 Part I Survey of Qarat Hilwah. San Antonio: Van Siclen Books.Google Scholar
Guédon, S. 2010. Le voyage dans l’Afrique romaine. Bordeaux: Ausonius.Google Scholar
Hawas, Z. 2000. Valley of the Golden Mummies. Cairo: AUC Press.Google Scholar
Herschend, F. 2009. The Early Iron Age in South Scandinavia. Social Order in Settlement and Landscape. Uppsala: Uppsala University Press.Google Scholar
Hope, C.A. and Bowen, G.E. 2002. Dakhleh Oasis Project: Preliminary Reports on the 1994–1995 to 1998–1999 Field Seasons. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Hope, C.A. and Mills, A.J. 1999. Dakhleh Oasis Project: Preliminary Reports on the 1992–1993 and 1993–1994 Field Seasons. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Hope, C.A. and Pettman, A.J. 2013. Egyptian connections with Dakhleh oasis in the Early Dynastic period to Dynasty IV: New data from Mut al-Kharab. In Bagnall et al. 2013, 147–66.
Hornemann, F. 1802. The Journal of Frederick Hornemann’s Travels from Cairo to Mourzouk the Capital of the Kingdom of Fezzan in Africa in the Years 1797–9. London: G. and W. Nichol.Google Scholar
Ibrahim, A.I. 2013. Major archaeological sites in Kharga Oasis and some recent discoveries by the Supreme Council of Antiquities. In Bagnall et al. 2013, 18.
Jackson, R.B. 2002. At Empire’s Edge. Exploring Rome’s Egyptian Frontier. New Haven: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jennerstrasse 8. 2002. Tides of the Desert. Contribution to the Archaeology and Environmental History of Africa in Honour of Rudolph Kuper. Cologne: Heinrich Barth Institut.
Kenrick, P. 2013. Archaeological Guides: Cyrenaica. London: Society for Libyan Studies.Google Scholar
Kirkwan, L.P. 1971. Roman expeditions to the Upper Nile and the Chad-Darfur region. In Gadallah, F.F. (ed.), Libya in History. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the Faculty of Arts, University of Libya 1968. Benghazi: University of Benghazi, 253–61.Google Scholar
Knudstad, J.E. and Frey, R.A. 1999. Kellis, the architectural survey of the Romano-Byzantine town at Ismant el-Kharab. In Churcher and Mills 1999, 189214.
Kucera, P. 2013. Al-Qasr: the Roman castrum of Dakhleh Oasis. In Bagnall et al. 2013, 205–16.
Kuhlmann, K.P. 1998. Roman and Byzantine Siwa: Developing a latent picture. In Kaper, O.E. (ed.), Life on the Fringe: Living in the Southern Egyptian Deserts during the Roman and Early Byzantine Periods. Leiden: Research School CNWS, 159–80.Google Scholar
Kuhlmann, K.P. 2002. The ‘oasis bypath’ or the issue of desert trade in Pharaonic times. In Jennerstrasse 8 2002, 125–70.
Kuhlmann, K.P. 2013. The realm of two deserts: Siwa oasis between east and west. In Förster and Reimer 2013, 133–66.
Leahy, A. 1990. Libya and Egypt c1300–750 BC. London: Society for Libyan Studies.Google Scholar
Levtzion, N. and Hopkins, J.F.P. (eds). 1981. Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Liverani, M. 2000. The Libyan caravan road in Herodotus IV.181–184. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 43.4: 496520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liverani, M. (ed.). 2006. Aghram Nadharif. The Barkat Oasis (Sha‘abiya of Ghat, Libyan Sahara) in Garamantian Times. Firenze: All’Insegna del Giglio.Google Scholar
Lloyd-Owen, D. 2009. The Long Range Desert Group 19401945: Providence Their Guide. Barnsley: Pen and Sword.Google Scholar
Lyon, G.F. 1821. A Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa in the Years 1818–1819 and 1820. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
McDonald, M.M.A. 2003. The early Holocene Masara A and Masara C cultural sub-units of Dakhleh Oasis, within a wider cultural setting. In Bowen and Hope 2003, 4370.
Mattingly, D.J. 1995. Tripolitania. London: Batsford.Google Scholar
Mattingly, D.J. 2000a. Ammon. In Talbert, R. (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton: map 73 and Map-by-Map Directory pp. 1108–16.Google Scholar
Mattingly, D.J. 2000b. Cyrene. In Talbert, R. (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton: map 38 and Map-by-Map Directory pp. 558–69.Google Scholar
Mattingly, D.J. 2000c. Syrtica. In Talbert, R. (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton: map 37 and Map-by-Map Directory pp. 552–57.Google Scholar
Mattingly, D.J. 2003. The Archaeology of Fazzan. Volume 1, Synthesis. London: Society for Libyan Studies, Department of Antiquities.Google Scholar
Mattingly, D.J., Dore, J. and Lahr, M. (with contributions by others). 2008. DMP II: 2008 fieldwork on burials and identity in the Wadi al-Ajal. Libyan Studies 39: 223–62.CrossRef
Mattingly, D.J., Sterry, M., al-Haddad, M. and Bokbot, Y. 2018. Beyond the Garamantes: The early development of Saharan oases. In Purdue, L., Charbonnier, J. and Khalidi, L. (eds), Des refuges aux oasis: Vivre en milieu aride de la Préhistoire à aujourd’hui. XXXVIIIe rencontres internationales d’archéologie et d’histoire d’Antibes. Antibes: Éditions APDCA, 205–28.Google Scholar
Menozzi, O. (ed.). 2009. Chieti University Cyrene Season June 2009. Preliminary Report. Privately circulated report.Google Scholar
Midant-Reynes, B. and Tristant, Y. (eds). 2008. Egypt at Its Origins 2. Dudley, MA: Uitgeverij Peeters en Departement Oosterse Studies.Google Scholar
Mills, A.J. 1999a. Pharaonic Egyptians in the Dakhleh oasis. In Churcher and Mills 1999, 171–78.
Mills, A.J. 1999b. Pottery manufacture in the Dakhleh oasis. In Churcher and Mills 1999, 215–43.
Mills, A.J. 2002. Deir el-Hagar, Ain Birbiyeh, Ain el-Gazzareen and el-Muzawwaqa. In Hope and Bowen 2002, 2530.
Mills, A.J. 2013. An Old Kingdom trading post at ‘Ain el-Gazzareen, Dakhleh Oasis. In Bagnall et al. 2013, 177–80.
Mills, A.J. and Kaper, O.E. 2003. ‘Ain el-Gazzareen: Developments in the Old Kingdom settlement. In Bowen and Hope 2003, 123–29.
Mohamed, F.A. 1998. El Jaghbub. In Catani, E. and Maria Marengo, S. (eds), La Cirenaica in età antica. Macerata: Istituti editoriali e poligrafici internazionali, 263–73.Google Scholar
Mohamed, F.A. 2007. Trial excavations at el-Jaghbub. In Gasperini, L. and Marengo, S.M. (eds), Cirene e la Cirenaica nell’antichità: atti del convegno internazionale di studi: Roma-Frascati, 1821 dicembre 1996. Tivoli: Edizioni Tored, 116.Google Scholar
Morkot, R. 1996. The Darb el-Arbain, the Kharga oasis and its forts and other desert routes. In Bailey, D.M. (ed.), Archaeological Research in Ancient Egypt. Ann Arbor: JRA supplementary volume, 8294.Google Scholar
Morkot, R. 2016. Before Greeks and Romans: Eastern Libya and the oases, a brief review of interconnections in the Sahara, Eastern. In Mugnai et al. 2016, 2738.
Mugnai, N., Nikolaus, J. and Ray, N. (eds). 2016. De Africa Romaque. Merging Cultures Across North Africa. London: Society for Libyan Studies, 27–38.Google Scholar
Müller-Wollermann, R. 2000. Memphis-Oxyrhynchus. In Talbert, R. (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton: map 75 and Map-by-Map Directory pp. 1125–39.Google Scholar
Nachtigal, G. 1974. Sahara and Sudan, Vol I, Tripoli and Fezzan, Tibesti or Tu. Translated from the German by A.G.B. and H.J. Fisher. London: C. Hurst.Google Scholar
Newton, C., Whitbread, T., Agut-Labordere, D. and Wuttman, M. 2013. L’agriculture oasienne à l’époque perse dans le sud de l’oasis de Kharga (Egypte, Ve–IVe s. AEC). Revue d’ethnoécologie 4: 218.Google Scholar
O’Connor, D. and Reid, A. (eds). 2003. Ancient Egypt in Africa. London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
Pace, B. 1951. Parte I. In B. Pace, S. Sergi and G. Caputo, Scavi sahariani. Monumenti Antichi 41: 151200.
Pacho, J.R. 1827. Relation d’un voyage dans la Marmarique, la Cyrénaique et les oasis d’Audjelah et de Maradeh. Paris: Lib. Firmin Didot.Google Scholar
Pettman, A. 2013. The date of the occupation of ‘Ain el-Gazzareen based on ceramic evidence. In Bagnall et al. 2013: 181208.CrossRef
Prorok, B.K. de. 2001. In Quest of Lost Worlds: Five Archaeological Expeditions 1925–1934. Santa Barbara: Narrative Press (reprint of 1935 book).Google Scholar
Purdue, L., Charbonnier, J. and Khalidi, L. (eds). 2018a. Des refuges aux oasis: Vivre en milieu aride de la Préhistoire à aujourd’hui. XXXVIIIe rencontres internationales d’archéologie et d’histoire d’Antibes. Antibes: Éditions APDCA.Google Scholar
Rathbone, D. 1996. Towards a historical topography of the Fayyum. In Bailey, D.M. (ed.), Archaeological Research in Roman Egypt. Ann Arbor: JRA Supplement 19, 5056.Google Scholar
Rebuffat, R. 1969. Deux ans de recherches dans le sud de la Tripolitaine. Comptes rendus de l’académie des inscriptions et belles lettres 1969: 189212.CrossRef
Rebuffat, R. 1970a. Routes d’Egypte de la Libya Interieure. Studi Magrebini 3: 120.Google Scholar
Rebuffat, R. 1970b. Zella et les routes d’Egypte. Libya Antiqua 6–7: 181–87.Google Scholar
Rebuffat, R. 2004. Les romains et les routes caravanieres africaines. In Fantar, M. (ed.), Le Sahara. Lien entre les peuples et les cultures. Tunis: Université de Tunis, 221–60.Google Scholar
Rebuffat, R., Gassend, J.M., Guery, R. and Hallier, G. 1970. Bu Njem 1968. Libya Antiqua 6–7: 9105.Google Scholar
Reddé, M. 1989. Les oasis d’Egypte. Journal of Roman Archaeology 2: 281–90.Google Scholar
Reddé, M. 1999. Sites militaires romains de l’oasis de Kharga. Bulletin de l’Institut Française d’Archéologie Orientale 99: 377–96.Google Scholar
Reddé, M., Ballet, P., Barbet, A. and Bonnet, C. 2004. Kysis: fouilles de l’Ifao à Douch, oasis de Kharga, 1985–1990. Cairo: Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale.Google Scholar
Rohlfs, G. 2002a. Voyages et explorations au Sahara. Tome III, Tripolitaine – Cyrenaique – Siwah 1868–1869 (translated by J. Debetz). Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
Rohlfs, G. 2002b. Voyages et explorations au Sahara. Tome IV, Désert Libyque. Siwah et les oasis d’Egypte 1873–1874 (translated by J. Debetz). Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
Rohlfs, G. 2003. Voyages et explorations au Sahara. Tome V, Koufra – les oasis de Djofra et de Djalo 1878–1879 (translated by J. Debetz). Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
Rossi, C. 2000. Umm el-Dabadib, Roman settlement in the Kharga oasis: Description of the visible remains, with a note on Ayn Amur. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Abteilung Kairo 56: 235–52.Google Scholar
Rossi, C. 2013. Controlling the borders of the Empire: The distribution of Late-Roman ‘forts’ in the Kharga Oasis. In Bagnall et al. 2013, 331–36.
Saraullo, L. 2009. L’oasi di el-Jaghbub. In Menozzi 2009, 5257.
Scarin, E. 1937. Le oasi cirenaiche del 29˚ parallelo. Firenze: Sansoni.Google Scholar
Scarin, E. 1938. La Giofra e Zella (le oasi del 29 parallelo della Libia occidentale). Firenze: Sansoni.Google Scholar
Smekalova, T.N., Mills, A.J. and Herbich, T. 2003. Magnetic survey at ‘Ain el-Gazzareen. In Bowen and Hope 2003, 131–35.
Stewart, J.D., Molto, J.E. and Reimer, P. 2003. The chronology of Kellis 2: The interpretive significance of radiocarbon dating of human remains. In Bowen and Hope 2003, 345–64.
Tallet, G., Bravard, J.-P., Garcier, R., Guédon, S. and Mostapha, A. 2013. The survey project at el-Deir, Kharga Oasis: First results, new hypotheses. In Bagnall et al. 2013, 349–61.
Thiry, J. 1995. Le Sahara Libyen dans l’Afrique du nord medievale. Leuven: Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 72.Google Scholar
Valloggia, M. 2004. Les oasis d’Egypte dans l’Antiquité. Des origins au deuxiène millénaire avant J.-C. Bischhelm: Infolio.Google Scholar
Vivian, C. 2000. The Western Desert of Egypt. An Explorer’s Handbook. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.Google Scholar
Wagner, G. 1987. Les Oasis d’Egypte. Cairo: Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale du Caire.Google Scholar
Wagner, G. 2000. Oasis Magna. In Talbert, R. (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton: map 79 and Map-by-Map Directory pp. 1164–69.Google Scholar
Ward, P. 1968. Touring Libya. The Southern Provinces. London: Faber.Google Scholar
Warner, N. 2013. Amheida: Architectural conservation and site development, 2004–2009. In Bagnall et al. 2013, 363–79.
Welsby, D. 1996. The Kingdom of Kush. London: British Museum.Google Scholar
Wendorf, F. and Schild, R. 1980. Prehistory of the Eastern Sahara. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
Wendorf, F., Schild, R. and Close, A.E. (eds). 1984. Cattle-Keepers of the Eastern Sahara: The Neolithic of Bir Kiseiba. Dallas: Southern Methodist University.Google Scholar
Wilson, A.I. 2006. The spread of foggara-based irrigation in the ancient Sahara. In Mattingly, D.J., McLaren, S., Savage, E., al-Fasatwi, Y. and Gadgood, K. (eds), The Libyan Desert. Natural Resources and Cultural Heritage. London: Society for Libyan Studies, 205–16.Google Scholar
Wiseman, M.F. 2008. The Oasis Papers 2: Proceedings of the Second International Conference of the Dakhleh Oasis Project. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Wright, G.R.H. 1997. Tombs at the oasis of Jeghbub: An exploration in 1955. Libyan Studies 28: 2941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wuttmann, M., Gonon, T. and Thiers, C. 2000. The qanats of ‘Ayn-Manâwîr (Kharga Oasis, Egypt). Journal of Achaemenid Studies and Researches 1: 111. www.achemenet.comGoogle Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×