Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-6c8bd87754-clkrv Total loading time: 0.917 Render date: 2022-01-17T17:41:42.310Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 October 2020

Mashal Saif
Clemson University, South Carolina
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
The 'Ulama in Contemporary Pakistan
Contesting and Cultivating an Islamic Republic
, pp. 291 - 309
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abbas, Hassan, ed. Pakistan’s Troubled Frontier. Washington, DC: The Jamestown Foundation, 2009.Google Scholar
Abbas, Shemeem Burney. Pakistan’s Blasphemy Laws: From Islamic Empires to the Taliban. Texas: University of Texas Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Abou El Fadl, Khaled. Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abrams, Philip. “Notes on the Difficulty of Studying the State (1977).” Journal of Historical Sociology vol. 1, no. 1 (March 1988): 5889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agamben, Giorgio. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. trans. Heller-Roazen, Daniel. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agrama, Hussein Ali. “Ethics, Tradition, Authority: Toward an Anthropology of the Fatwa.” American Ethnologist vol. 37, no. 1 (2010): 218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agrama, Hussein Ali. Questioning Secularism: Islam, Sovereignty, and the Rule of Law in Modern Egypt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahmad, Aziz. “An Eighteenth-Century Theory of the Caliphate.” Studia Islamica, no. 28 (1968): 135144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahmad, Aziz. “Activism of Ulama in Pakistan.” In Scholars, Saints and Sufis: Muslim Religious Institutions in the Middle East since 1500, edited by Keddie, Nikki, 257272. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972.Google Scholar
Ahmad, Imtiaz and Reifeld, Helmut, eds. Lived Islam in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation and Conflict. New Delhi: Social Science Press, 2004.Google Scholar
Ahmad, Irfan. “Genealogy of the Islamic State: Reflections on Mawdudi’s Political Thought and Islamism.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute vol. 15, no. 1 (May 2009): 145162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahmad, Muhammad Mushtaq. “The Notions of Dār al-Ḥarb and Dār al-Islām in Islamic Jurisprudence with Special Reference to the Ḥanafī School.” Islamic Studies vol. 47, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 537.Google Scholar
Ahmed, Asad Ali. “Specters of Macaulay: Blasphemy, the Indian Penal Code, and Pakistan’s Postcolonial Predicament.” In Censorship in South Asia: Cultural Regulation from Sedition to Seduction, edited by Kaur, Raminder and Mazzarella, William, 172205. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Ahmed, Khaled. Sectarian War: Pakistan’s Sunni-Shia Violence and Its Links to the Middle East. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Ahmed, Zahid Shahab. “Madrasa Education in the Pakistani Context: Challenges, Reforms and Future Directions.” Peace Prints: South Asia Journal of Peace Building vol. 2, no. 1 (Autumn 2009): 5365.Google Scholar
Ahmed, Ziauddin. “Ahmad B. Hanbal and the Problems of ‘Iman.” Islamic Studies vol. 12, no. 4 (December 1973): 261270.Google Scholar
Akbarabadi, Saeed Ahmad. Hindustan ki Shar‘i Haisiyyat. Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, 1968.Google Scholar
Akbarzadeh, Shahram and Saeed, Abdullah, eds. Islam and Political Legitimacy. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Akhavi, Shahrough. Religion and Politics in Contemporary Iran: Clergy-State Relations in the Pahlavī Period. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1980.Google Scholar
Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: New Press, 2010.Google Scholar
Ali, Imran, Mumtaz, Soofia and Racine, Jean-Luc, eds. Pakistan: The Contours of State and Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
Ali, Nosheen. “Outrageous State, Sectarianized Citizens: Deconstructing the ‘Textbook Controversy’ in the Northern Areas, Pakistan.” South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal no. 2 (2008). Accessed September 14, 2016. Scholar
Alruwaih, Meshari. States Do Not Go to Heaven: Towards a Theory of Islamic Agency in International Relations. Herndon: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2013.Google Scholar
Alvi, Sajida S.Qāżī Sanā’ Allāh Pānīpatī, An Eighteenth-Century Indian Sufi-‘Alim: A Study of His Writings in Their Sociopolitical Context.” In Islamic Studies Presented to Charles J. Adams, edited by Hallaq, W. and Little, D., 1125. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1991.Google Scholar
Alvi, Sohail Masood. FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan): Beginning of a New Era. Lahore: Printhouse, 2006.Google Scholar
Appadurai, Arjun. Fear of Small Numbers: An Essay on the Geography of Anger. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ardic, Nurullah. Islam and the Politics of Secularism: The Caliphate and Middle Eastern Modernization in the Early 20th Century. London: Routledge, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arendt, Hannah. On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1970.Google Scholar
Arendt, Hannah. Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought. New York: Penguin Books, 2006.Google Scholar
‘Arif, Mahmud al-Hasan. Tazkira Qazi Sana’ Allah ‘Uthmani Panipati: Muallif al-Tafsir al-Mazhari. Lahore: Tayyaba Printers, 1995.Google Scholar
Asad, Talal. The Idea of an Anthropology of Islam. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, 1986.Google Scholar
Asad, Talal. Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Power in Christianity and Islam. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
Asad, Talal. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Asad, Talal, Brown, Wendy, Butler, Judith and Mahmood, Saba. Is Critique Secular? Blasphemy, Injury, and Free Speech. Berkeley: Townsend Center for the Humanities, University of California, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al-Atawneh, Muhammad. “Khuruj in Contemporary Islamic Thought: The Case of the ‘Arab Spring.’” Ilahiyat Studies vol. 7, no. 1 (2016): 2752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Austin, J. L. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962.Google Scholar
Axtmann, Roland. “The State of the State: The Model of the Modern State and Its Contemporary Transformation.” International Political Science Review vol. 25, no. 3 (2004): 259279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ayoob, Mohammed. The Many Faces of Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Muslim World. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2008.Google Scholar
Aziz, Sadaf. “Making a Sovereign State: Javed Ghamidi and ‘Enlightened Moderation.’” Modern Asian Studies vol. 45, no. 3 (2011): 597629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bano, Masooda. “Beyond Politics: The Reality of a Deobandi Madrasa in Pakistan.” Journal of Islamic Studies vol. 18, no. 1 (2007): 4368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bano, Masooda. The Rational Believer: Choices and Decisions in the Madrasas of Pakistan. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2016.Google Scholar
Behuria, Ashok K.Sunni-Shia Relations in Pakistan: The Widening Divide.” Strategic Analysis, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses vol. 28, no. 1 (January–March 2004): 157176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Behuria, Ashok K.Sects within Sect: The Case of Deobandi-Barelvi Encounter in Pakistan.” Strategic Analysis vol. 32, no. 1 (2008): 5780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belkeziz, Abdelilah. The State in Contemporary Islamic Thought: A Historical Survey of the Major Muslim Political Thinkers of the Modern Era. London: I. B. Tauris, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bein, Amit. Ottoman Ulema, Turkish Republic: Agents of Change and Guardians of Tradition. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Berkey, Jonathan Porter. The Transmission of Knowledge in Medieval Cairo: A Social History of Islamic Education. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bibi, Asia and Tollet, Anne-Isabelle. Blasphemy: A Memoir: Sentenced to Death over a Cup of Water. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Binder, Leonard. Religion and Politics in Pakistan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Black, Antony. The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
Bourdieu, Pierre, Wacquant, Loïc J. D. and Farage, Samar. “Rethinking the State: Genesis and Structure of the Bureaucratic Field.” Sociological Theory vol. 12, no. 1 (1994): 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brunner, Rainer, and Ende, Werner, eds. The Twelver Shia in Modern Times: Religious Culture and Political History. Brill: Leiden, 2001.Google Scholar
Buchanan, Ian. Oxford Dictionary of Critical Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
Burchell, G., Gordon, C. and Miller, P., eds. The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butler, Judith, and Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. Who Sings the Nation-State? Language, Politics, Belonging. London: Seagull Books, 2007.Google Scholar
Canfield, Robert L. Faction and Conversion in a Plural Society: Religious Alignments in the Hindu Kush. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casanova, José. Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cerny, Philip G.Restructuring the State in a Globalizing World: Capital Accumulation, Tangled Hierarchies and the Search for a New Spatio-Temporal Fix.” Review of International Political Economy vol. 13, no. 4 (2006): 679695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chatterjee, Partha. The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
Choudhury, G. W.‘New’ Pakistan’s Constitution, 1973.” Middle East Journal vol. 28, no. 1 (Winter 1974): 1018.Google Scholar
Crockett, Clayton, ed. Religion and Violence in a Secular World: Toward a New Political Theology. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2006.Google Scholar
Das, Veena and Poole, Deborah, eds. Anthropology in the Margins of the State. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 2004.Google Scholar
Derrida, Jacques. Specters of Marx: The State of the Debt, the Work of Mourning, and the New International. New York: Routledge, 1994.Google Scholar
Devji, Faisal. Muslim Zion: Pakistan As a Political Idea. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dhulipala, Venkat. Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dirks, Nicholas B., ed. Colonialism and Culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dolnik, Adam, and Iqbal, Khuram. Negotiating the Siege of the Lal Masjid. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2016.Google Scholar
Dubuisson, Daniel. The Western Construction of Religion: Myths, Knowledge, and Ideology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
Eaton, Richard Maxwell. India’s Islamic Traditions, 711–1750. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
Eickelman, Dale F., and Anderson, Jon W.. “Redefining Muslim Publics.” In New Media in the Muslim World: The Emerging Public Sphere, edited by Eickelman, Dale F., and Anderson, Jon W., 118. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
Eickelman, Dale F., and Piscatori, James P.. Muslim Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elias, Jamal J., ed. Key Themes for the Study of Islam. Oxford: Oneworld, 2010.Google Scholar
Emon, Anver M. Religious Pluralism and Islamic Law: Dhimmis and Others in the Empire of Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
Enayat, Hamid. Modern Islamic Political Thought. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ernst, Carl W., and Lawrence, Bruce B.. Sufi Martyrs of Love: The Chishti Order in South Asia and Beyond. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fadl, Khaled Abou El. Speaking in God’s Name: Islamic Law, Authority and Women. New York: Oneworld Publications, 2014.Google Scholar
Fair, Christine. The Madrassah Challenge: Militancy and Religious Education in Pakistan. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2008.Google Scholar
Farooqui, Salma Ahmed. Islam and the Mughal State. New Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan, 2005.Google Scholar
Feldman, Noah. The Fall and Rise of the Islamic State. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
Fitzi, Gregor. “Sovereignty, Legality and Democracy: Politics in the Work of Max Weber.” Max Weber Studies vol. 9, no. 1/2 (2009): 3349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forte, David F.Apostasy and Blasphemy in Pakistan.” Connecticut Journal of International Law vol. 10, no. 1 (1994): 2768.Google Scholar
Foucault, Michel. “Governmentality.” In The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, edited by Burchell, Graham, Gordon, Colin and Miller, Peter, 87104. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.Google Scholar
Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. trans. Sheridan, Alan. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.Google Scholar
Foucault, Michel. The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the College De France, 1978–1979. ed. Senellart, Michel, trans. Burchell, Graham. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.Google Scholar
Fox, Jonathan, ed. Religion, Politics, Society, and the State. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2012.Google Scholar
French, Peter. “The Corporation As a Moral Person.” American Philosophical Quarterly vol. 16, no. 3 (July 1979): 207215.Google Scholar
Friedmann, Yohanan. Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and Its Medieval Background. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.Google Scholar
Fuchs, Simon Wolfgang. “Relocating the Centers of Shī‘ī Islam: Religious Authority, Sectarianism, and the Limits of the Transnational in Colonial India and Pakistan.” PhD diss., Princeton University, 2015.Google Scholar
Fuchs, Simon Wolfgang. “Third Wave Shi‘ism.” In The Shi‘a in Modern South Asia: Religion, History and Politics, edited by Jones, Justin, and Qasmi, Ali U., 179202. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galbo, Joe. “Review: Appadurai Arjun, Fear of Small Numbers: An Essay on the Geography of Anger.” Canadian Journal of Sociology Online (November–December 2006).Google Scholar
Garmany, Jeff. “The Embodied State: Governmentality in a Brazilian Favela.” Social and Cultural Geography vol. 10, no. 7 (2009): 721739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geaves, R. A.India 1857: A Mutiny or a War of Independence? The Muslim Perspective.” Islamic Studies vol. 35, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 2544.Google Scholar
Geser, Hans. “Towards an Interaction Theory of Organizational Actors.” Organization Studies, vol. 13, no. 3 (July 1992): 429451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghobadzadeh, Naser. Religious Secularity: A Theological Challenge to the Islamic State. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghose, Rajarshi. “Islamic Law and Imperial Space: British India As ‘Domain of Islam’ circa 1803–1870.” Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History vol. 15, no. 1 (Spring 2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilmartin, David. “Democracy, Nationalism and the Public: A Speculation on Colonial Muslim Politics.” South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies vol. 14, no. 1 (1991): 123140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldstein, Natalie. Religion and the State. New York: Facts on File, 2010.Google Scholar
Government of Pakistan. 1998 Census Report of Kurram Agency. Islamabad: Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan, 2000.Google Scholar
Guha, Ranajit. “Chandra’s Death.” In Subaltern Studies: Writings on South Asian History and Society vol. 5, edited by Guha, Ranajit, 135165. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
Gupta, Akhil. “Blurred Boundaries: The Discourse of Corruption, the Culture of Politics and the Imagined State.” American Ethnologist vol. 22, no. 2 (1995): 375402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gutmann, Amy, ed. Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
Habermas, Jürgen. “Religion in the Public Sphere.” European Journal of Philosophy vol. 14, no. 1 (2006): 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haidar, Hamid Hadji. Liberalism and Islam: Practical Reconciliation between the Liberal State and Shiite Muslims. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haider, Syed Afzal. Islami Nazryati Council: Irtiqa’i Safar awr Karkardagi. Islamabad: Dost Publications, 2006.Google Scholar
Hallaq, Wael B. Authority, Continuity, and Change in Islamic Law. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallaq, Wael B.Juristic Authority vs. State Power: The Legal Crises of Modern Islam.” Journal of Law and Religion vol. 19, no. 2 (2003–2004): 243258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallaq, Wael B. An Introduction to Islamic Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallaq, Wael B. Sharī‘a: Theory, Practice, Transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallaq, Wael B. The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and Modernity’s Moral Predicament. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Hansen, Thomas Blom, and Stepputat, Finn, eds. Sovereign Bodies: Citizens, Migrants, and States in the Postcolonial World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Hansen, Thomas Blom, and Stepputat, Finn, eds. States of Imagination: Ethnographic Explorations of the Postcolonial State. Durham: Duke University Press, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
al-Haqq, Sami‘. Islam awr ‘Asr-i Hazir. Peshawar: Mu‘tamar Al-Musannifin, 1970.Google Scholar
Haqqani, Husain. Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005.Google Scholar
Hardt, Michael, and Negri, Antonio. Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.Google Scholar
Hardy, Peter. The Muslims of British India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haroon, Sana. “The Rise of Deobandi Islam in the North-West Frontier Province and Its Implications in Colonial India and Pakistan, 1914–1996.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society vol. 18, no. 1 (2008): 4770.Google Scholar
Hartung, Jan-Peter. “Of Pious Missions and Challenging the Elders: A Genealogy of Radical Egalitarianism in the Pashtun Borderscape.” Geopolitics vol. 24, no. 2 (2019): 308343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hashemi, Nader. Islam, Secularism, and Liberal Democracy toward a Democratic Theory for Muslim Societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasnain, Nadeem, and Husain, Sheikh Abrar. Shias and Shia Islam in India: A Study in Society and Culture. New Delhi: Harnam Publications, 1988.Google Scholar
Hassan, Riffat. “Islamic Modernist and Reformist Discourse in South Asia.” In Reformist Voices of Islam: Mediating Islam and Modernity, edited by Hunter, Shireen, 159186. New York: Sharpe, 2009.Google Scholar
Hatina, Meir, ed. Guardians of Faith in Modern Times: ‘Ulama’ in the Middle East. Leiden: Brill, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatina, Meir, Ulama’, Politics, and the Public Sphere: An Egyptian Perspective. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2010.Google Scholar
Hayes, Louis D. The Islamic State in the Post-Modern World: The Political Experience of Pakistan. London: Routledge, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haykel, Bernard. Revival and Reform in Islam: The Legacy of Muhammad Al-Shawkani. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
Hefner, Robert W., ed. Remaking Muslim Politics: Pluralism, Contestation, Democratization. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Hefner, Robert W., ed. Shari‘a Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Hefner, Robert W., and Horvatich, Patricia, eds. Islam in an Era of Nation-states: Politics and Religious Renewal in Muslim Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hefner, Robert W., and Zaman, Muhammad Qasim, eds. Schooling Islam: The Culture and Politics of Modern Muslim Education. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
Hinnells, John R., and King, Richard, eds. Religion and Violence in South Asia: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirschkind, Charles. “Civic Virtue and Religious Reason: An Islamic Counterpublic.” Cultural Anthropology vol. 16, no. 1 (2001): 334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan: Or the Matter, Forme, and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civill, ed. Shapiro, Ian. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
Hobsbawm, E. J. Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howarth, Toby M. The Twelver Shī‘a As a Muslim Minority in India: Pulpit of Tears. New York: Routledge, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunter, Shireen, ed. Reformist Voices of Islam: Mediating Islam and Modernity. New York: Sharpe, 2009.Google Scholar
Taymiyya, Ibn, al-Din, Taqi. Kitab al-Sarim al-Maslul ‘ala Shatim al-Rasul. trans. Janjua’, Muhammad Ijaz. Lahore: Nuriyya Rizwiyya Publications, 2010.Google Scholar
Ingram, Brannon. “Sufis, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (d. 1905) and the Deobandi Critique of Sufism.” The Muslim World vol. 99, no. 3 (2009): 478501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
International Crisis Group. Pakistan: Madrasas, Extremism and the Military. Brussels: International Crisis Group, 2002.Google Scholar
Iqtidar, Humeira. “Secularism beyond the State: The ‘State’ and the ‘Market’ in Islamist Imagination.” Modern Asian Studies vol. 45, no. 3 (2011): 535564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iqtidar, Humeira. Secularizing Islamists? Jama‘at-e-Islami and Jama‘at-ud-Da‘wa in Urban Pakistan. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iqtidar, Humeira. “State Management of Religion in Pakistan and Dilemmas of Citizenship.” Citizenship Studies vol. 16, no. 8 (2012): 10131028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iqtidar, Humeira. “How Long Is Life? Neoliberalism and Islamic Piety.” Critical Inquiry vol. 43, no. 4 (2017): 790812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Isabel, Fierro Marie. “Andalusian ‘Fatawa’ on Blasphemy.” Annales Islamologiques vol. 25 (1990): 103117.Google Scholar
Islamabad High Court. Malik Muhammad Mumtaz Qadri vs. The State, Crl. Appeal No. 90 & Murder Reference No. 01 of 2011, Islamabad High Court (2015).Google Scholar
Islami Nazryati Council. 2002–2003 Salana Report Islami Nazryati Council. Islamabad: Islami Nazryati Council, Government of Pakistan, 2009.Google Scholar
Islami Nazryati Council. Muslim ‘Ai’li Qawanin Ordinance 1961: Nazar-i Thani awr Sifarishat. Islamabad: Islami Nazryati Council, 2009.Google Scholar
Islami Nazryati Council. “Ra’ij al-Waqt Qawanin par Nazar-i Thani.” 2008–2009 Salana Report Islami Nazryati Council. Islamabad: Islami Nazryati Council, Government of Pakistan, 2009.Google Scholar
Jaffrelot, Christophe, ed. Pakistan: Nationalism without a Nation? New Delhi: Manohar Publications, 2002.Google Scholar
Jahangir, Asma, and Jilani, Hina. The Hudood Ordinances: A Divine Sanction? A Research Study of the Hudood Ordinances and Their Effect on the Disadvantaged Sections of Pakistan Society [sic]. Lahore: Rhotas Books, 1990.Google Scholar
Jalal, Ayesha. Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jalali, Ashraf Asif. Ghazi Muhammad Mumtaz Husayn Qadri ki Riha’i ke Baray Main Shar‘i Fatwa. Lahore: Dar al-Ifta’ Jami‘a Jalaliyya, 2011.Google Scholar
Jalalzai, Musa Khan. The Sunni-Shia Conflict in Pakistan. Lahore: Book Traders, 1998.Google Scholar
Na‘imiyya, Jami‘a. Prospectus: Jami‘a Na‘imiyya. Lahore: Jami‘a Na‘imiyya, 2011.Google Scholar
al-Muntazar, Jami‘a. Hawza ‘Ilmiyya Jami‘a al-Muntazar. Lahore: VISCOM, 2009.Google Scholar
Jamil, Mawlana Mufti Riaz, ed. Tahaffuz-i Namus-i Risalat: Kyun awr Kaise? Lahore: Maktaba al-Haramain, 2006.Google Scholar
Jan, Najeeb A. The Metacolonial State: Pakistan, the Deoband ‘Ulama and the Bio-politics of Islam.” PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010.Google Scholar
Jan, Tarik, et al., eds. Pakistan between Secularism and Islam: Ideology, Issues and Conflict. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies, 1998.Google Scholar
Jenco, Leigh K. “‘Rule by Man’ and ‘Rule by Law’ in Early Republican China: Contributions to a Theoretical Debate.” Journal of Asian Studies vol. 69, no. 1 (2010): 181203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, Justin. Shi‘a Islam in Colonial India: Religion, Community and Sectarianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.Google Scholar
Jouevenel, Bertrand de. On Power: The Natural History of Its Growth. trans. Huntington, J. F.. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1993.Google Scholar
Jouevenel, Bertrand de. Sovereignty: An Inquiry into the Political Good. trans. Huntington, J. F.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Julius, Qaiser. Ahmadi and Christian Socio-Political Responses to Pakistan’s Blasphemy Laws: A Comparison, Contrast and Critique with Special Reference to the Christian Church in Pakistan. Carlisle: Langham Monographs, 2017.Google Scholar
Kamali, Mohammad Hashim. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence. Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 2003.Google Scholar
Kantorowicz, Ernst H. The King’s Two Bodies: A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.Google Scholar
Kasani, Abu Bakr ibn Mas‘ud. Bada’i‘ Al-Sana’i‘ fi Tartib as-Shara’i‘. trans. Chawla, Khan Muhammad. Lahore: Markaz-i Tahqiq, Dyal Singh Trust Library, 1993.Google Scholar
Kazmi, Sayyid Muhammad. Imamiyya Dini Madaris Pakistan. Lahore: Wafaq al-Madaris al-Shi‘a Pakistan, 2004.Google Scholar
Keddie, Nikki R. Religion and Politics in Iran: Shi‘ism from Quietism to Revolution. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.Google Scholar
Kennedy, Charles. Islamization of Laws and Economy. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies, 1996.Google Scholar
Kerr, Malcolm H. Islamic Reform: The Political and Legal Theories of Muḥammad ‘Abduh and Rashid Riḍa. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.Google Scholar
Khalidi, Omar. “Muslim Debates on Jihad in British India: The Writings of Chiragh ‘Ali and Abu al-A‘la Mawdudi.” In Just Wars, Holy Wars, and Jihads: Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Encounters and Exchanges, edited by Hashmi, Sohail H., 305324. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khan, Irfan Moeen. “The Construction of Deobandī ‘Ulamā’s Religious Authority in Pakistan: A Study of their Journal, Bayyināt, 1962–1977.” MA thesis, McGill University, 2004.Google Scholar
Khan, Ismail. “The Assertion of Barelvi Extremism.” Current Trends in Islamist Ideology vol. 12 (October 2011): 5172.Google Scholar
Khayyam, Umer. “What (Not) Advances Effective Community-Driven Development? A Socio-Economic & Politico-Cultural Analysis of the Pashtun Ethnic Society of FATA, Pakistan.” PhD diss., Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 2016.Google Scholar
King, Richard. Orientalism and Religion: Postcolonial Theory, India and “the Mystic East. London: Routledge, 1999.Google Scholar
Kirwan, Michael. Political Theology: An Introduction. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Kozlowski, Gregory C.Loyalty, Locality and Authority in Several Opinions (Fatawa) Delivered by the Mufti of the Jami‘ah Nizamiyyah Madrasah, Hyderabad, India.” Modern Asian Studies vol. 29, no. 4 (October 1995): 893927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kugle, Scott Alan. “Framed, Blamed and Renamed: The Recasting of Islamic Jurisprudence in Colonial South Asia.” Modern Asian Studies vol. 35, no. 2 (2001): 257313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumar, Sumita. “The Role of Islamic Parties in Pakistani Politics.” Strategic Analysis vol. 25, no. 2 (2001): 271284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krohn-Hansen, Christian, and Nustad, Knut G., eds. State Formation: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Pluto Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Lakhani, Saad. “‘Love Must Be Defended,’ a Genealogy of the Discourse of Muslim Passions and the Politics of Blasphemy in Pakistan,” unpublished paper draft on file with author.Google Scholar
Lambek, Michael. “Certain Knowledge, Contestable Authority: Power and Practice on the Islamic Periphery.” American Ethnologist vol. 17, no. 1 (1990): 2340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambton, Ann K. S. State and Government in Medieval Islam: An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Political Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
Lawrence, Bruce B., and Karim, Aisha, eds. On Violence: A Reader. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latour, Bruno. We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
Lewis, Bernard. The Political Language of Islam. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lilla, Mark. The Stillborn God: Religion, Politics, and the Modern West. New York: Knopf, 2007.Google Scholar
Limaye, Satu P., Malik, Mohan and Wirsing, Robert, eds. Religious Radicalism and Security in South Asia. Honolulu: Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, 2004.Google Scholar
Lincoln, Bruce. Authority: Construction and Corrosion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.Google Scholar
Louër, Laurence. Transnational Shia Politics: Religious and Political Networks in the Gulf. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
MacIntyre, Alasdair. Whose Justice? Which Rationality? Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1988.Google Scholar
Madani, Sayyid Husain Ahmad. Maktubat-i Shaykh al-Islam. Delhi: [s.n.], 1954.Google Scholar
Madani, Sayyid Husain Ahmad. Composite Nationalism and Islam. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers & Distributors, 2005.Google Scholar
Mahmood, Saba. “Secularism, Hermeneutics, and Empire: The Politics of Islamic Reformation.” Public Culture vol. 18, no. 2 (2006): 323347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mahmood, Saba. Religious Difference in a Secular Age: A Minority Report. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mahmood, Saba, and Danchin, Peter G., eds. Politics of Religious Freedom: Contested Genealogies. Durham: Duke University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
Maira, Sunaina. “‘Good’ and ‘Bad’ Muslim Citizens: Feminists, Terrorists, and U.S. Orientalisms.” Feminist Studies vol. 35, no. 3 (2009): 631656.Google Scholar
Maitland, Frederic William. The Collected Papers of Frederic William Maitland, edited by Fisher, H. A. L.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911.Google Scholar
Makdisi, George. The Rise of Colleges: Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
Malik, Jamal. “Islamization in Pakistan 1977–1985: The Ulama and Their Places of Learning.” Islamic Studies vol. 28, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 528.Google Scholar
Malik, Jamal. “Legitimizing Islamization: The Case of the ‘Council of Islamic Ideology’ in Pakistan, 1962–1981.” Orient vol. 30, no. 2 (1989): 251268.Google Scholar
Malik, Jamal. Colonization of Islam: Dissolution of Traditional Institutions in Pakistan. New Delhi: Manohar, 1996.Google Scholar
Malik, Jamal. ed. Madrasas in South Asia: Teaching Terror? London: Routhledge, 2008.Google Scholar
Mandair, Arvind. “The Global Fiduciary: Mediating the Violence of Religion.” In Religion and Violence in South Asia: Theory and Practice, edited by Hinnells, John R. and King, Richard, 211225. London: Routledge, 2007.Google Scholar
Mani, Lata. “Contentious Traditions: The Debate on Sati in Colonial India.” Cultural Critique no. 7 (Autumn 1987): 119–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
March, Andrew F.Are Secularism and Neutrality Attractive to Religious Minorities? Islamic Discussions of Western Secularism in the ‘Jurisprudence of Muslim Minorities’ (Fiqh Al-Aqalliyyat) Discourse.” In Constitutional Secularism in an Age of Religious Revival, edited by Mancini, Susanna and Rosenfeld, Michel, 283310. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, Vanessa. Creating an Islamic State: Khomeini and the Making of a New Iran. London: I. B. Tauris, 2003.Google Scholar
Masud, Muhammad Khalid. “Rethinking Shari‘a: Javed Ahmad Ghamidi on Hudud.” Die Welt des Islams vol. 47 (2007): 356375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masud, Muhammad Khalid. Hudood Ordinance Report. Islamabad: Council of Islamic Ideology, circa. 2008.Google Scholar
Masud, Muhammad Khalid. “Interpreting Divorce Laws in Pakistan: Debates on Shari‘a and Gender Equality in 2008.” In Interpreting Divorce Laws in Islam, edited by Mehdi, Rubya, Menski, Werner and Nielsen, Jørgen S., 4361. Copenhagen: DJØF Publishing Copenhagen, 2012.Google Scholar
Masud, Muhammad Khalid, and Salvatore, Armando, eds. Islam and Modernity: Key Issues and Debates. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Masud, Muhammad Khalid, Messick, Brinkley Morris and Powers, David Stephan, eds. Islamic Legal Interpretation: Muftis and Their Fatwas. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
Matinuddin, Kamal. The Taliban Phenomenon: Afghanistan 1994–1997. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1999.Google Scholar
McCue, Helen. “Some Aspects of Reform in Islamic Family Law Today: Lessons from Three Countries.” In Family Law and Australian Muslim Women, edited by Saeed, Abdullah and McCue, Helen, 3769. Carlton: Melbourne University Publishing Limited, 2013.Google Scholar
Messick, Brinkley. “The Mufti, the Text and the World: Legal Interpretation in Yemen.” Man, new series vol. 21, no. 1 (March, 1986): 102119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Messick, Brinkley. The Calligraphic State: Textual Domination and History in a Muslim Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.Google Scholar
Metcalf, Barbara D. Islamic Revival in British India: Deoband, 1860–1900. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metcalf, Barbara D. Islamic Contestations: Essays on Muslims in India and Pakistan. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
Metcalf, Barbara D. Husain Ahmad Madani: The Jihad for Islam and India’s Freedom. Oxford: OneWorld, 2009.Google Scholar
Metcalf, Barbara D. ed. Islam in South Asia in Practice. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mirza, Mateen A. “Taming the ‘Wild West’– Integrating the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.” MA thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2005.Google Scholar
Mitchell, Timothy. “The Limits of the State: Beyond Statist Approaches and Their Critics.” The American Political Science Review vol. 85, no. 1 (1991): 7796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, Timothy. “Society, Economy, and the State Effect.” In State/Culture: State Formation after the Cultural Turn, edited by Steinmetz, George, 7697. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.Google Scholar
Moghadam, Assaf, ed. Militancy and Political Violence in Shiism: Trends and Patterns. Milton Park: Routledge, 2012.Google Scholar
Monsutti, Alessandro, Naef, Silvia and Sabahi, Farian, eds. The Other Shiites: From the Mediterranean to Central Asia. Bern: Peter Lang, 2007.Google Scholar
Moosa, Ebrahim. “Muslim Political Theology: Defamation, Apostasy and Anathema.” Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung - Middle East Office (2012): 1–10.Google Scholar
Mouline, Nabil. The Clerics of Islam: Religious Authority and Political Power in Saudi Arabia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muhammad, Mawlana Hafiz Mehr. Islam awr Shi‘at ka Taqabuli Ja’iza. Mianwali: Maktaba ‘Uthmania, n.d.Google Scholar
Munir, Muhammad. “Is Zina bil-Jabr a Hadd, Ta‘zir or Syasa Offence? A Re-appraisal of the Protection of Women Act, 2006 in Pakistan.” Yearbook of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law Online vol. 14, no. 1 (2008): 95115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Munir, Muhammad. “Talaq and the Muslim Family Law Ordinance, 1961 in Pakistan: An Analysis.” Spectrum of International Law vol. 1 (May–August 2011): 1618.Google Scholar
Munir, Muhammad. “Judicial Law-Making: An Analysis of Case Law on Khul‘ in Pakistan.” Islamabad Law Review vol. 1, no. 1 (2014): 724.Google Scholar
Munir, Muhammad. “The Law of Khul‘ in Islamic Law and the Legal System of Pakistan.” LUMS Law Journal (LLJ) vol. 2 (2015): 3363.Google Scholar
Murphy, Andrew R., ed. The Blackwell Companion to Religion and Violence. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mutalib, Hussin, and Hashmi, Taj-ul-Islam, eds. Islam, Muslims and the Modern State: Case-Studies of Muslims in Thirteen Countries. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naeem, Fuad. “Sufism and Revivalism in South Asia: Mawlana Ashraf ‘Ali Thanvi of Deoband and Mawlana Ahmad Raza Khan of Bareilly and Their Paradigms of Islamic Revivalism.” The Muslim World vol. 99, no. 3 (2009): 435451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naffine, Ngaire. “Who Are Law’s Persons?The Modern Law Review vol. 66, no. 3 (2003): 346367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nair, Neeti. “Beyond the ‘Communal’ 1920s: The Problem of Intention, Legislative Pragmatism, and the Making of Section 295A of the Indian Penal Code.” The Indian Economic & Social History Review vol. 50, no. 3 (2013): 317340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Najafi, Hazrat Ayatollah Hafiz Sayyid Riyaz Husayn. Khutbat-i Jumm‘a. Lahore: Dar al-Tahqiq wa Ta’lif, 2009.Google Scholar
an-Na‘im, Abdullahi Ahmed. Islam and the Secular State: Negotiating the Future of Shari‘a. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
Naqvi, Sayyid Husayn ‘Arif. Tazkira-i ‘Ulama-i Imamiyya-i Pakistan. Islamabad: Markaz-i Tahqiqat-i Farsi-i Iran wa Pakistan, 1984.Google Scholar
Naqvi, Sayyid Husayn ‘Arif. The System of Wilayat. trans. Bethat Islamic Research Center. Qom: MATAB Publications, 2010.Google Scholar
Nasir, Muhammad ‘Ammar Khan. Hudud wa Ta‘zirat: Islami Nazryati Council ki Sifarishat ka Ja’iza. Islamabad: Islami Nazryati Council, 2007.Google Scholar
Nasir, Muhammad ‘Ammar Khan. Barahin. Lahore: Dar ul-Kitab, 2011.Google Scholar
Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. “Democracy and the Crisis of Governability in Pakistan.” Asian Survey vol. 32, no. 6 (1992): 521537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. The Vanguard of the Islamic Revolution: The Jamaat-i Islami of Pakistan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.Google Scholar
Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. “The Rise of Sunni Militancy in Pakistan: The Changing Role of Islamism and the Ulama in Society and Politics.” Modern Asian Studies vol. 34, no. 1 (2000): 139180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the Making of State Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam Will Shape the Future. New York: Norton, 2006.Google Scholar
Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Navaro-Yashin, Yael. Faces of the State: Secularism and Public Life in Turkey. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
an-Nawawi, Yahya Ibn-Saraf, and ‘Abd al-Wahhab al-Gabi, Bassam. Adab al-Fatwa wa al-Mufti wa al-Mustafti. Dimashq: Dar al-Fikr, 1988.Google Scholar
Nawaz, Shuja. FATA – A Most Dangerous Place: Meeting the Challenge of Militancy and Terror in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. Washington, DC: CSIS Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Nizami, Taufiq Ahmad. Muslim Political Thought and Activity in India during the First Half of the 19th Century. Aligarh: Three Mens Publications, 1969.Google Scholar
Osella, Fillippo and Osella, Caroline. “Introduction: Islamic Reformism in South Asia.” Modern Asian Studies vol. 42, no. 2/3 (2008): 247257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osella, Filippo, and Soares, Benjamin F., eds. Islam, Politics, Anthropology. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osman, Mohamed Nawab bin Mohamed. “The Ulama in Pakistani Politics.” South Asia: Journal of South Asia Studies vol. 32, no. 2 (2009): 230247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pandey, Gyanendra. The Construction of Communalism in Colonial North India, Third Edition. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2012.Google Scholar
Pankhurst, Reza. “Muslim Contestations Over Religion and the State in the Middle East.” Political Theology vol. 11, no. 6 (2010): 826845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, Andrew. The Theorist’s Mother. Durham: Duke University Press, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peters, Rudolph. Crime and Punishment in Islamic Law: Theory and Practice from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2005.Google Scholar
Pierret, Thomas. Religion and State in Syria: The Sunni Ulama from Coup to Revolution. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Pirzada, Sayyid A. S. The Politics of the Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam Pakistan: 1971–1977. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Qadri, Mufti Muhammad Hanif Qureshi. Qalm Kuch awr Likhta hai, Zaban Kuch awr Kahti hai. Rawalpindi: Shabab-i Islami Pakistan, 2011.Google Scholar
Qadri, Mufti Muhammad Khan. [untitled fatwa] Lahore: Dar al-Ifta’ Jami‘a Islamiyya, circa. 2011.Google Scholar
Qadri, Mufti Muhammad Khan. Ghazi Muhammad Mumtaz Husayn Qadri ka Iqdam: Islam, Iman awr Qanun ki Raushni main. Lahore: Islamic Media Center, circa. 2011.Google Scholar
Qasmi, Ali Usman. “God’s Kingdom on Earth? Politics of Islam in Pakistan, 1947–1969.” Modern Asian Studies vol. 44, no. 6 (November 2010): 11971254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qasmi, Ali Usman. Ahmadis and the Politics of Religious Exclusion in Pakistan. London: Anthem Press, 2014.Google Scholar
Quraishi, Asifa. “Her Honor: An Islamic Critique of the Rape Laws of Pakistan from a Woman-Sensitive Perspective.” In Windows of Faith: Muslim Women Scholar-Activists in North America, edited by Webb, Gisela, 102135. New York: Syracuse University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Qureshi, M. Naeem. “The ‘Ulamā’ of British India and the Hijrat of 1920.” Modern Asian Studies vol. 13, no. 1 (1979): 4159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qureshi, M. Naeem. Pan-Islam in British Indian Politics: A Study of the Khilafat Movement, 1918–1924. Leiden: Brill, 1999.Google Scholar
Rabinow, Paul, ed. The Foucault Reader. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984.Google Scholar
Rahimi, Babak. Ayatollah Sistani and the Democratization of Post-Ba‘athist Iraq. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace, 2007.Google Scholar
Rahman, Tariq. Denizens of Alien Worlds: A Study of Education, Inequality and Polarization in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
Rakel, Eva Patricia. Power, Islam, and Political Elite in Iran: A Study on the Iranian Political Elite from Khomeini to Ahmadinejad. Leiden: Brill, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rana, Muhammad Amir, Sial, Safdar and Basit, Abdul, Dynamics of Taliban Insurgency in FATA. Islamabad: Pakistan Institute for Peace Studies, 2010.Google Scholar
Rieck, Andreas. The Shias of Pakistan: An Assertive and Beleaguered Minority. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rizvi, Saiyid Athar Abbas. Shāh ‘Abd Al-‘Azīz: Puritanism, Sectarian, Polemics and Jihād. Canberra: Ma‘rifat Publishing House, 1982.Google Scholar
Robinson, Francis, The ‘Ulama of Farangi Mahall and Islamic Culture in South Asia. London: C. Hurst, 2001.Google Scholar
Rozehnal, Robert T. Islamic Sufism Unbound: Politics and Piety in Twenty-First Century Pakistan. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saat, Norshahril. The State, Ulama and Islam in Malaysia and Indonesia. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2018.Google Scholar
Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein. The Just Ruler (al-sultān al-‘ādil) in Shī‘ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.Google Scholar
Saeed, Abdullah, and Saeed, Hassan. Freedom of Religion, Apostasy, and Islam. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.Google Scholar
as-Sahrazuri, Ibn as-Salah, ‘Abd ar-Rahman, ‘Uthman Ibn and ‘Abd al-Qadir, ibn-‘Abd Allah ibn. Adab al-Mufti wa al-Mustafti. Beirut: Maktabat al-‘Ulum wa al-Hukm, 1986.Google Scholar
Saif, Mashal. “Notes from the Margins: Shi‘a Political Theology in Pakistan.” Journal of Shi‘a Islamic Studies vol. 7, no. 1 (Jan 2014): 6597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sakurai, Keiko, and Adelkhah, Fariba, eds. The Moral Economy of the Madrasa: Islam and Education Today. Abingdon: Routledge, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salamat, Zarina. “Ghazi Ilmuddin.” Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society vol. 42, no. 4 (October, 1994): 419428.Google Scholar
Salim, Arskal. Challenging the Secular State: The Islamization of Law in Modern Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salvatore, Armando. Islam and the Political Discourse of Modernity. Ithaca: Ithaca Press, 1999.Google Scholar
Sanyal, Usha. Devotional Islam and Politics in British India: Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi and His Movement, 1870–1920. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
Sanyal, Usha. Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi: In the Path of the Prophet, Makers of the Muslim World. Oxford: Oneworld, 2005.Google Scholar
Schmitt, Carl. Nomos of the Earth. trans. Ulmen, G. L.. New York: Telos Press, Ltd., 2003.Google Scholar
Schmitt, Carl. Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty. trans. Schwab, George. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, Carl. The Concept of the Political, expanded edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, James C. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.Google Scholar
Scott, James C. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
Scott, James C. The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.Google ScholarPubMed
Shahzad, Syed Saleem. Inside Al-Qaeda and the Taliban: Beyond Bin Laden and 9/11. London: Pluto Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Shapira, Anita, Stern, Yedida Z. and Yakobson, Alexander, eds. The Nation State and Religion: The Resurgence of Faith vol. 2. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Sharma, Arandhana, and Gupta, Akhil, eds. The Anthropology of the State: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006.Google Scholar
Sheikh, Mona Kanwal. Guardians of God: Inside the Religious Mind of the Pakistani Taliban. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sial, Safdar, ed. Critical Ideologies: A Debate on Takfeer and Khurooj. Islamabad: Narratives Publication, 2012.Google Scholar
Siddique, Osama and Hayat, Zahra. “Unholy Speech and Holy Laws: Blasphemy Laws in Pakistan – Controversial Origins, Design Defects, and Free Speech Implications.” Minnesota Journal of International Law vol. 17, no. 2 (2008): 303386.Google Scholar
Sikand, Yoginder. Bastions of the Believers: Madrasas and Islamic Education in India. New Delhi: Penguin Books India, 2005.Google Scholar
Singh, Aakash, and Losonczi, Péter, eds. From Political Theory to Political Theology: Religious Challenges and the Prospects of Democracy. London: Continuum, 2010.Google Scholar
Skidmore, Monique, and Lawrence, Patricia, eds. Women and the Contested State: Religion, Violence, and Agency in South and Southeast Asia. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007.Google Scholar
Skovgaard-Petersen, Jakob. Defining Islam for the Egyptian State: Muftis and Fatwas of the Dar al-Ifta. Leiden: Brill, 1997.Google Scholar
Steinmetz, G., ed. State/Culture: State Formation after the Cultural Turn. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stöber, Georg. “Religious Identities Provoked: The Gilgit ‘Textbook Controversy’ and Its Conflictual Context.” Internationale Schulbuchforschung vol. 29, no. 4 (2007): 389411.Google Scholar
Subhani, Ghulam Habib. 101 ‘Ulama-i Pakistan wa Hind: Ek So se Za’id. Lahore: Takhliqat, 2002.Google Scholar
al-Subki, Taqi al-Din. al-Subki fi Furu al-Fiqh al-Shafi‘i. Lebanon: Dar al-Kutb al-‘Ilmiyya, 2004.Google Scholar
Sufi, G. M. D. Al-Minhaj: Being the Evolution of Curriculum in the Muslim Educational Institutions of India. Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delhi, 1977.Google Scholar
Supreme Court of Pakistan. Criminal Appeals No. 210 and 211 of 2015, Supreme Court of Pakistan (2015).Google Scholar
Supreme Court of Pakistan. Mst. Asia Bibi vs. The State etc., Criminal Appeal No. 39-L of 2015, Supreme Court of Pakistan (2018).Google Scholar
Tahir-ul-Qadri, . Tahaffuz-i Namus-i Risalat. Lahore: Minhaj-ul-Quran Publications, 2002.Google Scholar
Tareen, SherAli. “Normativity, Heresy and the Politics of Authenticity in South Asian Islam.” The Muslim World vol. 9, no. 3 (2009): 521552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, Charles. “The Politics of Recognition.” In Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition, edited by Gutmann, Amy, 2574. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tayob, Abdulkader. Religion in Modern Islamic Discourse. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Thanawi, Mawlana Mufti Jamil Ahmad. Tawhin-i Risalat awr os ki Saza. Lahore: Idara Islamiyat, 2011.Google Scholar
“The Objectives Resolution.” Islamic Studies vol. 48, no. 1 (Spring 2009): 89, 91–118.Google Scholar
Tibi, Bassam. Arab Nationalism: Between Islam and the Nation-State. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Timmer, Jaap. “Being Seen Like the State: Emulations of Legal Culture in Customary Labor and Land Tenure Arrangements in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.” American Ethnologist vol. 37, no. 4 (2010): 703712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tirmazi, Syed A. I. Profiles of Intelligence. Lahore: Fiction House, 1995.Google Scholar
Turam, Berna. Between Islam and the State: The Politics of Engagement. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
Ullah, Haroon K. Vying for Allah’s Vote: Understanding Islamic Parties, Political Violence, and Extremism in Pakistan. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Uphoff, Norman. “Distinguishing Power, Authority & Legitimacy: Taking Max Weber at His Word by Using Resources-Exchange Analysis.” Polity vol. 22, no. 2 (1989): 295322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Usmani, Muhammad Taqi. Islam and Modernism. trans. Rizwani, Shakir. Lahore: Idara-e-Islamiat, 1995.Google Scholar
Usmani, Muhammad Taqi. Amendments in Hudood Laws: The Protection of Women’s Rights Bill, An Appraisal. Islamabad: Institute of Public Policy, 2006.Google Scholar
Uthmani, Muhammad Taqi. Fiqhi Maqalat. 2 vols. Karachi: Memon Islamic Publishers, 1996.Google Scholar
Uthmani, Muhammad Taqi. Islam awr Siyasi Nazriyat. Karachi: Maktaba-i Ma‘arif al-Qur’an, 2010.Google Scholar
Vaezi, Ahmad. Shia Political Thought. London: Islamic Centre of England, 2004.Google Scholar
Van der Veer, Peter, and Lehmann, Hartmut, eds. Nation and Religion: Perspectives on Europe and Asia. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.Google Scholar
Van Dijk, C., and de Groot, Alexander H.. State and Islam. Leiden: Research School CNWS, 1995.Google Scholar
Vatanka, Alex. “The Guardian of Pakistan’s Shia.” Current Trends in Islamist Ideology vol. 13 (January 2012): 517.Google Scholar
Vatikiotis, P. J. Islam and the State. London: Croom Helm, 1987.Google Scholar
Verkaaik, Oskar. Migrants and Militants: Fun and Urban Violence in Pakistan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vries, Hent de. Religion and Violence: Philosophical Perspectives from Kant to Derrida. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
Vries, Hent de, and Sullivan, Lawrence Eugene. Political Theologies: Public Religions in a Post-Secular World. New York: Fordham University Press, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wagner, Mark S.The Problem of Non-Muslims Who Insult the Prophet Muhammad.” Journal of the American Oriental Society vol. 135, no. 3 (2015): 529540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waqar-ul-Haq, M. Islamic Criminal Laws (Hudood Laws & Rules) with Up-to-Date Commentary. Lahore: Nadeem Law Book House, 1994.Google Scholar
Watt, W. Montgomery. “Conditions of Membership of the Islamic Community.” Studia Islamica no. 21 (1964): 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weber, Max. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. New York: Freedom Press, 1964.Google Scholar
Weber, Max. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, edited by Roth, Guenther and Wittich, Claus, trans. Fischoff, Ephraim. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.Google Scholar
Weber, Max, Gerth, Hans Heinrich and Mills, C. Wright. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1946.Google Scholar
Webster, Frank, and Blom, Raimo, eds. The Information Society Reader. London: Routledge, 2004.Google Scholar
Wedeen, Lisa. Peripheral Visions: Publics, Power, and Performance in Yemen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiss, Anita M. Moving Forward with the Legal Empowerment of Women in Pakistan. Special Report 305. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace, 2012.Google Scholar
Weiss, Anita M. Interpreting Islam, Modernity, and Women’s Rights in Pakistan. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.Google Scholar
Weiss, Bernard G. The Spirit of Islamic Law. London: The University of Georgia Press, 1998.Google Scholar
Wendt, Alexander. “The State As Person in International Theory.” Review of International Studies vol. 30, no. 2 (April 2004): 289316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, Hayden V. The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
Wiederhold, Lutz. “Blasphemy against the Prophet Muhammad and His Companions (sabb al-rasūl, sabb al-ṣaḥābah): The Introduction of the Topic into Shāfi‘ī Legal Literature and its Relevance for Legal Practice under Mamluk Rule.” Journal of Semitic Studies vol. 42, no. 1 (1997): 3970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yefet, Karin Carmit. “The Constitution and Female-Initiated Divorce in Pakistan: Western Liberalism in Islamic Garb.” Harvard Journal of Law & Gender vol. 34 (2011): 553615.Google Scholar
Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. “The Caliphs, the ‘Ulamā’, and the Law: Defining the Role and Function of the Caliph in the Early ‘Abbāsid Period.” Islamic Law and Society vol. 4, no. 1 (1997): 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. “Sectarianism in Pakistan: The Radicalization of Shi‘i and Sunni Identities.” Modern Asian Studies vol. 32, no. 3 (1998): 689716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. “Religious Education and the Rhetoric of Reform: The Madrasa in British India and Pakistan.” Comparative Studies in Society and History vol. 41, no. 2 (April 1999): 294323.Google Scholar
Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. Modern Islamic Thought in a Radical Age: Religious Authority and Internal Criticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. Islam in Pakistan: A History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2018.Google Scholar
al-Zawahiri, Ayman. Sapida’-i Seher awr Timtimata Chiragh. trans. ‘Abd al-Samad, Mawlana. Idara’-i Hitin, 2009.Google Scholar
Zeghal, Malika. Gardiens De L’islam: Les Oulémas D’Al Azhar Dans L’Egypte Contemporaine. Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, 1996.Google Scholar
Zeghal, Malika. “Bringing the State Back in the Analysis of Political Islam: Methodological Reflections on Some Arab Cases.” Paper presented at Duke University, North Carolina, USA, September 26, 2008.Google Scholar
Zubaida, Sami. “Is Iran an Islamic State.” In Political Islam: Essays from Middle East Report, edited by Beinin, Joel and Stork, Joe, 103119. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.Google Scholar
Zubaida, Sami. Law and Power in the Islamic World. London: I. B. Tauris, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar