Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-8bbf57454-6pl8d Total loading time: 0.716 Render date: 2022-01-22T00:50:44.462Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

4 - Inclusive Science

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 September 2019

Joanna M. Setchell
Durham University
Get access


Scientific research is subject to serious inequalities of opportunity. Economic, political, social and cultural influences shape the opportunities available to people. Everyday and institutional practices exclude people based on aspects of their identity. These inequities intersect in complicated ways and have negative effects on both individuals and science. Some may go unnoticed, even by those who are negatively affected by them, because they are so deeply entrenched in our cultures. In this chapter, I briefly explore discrimination in relation to various aspects of identity, and how these intersect. I then describe the effects of discrimination on people and on science, and how we can help to combat inequities.

Studying Primates
How to Design, Conduct and Report Primatological Research
, pp. 45 - 52
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Amano, T, González-Varo, JP, Sutherland, WJ. 2016. Languages are still a major barrier to global science. PLoS Biology 14: e2000933. Reviews the potential consequences of language barriers for science and proposes practical solutions.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anon. 2016. Is science only for the rich? Nature 537: 466470. Reports on how poverty and social background remain huge barriers in scientific careers, with examples from eight countries around the world.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bicca-Marques, JC. 2016. Development of primatology in habitat countries: A view from Brazil. American Anthropologist 118: 140141. Reviews key events in the establishment and consolidation of Brazilian primatology and strategies to empower national scholars and advance the field of primatology in habitat countries.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clancy, KBH, Nelson, RG, Rutherford, JN, Hinde, K. 2014. Survey of academic field experiences (SAFE): Trainees report harassment and assault. PLOS ONE 9: e102172. Reports the results of a survey of field scientists’ experiences of sexual harassment and sexual assault, showing that trainee women are particularly affected.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fan, P-F, Ma, C. 2018. Extant primates and development of primatology in China: Publications, student training, and funding. Zoological Research 39: 249254. Reviews the development of primatology in China, and strategies to promote further development.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freeman, J. 2018. LGBTQ scientists are still left out. Nature 559: 2728.–018-05587-y. On heteronormative assumptions and bias that disadvantage scientists from sexual and gender minorities.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gutiérrez, y Muhs G, Niemann, YF, González, CG, Harris, AP. 2012. Presumed Incompetent: The Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia. Logan: Utah State University Press. Essays on the challenges faced by women of colour in US academia.Google Scholar
Hoàng, TM. 2016. Development of primatology and primate conservation in Vietnam: Challenges and prospects. American Anthropologist 118: 130137. An evaluation of the development and future of primatology in Vietnam.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iyer, N, with contributions from Lutz, M, McInturf, A, Lau, A. 2018. Beyond the scientific bubble: The inequity dilemma in field research. The Ethogram. [Accessed 3 January 2019]. An excellent blog post on inequities in field research.
Marín-Spiotta, E 2018. Harassment should count as scientific misconduct. Nature 557: 141.–018-05076-2. Argues that scientific integrity should include how we treat people, as well as how we handle data.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mehta, D. 2018. Lab heads should learn to talk about racism. Nature 559: 153.–018-05646-4. Calls on senior academics to lead in discussions of intolerance.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, RG, Rutherford, JN, Hinde, K, Clancy, KBH. 2017. Signaling safety: Characterizing fieldwork experiences and their implications for career trajectories. American Anthropologist 119: 710722. Assesses the effects of experiencing gender-based discrimination, harassment, and assault on field researchers and ways to improve field experiences and achieve equality of opportunity.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savonick, D, Davidson, CN. Gender bias in academe: An annotated bibliography of recent studies of academic gender bias and gender discrimination. The Impact Blog. London School of Economics and Political Science. [Accessed 3 January 2019]. A very useful collection of studies of gender bias in the academy, with talking points and summaries.
Setchell, JM, Gordon, A. 2018. Editorial practice at the International Journal of Primatology: The roles of gender and country of affiliation in participation in scientific publication. International Journal of Primatology 39: 969986.–018-0067-1. Investigation of editorial practices at the International Journal of Primatology with respect to gender and country of affiliation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Timesup: [Accessed 3 January 2019]. A US-focussed website with resources about sexual assault, harassment, and inequality in the workplace.

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats