Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-54jdg Total loading time: 0.5 Render date: 2022-08-10T05:32:32.426Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

8 - Opinion-based groups

(Racist) talk and (collective) action on the internet

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 October 2011

Zachary Birchmeier
Affiliation:
Miami University
Beth Dietz-Uhler
Affiliation:
Miami University
Garold Stasser
Affiliation:
Miami University
Get access

Summary

In this chapter we take a broad view of the social psychology of intergroup relations and apply it to the internet. We start by addressing two popular propositions about the internet. The first of these is that the internet is a safe haven for racists who, using the cover of anonymity, engage in hostile flaming of members of other communities. We can call this first proposition the anonymous cyberhate view of the internet. The second popular proposition is the idea that the internet is a hotbed of social activism where people develop plans to change the world using a device that spans continental boundaries. We call this second proposition the global activist view of the internet.

Let us be clear that there is some truth to both propositions and it is easy to find evidence for both of them. Our contention, however, is that both of the propositions are gross oversimplifications that tend to lead commentators and observers to misunderstand the dynamics present in this medium.

Type
Chapter
Information
Strategic Uses of Social Technology
An Interactive Perspective of Social Psychology
, pp. 145 - 171
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allard, T.O’Loughlin, T. 2000
Armitage, P.Berry, G. 1994 Statistical methods in medical researchOxfordBlackwell Scientific PublicationsGoogle Scholar
Back, L. 2002 Aryans reading Adorno: Cyber-culture and twenty-first century racismEthnic and Racial Studies 25 628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bargh, J. A.Chartrand, T. L. 1999 The unbearable automaticity of beingAmerican Psychologist 54 462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bliuc, A.-M.McGarty, C.Reynolds, K. J.Muntele, D. 2007 Opinion-based group membership as a predictor to commitment to political actionEuropean Journal of Social Psychology 37 19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, J. D.Themundo, N. S. 2006 Linking the web and the street: Internet-based “Dotcauses” and the “Anti-Globalization” movementWorld Development 34 50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, J. L. 1985 Strategy or identity: New theoretical paradigms and contemporary social movementsSocial Research 52 663Google Scholar
de Weerd, MKlandermans, B. 1999 Group identification and political protest: Farmers’ protest in the NetherlandsEuropean Journal of Social Psychology 29 10733.0.CO;2-K>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diener, E. 1980 Deindividuation: The absence of self-awareness and self-regulation in group membersPaulus, P.The psychology of group influenceHillsdale, NJErlbaumGoogle Scholar
Douglas, K. M.McGarty, C. 2001 Identifiability and self-presentation: Computer-mediated communication and intergroup interactionBritish Journal of Social Psychology 40 399CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Douglas, K. M.McGarty, C. 2002 Internet identifiability and beyond: A model of the effects of identifiability on communicative behaviorGroup Dynamics 6 17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Douglas, K. M.McGarty, C.Bliuc, A. M.Lala, G. 2005 Understanding cyberhate: Social competition and social creativity in online white supremacist groupsSocial Science Computer Review 23 68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Durkheim, E. 1933 The division of labor in societyGlencoe, ILFree PressGoogle Scholar
Earl, J.Schussman, A. 2003 The new site of activism: On-line organizations, movement entrepreneurs, and the changing location of social movement decision makingCoy, P. G.Research in social movements, conflict and change155AmsterdamJAIGoogle Scholar
Fisher, D. R.Stanley, K.Berman, D.Neff, G. 2005 How do organizations matter? Mobilization and support for participants at five globalization protestsSocial Problems 52 102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foot, K. A.Schneider, S. M. 2002 Online action in Campaign 2000: An exploratory analysis of the U.S. political web sphereJournal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 46 222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
FSF 1998 www.fsf.org
Gaertner, S. L.Dovidio, J. F.Banker, B. S.Houlette, M.Johnson, K. M.McGlynn, E. A. 2000 Reducing intergroup conflict: From superordinate goals to decategorization, recategorization, and mutual differentiationGroup Dynamics: Theory, Research, & Practice March 4 98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
GCAP 2005 www.whiteband.org
Gerlach, L. P.Hine, V. H. 1970 People, power, change: Movements of social transformationIndianapolis, INThe Bobbs-Merrill Company IncGoogle Scholar
Green, D. P.Abelson, R. P.Garnett, M. 1999 The distinctive political views of hate-crime perpetrators and white supremacistsPrentice, D. A.Miller, D. T.Cultural divides: Understanding and overcoming group conflict429New YorkRussell Sage FoundationGoogle Scholar
Haslam, S. A. 2001 Psychology in organizations: The social identity approachLondonThousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
Haslam, S. A.Oakes, P. J.Reynolds, K. J.Turner, J. C. 1999 Social identity salience and the emergence of stereotype consensusPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin 25 809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haslam, S. A.Turner, J. C.Oakes, P. J.Reynolds, K. J.Eggins, R. A.Nolan, M. 1998 When do stereotypes become really consensual? Investigating the group-based dynamics of the consensualisation processEuropean Journal of Social Psychology 28 7553.0.CO;2-Z>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobs, D. 2005 Internet activism and the democratic emergency in the U.Sephemera 5 68Google Scholar
Jenkins, C. J. 1983 Resource mobilization theory and the study of social movementsAnnual Review of Sociology 9 527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joinson, A. N. 2003 Understanding the psychology of internet behaviour: Virtual worlds, real livesHoundmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New YorkPalgrave MacmillanGoogle Scholar
Kelly, C.Breinlinger, S. 1995 Identity and injustice: Exploring women's participation in collective actionJournal of Community and Applied Psychology 5 41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kiesler, S.Siegel, J.McGuire, T. W. 1984 Social psychological aspects of computer-mediated communicationAmerican Psychologist 39 1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klandermans, B. 1984 Mobilization and participation: Social-psychological expansions of resource mobilization theoryAmerican Sociological Review 49 583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klandermans, B. 1997 The social psychology of protestOxfordBlackwellGoogle Scholar
Klandermans, B. 2000 Identity and protest: How group identification helps to overcome collective action dilemmasVugt, M. V.Snyder, M.Tyler, T.Biel, A.Cooperation in modern society: Promoting the welfare of communities, states and organizationsLondonRoutledgeGoogle Scholar
Klandermans, B.Sabucedo, J. M.Rodriguez, M.Weerd, M. 2002 Identity processes in collective action participation: Farmers’ identity and farmers’ protest in the Netherlands and SpainPolitical Psychology 23 235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lala, G. 2008
Lawrence, K. 2000
Lazarus, R. S. 1991 Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotionAmerican Psychologist 46 819CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lea, M.O’Shea, T.Fung, P.Spears, R. 1992 “Flaming” in computer-mediated communication: Observations, explanations, implicationsLea, M.Contexts of computer-mediated communication89New YorkHarvester WheatsheafGoogle Scholar
Lea, M.Spears, R. 1995 Love at first byte? Building personal relationships over computer networksWood, J. T.Duck, S.Under-studied relationships: Off the beaten track197Thousand Oaks, CASageGoogle Scholar
Lebert, J. 2003 Wiring human rights activism: Amnesty International and the challenges of information and communication technologiesMcCaughey, M.Ayers, M. D.Cyberactivism: Online Activism in Theory and Practice209New YorkRoutledgeGoogle Scholar
Lemus, D. R.Seibold, D. R.Flanagin, A. J.Metzger, M. J. 2004 Argument and decision making in computer-mediated groupsJournal of Communication 54 302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAdam, D.McCarthy, J. D.Zald, M. N. 1988 Social movementsSmelser, N. J.Handbook of sociology695LondonSageGoogle Scholar
McCaughey, M.Ayers, M. D. 2003 Cyberactivism: Online activism in theory and practiceNew YorkRoutledgeGoogle Scholar
McDonald, K. 2000
McDonald, M. 1999 Cyberhate: Extending persuasive techniques of low credibility sources to the World Wide WebThorson, E.Schumann, D. W.Advertising and the World Wide Web149Mahwah, NJLawrence Erlbaum AssociatesGoogle Scholar
McGarty, C.Bliuc, A.-M. 2004 Collective guilt in AustraliaDoosje, B.Branscombe, N. R.Collective guilt: Antecedents, correlates and consequences112CambridgeCambridge University PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGarty, C.Bliuc, A.-M.Thomas, E. F.Bongiorno, R. T. 2009 Collective action as the material expression of opinion-based group membershipJournal of Social Issues 65 839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGarty, C.Pedersen, A.Leach, C. W.Mansell, T.Waller, J.Bliuc, A.-M. 2005 Group-based guilt as a predictor of commitment to apologyBritish Journal of Social Psychology 44 659CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Musgrove, L.McGarty, C. 2008 Opinion-based group membership as a predictor of collective emotional responses and support for pro and anti war actionSocial Psychology 39 37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oberschall, A. 1980 Loosely structured collective conflict: A theory and an applicationResearch in Social Movements, Conflict and Change 3 45Google Scholar
Olesen, T. 2004 The transnational Zapatista solidarity network: An infrastructure analysisGlobal Networks 4 89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
OSI 1998 www.opensource.org
Postmes, T.Brunsting, S. 2002 Collective action in the age of the internetSocial Science Computer Review 20 290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, S. 2000 www.greenleft.org.au/2000/421/22757
Reicher, S. D. 2000 Social identity definition and enactment: A broad SIDE against irrationalism and relativismPostmes, T.Spears, R.Lea, M.Reicher, S. D.SIDE issues centre stage: Recent developments in studies of de-individuation in groupsAmsterdamRoyal Netherlands Academy of Arts and SciencesGoogle Scholar
Reicher, S. D.Levine, M. 1994 Deindividuation, power relations between groups and the expression of social identity: The effects of visibility to the out-groupBritish Journal of Social Psychology 33 145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reicher, S. D.Levine, M. 1994 On the consequences of deindividuation manipulations for the strategic communication of self: Identifiability and the presentation of social identityEuropean Journal of Social Psychology 24 511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reicher, S. D.Levine, R. M.Gordijn, E. 1998 More on deindividuation, power relations between groups and the expression of social identity: Three studies on the effects of visibility to the in-groupBritish Journal of Social Psychology 37 15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reicher, S. D.Spears, R.Postmes, T. 1995 A social identity model of deindividuation phenomenaEuropean Review of Social Psychology 6 161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sani, F.Reicher, S. D. 1998 When consensus fails: An analysis of the schism within the Italian Communist Party (1991)European Journal of Social Psychology 28 6233.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siegel, J.Dubrovsky, V.Kiesler, S.McGuire, T. W. 1986 Group processes in computer-mediated communicationOrganizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes 37 157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simon, B.Klandermans, B. 2001 Politicized collective identityAmerican Psychologist 56 319CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simon, B.Loewy, M.Stürmer, S.Weber, U.Freytag, P.Habig, C. 1998 Collective identification and social movement participationJournal of Personality & Social Psychology 74 646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simon, B.Stürmer, S.Steffens, K. 2000 Helping individuals or group members? The role of individual and collective identification in AIDS volunteerismPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26 497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snow, D. A.Soule, S. A.Kriesi, H. 2004 The Blackwell companion to social movementsOxfordBlackwell PublishingCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spears, R.Lea, M. 1994 Panacea or panopticon? The hidden power in computer-mediated communicationCommunication Research 21 427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spears, R.Postmes, T.Lea, M.Wolbert, A. 2002 When are net effects gross products? The power of influence and the influence of power in computer-mediated communicationJournal of Social Issues 58 91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sproull, L.Kiesler, S. 1986 Reducing social context cues: Electronic mail in organizational communicationCommunication Research 32 1492Google Scholar
Stallman, R. 2007 www.gnu.org/philosophy/open-sourcemisses-the-point.html
Stott, C.Reicher, S. D. 1998 Crowd action as intergroup process: Introducing the police perspectiveEuropean Journal of Social Psychology 28 5093.0.CO;2-C>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stürmer, S.Simon, B.Loewy, M.Jörger, H. 2003 The dual-path model of social movement participation: The case of the fat acceptance movementSocial Psychology Quarterly 66 71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tajfel, H. 1981 Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychologyCambridgeCambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
Tajfel, H.Turner, J. C. 1979 An integrative theory of group conflictAustin, W. G.Worchel, S.The social psychology of intergroup relations33Monterey, CABrooks/Cole Publishing CompanyGoogle Scholar
Tajfel, H.Turner, J. C. 1986 The social identity theory of intergroup behaviorWorchel, S.Austin, W. G.Psychology of intergroup relations7Chicago, ILNelson-HallGoogle Scholar
Taylor, N.McGarty, C. 2001 The role of subjective group memberships and perceptions of power in industrial conflictJournal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 11 389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuckman, B. W. 1965 Developmental sequence in small groupsPsychological Bulletin 63 384CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Turner, J. C. 1982 Towards a cognitive redefinition of the groupTajfel, H.Social identity and intergroup relations102CambridgeCambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
Turner, J. C.Hogg, M. A.Oakes, P. J.Reicher, S. D.Wetherell, M. S. 1987 Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theoryOxfordBasil BlackwellGoogle Scholar
Turner, J. C.Oakes, P. J.Haslam, S. A.McGarty, C. 1994 Self and collective: Cognition and social contextPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin 20 454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van de Donk, WLoader, B. D.Nixon, P. G.Rucht, D. 2004 Cyberprotest: New media, citizens and social movementsLondonRoutledgeGoogle Scholar
van Gelder, L 1985 The strange case of the electronic loverDunlop, C.Kling, R.Computerization and controversy: Value conflicts and social choices364San Diego, CAAcademic PressGoogle Scholar
van Zomeren, MSpears, R.Fischer, A. H.Leach, C. W. 2004 Put your money where your mouth is! Explaining collective action tendencies through group-based anger and group efficacyJournal of Personality & Social Psychology 87 649CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wall, M. A. 2007 Social movements and email: Expressions of online identity in the globalization protestsNew Media & Society 9 258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yates, L. L. 1996 www.isoc.org/inet/96/proceedings/e6/e6_1.htm
Zimbardo, P. G. 1969 The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse, and chaosArnold, W. J.Levine, D.Nebraska symposium on motivation237Lincoln, NEUniversity of Nebraska PressGoogle Scholar
8
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×