Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-fmrbl Total loading time: 1.374 Render date: 2022-10-04T23:26:25.585Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": true, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Chapter 10 - Less Common Stroke Syndromes

from Section 3 - Diagnostics and Syndromes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 May 2019

Michael Brainin
Donau-Universität Krems, Austria
Wolf-Dieter Heiss
Universität zu Köln
Get access
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Warlow, C, van Gijn, J, Dennis, M, et al., eds. Stroke: Practical Management [online]. Oxford: Blackwell; 2008. Accessed October 24, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ringelstein, ER, Stögbauer, F. Border zone infarcts. In: Bogousslavsky, J, Caplan, LR, eds. Stroke Syndromes. 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press; 2001. Accessed October 24, 2018.Google Scholar
Choi, K-D, Shin, H-Y, Kim, JS, et al. Rotational vertebral artery syndrome: oculographic analysis of nystagmus. Neurology 2005; 65(8): 1287–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuether, TA, Nesbit, GM, Clark, WM, Barnwell, SL. Rotational vertebral artery occlusion: a mechanism of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Neurosurgery 1997; 41(2): 427–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caplan, LR, Wityk, RJ, Glass, TA, et al. New England medical center posterior circulation registry. Ann Neurol 2004; 56(3): 389–98.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerstner, E, Liberato, B, Wright, CB. Bi-hemispheric anterior cerebral artery with drop attacks and limb shaking TIAs. Neurology 2005; 65(1): 174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hennerici, M, Klemm, C, Rautenberg, W. The subclavian steal phenomenon: a common vascular disorder with rare neurologic deficits. Neurology 1988; 38(5): 669–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caplan, LR. Posterior Circulation Disease: Clinical Findings, Diagnosis, and Management. Boston: Blackwell; 1996.Google Scholar
Dashe, JF. Uncommon causes of stroke. In: Bogousslavsky, J, Caplan, LR, eds. Stroke Syndromes. Cambridge University Press; 2001: 100–10.Google Scholar
Donnan, GA, O'Malley, HM, Quang, L, Hurley, SBP. The capsular warning syndrome and lacunar transient ischaemic attacks. In: Donnan, GA, Norrving, B, Bamford, J, Bogousslavsky, JE, eds. Subcortical Stroke. 2nd edn. Oxford University Press; 2002: 175–84.Google Scholar
Caplan, LR. “Top of the basilar” syndrome. Neurology 1980; 30(1): 72–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fisher, CM. The posterior cerebral artery syndrome. Can J Neurol Sci 1986; 13(3): 232–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dunne, JW, Leedman, PJ, Edis, RH. Inobvious stroke: a cause of delirium and dementia. Aust N Z J Med 1986; 16(6): 771–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bogousslavsky, J, Maeder, P, Regli, F, Meuli, R. Pure midbrain infarction: clinical syndromes, MRI, and etiologic patterns. Neurology 1994; 44(11): 2032–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thömke, F, Tettenborn, B, Hopf, HC. Third nerve palsy as the sole manifestation of midbrain ischemia. Neuro-Ophthalmology 1995; 15(6): 327–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thömke, F. Brainstem diseases causing isolated ocular motor nerve palsies. Neuro-Ophthalmology 2004; 28(2): 5367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lang, W, Cheyne, D, Kristeva, R, et al. Three-dimensional localization of SMA activity preceding voluntary movement. Exp Brain Res 1991; 87(3): 688–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ghika, J, Bogousslavsky, J. Abnormal movements. In: Bogousslavsky, J, Caplan, LE, eds. Stroke Syndromes. 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press; 2001: 162–82.Google Scholar
Prabhakaran, S. Neurologic complications of endocarditis. Contin Lifelong Learn Neurol 2008; 14(1): 5373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, HR, Siekert, RG. Neurological manifestations of infective endocarditis. Review of clinical and therapeutic challenges. Brain 1989; 112(5): 1295–315.Google ScholarPubMed
Anderson, DJ, Goldstein, LB, Wilkinson, WE, et al. Stroke location, characterization, severity, and outcome in mitral vs aortic valve endocarditis. Neurology 2003; 61(10): 1341–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hart, RG, Foster, JW, Luther, MF, et al. Stroke in infective endocarditis. Neurology 2014; 21(5): 695700.Google Scholar
Hart, RG, Kagan-Hallet, K, Joerns, SE. Mechanisms of intracranial hemorrhage in infective endocarditis. Stroke 1987; 18(6): 1048–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Biller, J, Challa, VR, Toole, JF, Howard, VJ. Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis: a neurologic perspective of clinicopathologic correlations of 99 patients. Arch Neurol 1982; 39(2): 95–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rogers, LR, Cho, ES, Kempin, S, Posner, JB. Cerebral infarction from non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis: clinical and pathological study including the effects of anticoagulation. Am J Med 1987; 83(4): 746–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lopez, JA, Ross, RS, Fishbein, MC, Siegel, RJ. Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis: a review. Am Heart J 1987; 113(3): 773–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singhal, AB, Topcuoglu, MA, Buonanno, FS. Acute ischemic stroke patterns in infective and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis: a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study. Stroke 2002; 33(5): 1267–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nagel, MA, Cohrs, RJ, Mahalingam, R, et al. The varicella zoster virus vasculopathies: clinical, CSF, imaging, and virologic features. Neurology 2008; 70(11): 853–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmutzhard, E. Entzündliche Erkrankungen des Nervensystems. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2000.Google Scholar
Joutel, A, Corpechot, C, Ducros, A, et al. Notch3 mutations in CADASIL, a hereditary adult-onset condition causing stroke and dementia. Nature 1996; 383(6602): 707–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van den Boom, R, Lesnik Oberstein, SAJ, Ferrari, MD, Haan, J, van Buchem, MA. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy: MR imaging findings at different ages – 3rd–6th decades. Radiology 2003; 229(3): 683–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rolfs, A, Böttcher, T, Zschiesche, M, et al. Prevalence of Fabry disease in patients with cryptogenic stroke: a prospective study. Lancet 2005; 366(9499): 1794–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rolfs, A, Fazekas, F, Grittner, U, et al. Acute cerebrovascular disease in the young: the Stroke in Young Fabry Patients Study. Stroke 2013; 44(2): 340–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Takanashi, J, Barkovich, AJ, Dillon, WP, et al. T1 hyperintensity in the pulvinar: key imaging feature for diagnosis of Fabry disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2003; 24(5): 916–21.Google ScholarPubMed
Mizrachi, I, Gomez-Hassan, D, Blaivas, M, Trobe, JD. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes. J Neuro-Ophthalmology 2006; 26(1): 3843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iizuka, T, Sakai, F, Kan, S, Suzuki, N. Slowly progressive spread of the stroke-like lesions in MELAS. Neurology 2003; 61(9): 1238–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Möller, HE, Kurlemann, G, Pützler, M, et al. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with MELAS. J Neurol Sci 2005; 229–30: 131–9.Google Scholar
Lee, VH, Brown, RD, Mandrekar, JN, Mokri, B. Incidence and outcome of cervical artery dissection: a population-based study. Neurology 2006; 67(10): 1809–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bogousslavsky, J, Pierre, P. Ischemic stroke in patients under age 45. Neurol Clin 1992; 10(1): 113–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schievink, WI. Spontaneous dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries. N Engl J Med 2001; 344(12): 898906.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zweifler, RM, Silverboard, GS. Arterial dissections. In: Mohr, JP, Choi, DW, Grotta, JC, et al., eds. Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. 4th edn. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2004: 549–73.Google Scholar
Friedman, AH, Drake, CG. Subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial dissecting aneurysm. J Neurosurg 1984; 60(2): 325–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saver, JL, Easton, JD. Dissections and trauma of cervicocerebral arteries. In: Barnett, HJM, Mohr, JP, Stein, BM, et al., eds. Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management. 3rd edn. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1998: 769.Google Scholar
Baumgartner, RW, Arnold, M, Baumgartner, I, et al. Carotid dissection with and without ischemic events: local symptoms and cerebral artery findings. Neurology 2001; 57(5): 827–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Takeuchi, K, Shimizu, K. Hypoplasia of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. No To Shinkei 1957; 9: 37.Google Scholar
Adams, HP. Moya-moya. In: Bogousslavsky, J, Caplan, LE, eds. Uncommon Causes of Stroke. Cambridge University Press; 2001: 241.Google Scholar
Arrigan, MT, Heran, MKS, Shewchuk, JR. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: an important and common cause of thunderclap and recurrent headaches. Clin Radiol 2017; 73(5): 417–27.Google ScholarPubMed
Ducros, A, Fiedler, U, Porcher, R, et al. Hemorrhagic manifestations of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: frequency, features, and risk factors. Stroke 2010; 41(11): 2505–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ducros, A. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Lancet Neurol 2012; 11(10): 906–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, TR, Shivashankar, R, Mossa-Basha, M, Gandhi, D. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, part 2: diagnostic work-up, imaging evaluation, and differential diagnosis. Am J Neuroradiol 2015; 36(9): 1580–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anzola, GP, Brighenti, R, Cobelli, M, et al. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in puerperium: a prospective study. J Neurol Sci 2017; 375: 130–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats