Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-qdp55 Total loading time: 0.965 Render date: 2021-12-07T10:06:00.327Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Bibliography

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 September 2020

David Tobin
Affiliation:
University of Manchester
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Securing China's Northwest Frontier
Identity and Insecurity in Xinjiang
, pp. 248 - 277
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Xingliang, A (1996) ‘Tujue Yuzu’ (‘Turkic Language Family’) in Yu, Taishan et al. (eds) Xinjiang Gezu Lishi Wenhua Cidian (Dictionary of History and Culture of Every Xinjiang Minzu). Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju Chubanshe (‘Zhonghua Book Publishers’), p.316.Google Scholar
Acharya, Amitav (2014) ‘Global International Relations (IR) and Regional Worlds’, International Studies Quarterly, 58: 647659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agathangelou, Anna M. and Ling, L. H. M. (2004) ‘The House of IR: From Family Power Politics to the Poises of Worldism’, International Studies Review, 6(4): 2149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amit, Vered (2002a) ‘Reconceptualizing Community’ in Amit, Verid (ed) Realizing Community: Concepts, Social Relationships, and Sentiments. Routledge: London, pp.121.Google Scholar
Amit, Vered (2002b) ‘An Anthropology without Community?’ in Amit, Vered and Rapport, Nigel (eds) The Trouble with Community: Anthropological Reflections on Movement, Identity, and Collectivity. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
Amnesty International (AI) (2015) ‘China: Open Letter Re: The Current Situation of Nurmemet (Aka Nurmuhemmet) Yasin’ (Available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa17/0004/2015/en/) [Last accessed: 26/07/19].Google Scholar
Anderson, Benedict (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Press.Google Scholar
Anthony, Ross (2011) ‘Exceptionally Equal: Emergency States and the Production of Enemies in Xinjiang’, Inner Asia, 13(1): 5172.Google Scholar
Ashley, Richard (1984) ‘The Poverty of Neorealism’, International Organization, 38(2): 225286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Asia Weekly (Yazhou Zhoukan) (2009) ‘Caifang: Weizu NGO Gongzuozhe qian Xinjiang Fazhibao Zongbianbao Zhuren Hailaiteta zai Qiwu Shijian jiu Yujing’ (‘Interview: Heyrat, Uyghur NGO Worker and Former Editor-in-Chief of the Xinjiang Legal News, Gave Early Warnings before 7-5’) (Available at: www.yzzk.com/cfm/Content_Archive.cfm?Channel=ag&Path=2311577102/30ag3a.cfm), 02/08/2009 [Last accessed: 11/06/18].Google Scholar
Bai, Shouyi (1981) ‘Guanyu Zhongguo Minzu Guanxi shishang de Jige Wenti’ (‘A few questions regarding the history of China’s minzu relations’) in Peng, Wulin et al. (eds) (2013) Zhongguo Jindai Minzushi Yanjiu Wenxian (Research Documents on Modern China’s Ethnic History). Beijing: Shehui Kexue Wenxian Chubanshe (‘Social Science Academic Press’), pp.3247.Google Scholar
Balzer, Harley (2004) ‘State and Society in Transitions from Communism’ in Gries, Peter Hays and Rosen, Stanley (eds) State and Society in Twenty-first-Century China. New York: Routledge Curzon, pp.235256.Google Scholar
Bao, Shengli (2011) ‘Ye tan zhongguo ke jinyibu wanshan minzu zhengce’ (‘Discussion on Progressing the Perfection of Minzu Policy’). Zhongguo Gongchandang Xinwen Wang (Chinese Communist Party News Online), 28 October (Available at: http://theory.people.com.cn/GB/16057587.html) [Last accessed: 09/04/19].Google Scholar
Barabantseva, Elena (2008) ‘From the Language of Class to the Rhetoric of Development: Discourse of “Nationality” and “Ethnicity” in China’, The Journal of Contemporary China, 17(56): 565589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barabantseva, Elena (2009) ‘Development as Localization: Ethnic Minorities in China’s Official Discourse on the Western Development Project’, Critical Asian Studies, 41(2): 225254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barabantseva, Elena (2011) Overseas Chinese, Ethnic Minorities, and Nationalism: De-Centring China. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Baranovitch, Nimrod (2003) China’s New Voices: Popular Music, Ethnicity, Gender, and Politics, 1978–1997. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Barkawi, Tarak (2011) From War to Security: The Wider Agenda and the Fate of the Study of War, Millennium, 39(3): 701716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barkawi, Tarak and Laffey, Mark (2006) ‘The Postcolonial Moment in Security Studies’, Review of International Studies, 32: 329–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barth, Frederick (1969) Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organisation of Difference. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.Google Scholar
BBC (2006) ‘Albania Takes Guantanamo Uyghurs’ (Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4979466.stm), 6 May [Last accessed: 01/09/18].Google Scholar
BBC (2009) ‘Scores Killed in China Protests’ (Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/8135203.stm), 6 July [Last accessed: 11/06/18].Google Scholar
Becquelin, Nicholas (2000) ‘Xinjiang in the Nineties’, The China Journal, 44: 6590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becquelin, Nicholas (2004a) ‘Staged Development in Xinjiang’, The China Quarterly, 178: 358378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becquelin, Nicholas (2004b) ‘Criminalising Ethnicity: Political Repression in Xinjiang’, China Rights Forum, No. 1 (Available at: www.hrichina.org/sites/default/files/oldsite/PDFs/CRF.1.2004/b1_Criminalizing1.2004.pdf).Google Scholar
Bekri, Nur (2008) ‘Nuer Baikeli zai Zizhiqu Ganbu Dahui shang de Jianghua’ (‘Nuer Baikeli’s Speech at the Autonomous Regional Government Congress’) (Available at: www.xj.xinhuanet.com/2008-09/11/content_14376020.htm) [Last accessed: 31/05/19].Google Scholar
Bekri, Nur (2009a) ‘Nuer Baikeli Guanyu Wulumuqi “7-5” Shijian de Qingkuang Tongbao’ (‘Nur Bekri: Public Notification Regarding the Ürümchi 7-5 Incident’) in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Party Commission Ministry of Information (eds) Jiaqiang Minzu Tuanjie, Weihu Xinjiang Wending: Xuanchuan Jiaoyu Cailiao (Yi) (Strengthening Ethnic Unity, Protecting Xinjiang Stability: Information Education Materials No. 1). Wulumuqi: Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe (‘Xinjiang People’s Publishing Press).Google Scholar
Bekri, Nur (2009b) ‘Nuer Baikeli zai Zizhiqu Tingju Ganbu Dahui Shang de Jianghua’ (‘Nur Bekri’s Speech at the Autonomous Regional Government’s Cadre Conference’) in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Party Commission Ministry of Information (eds) Jiaqiang Minzu Tuanjie, Weihu Xinjiang Wending: Xuanchuan Jiaoyu Cailiao Yi (Strengthening Ethnic Unity, Protecting Xinjiang Stability: Information Education Materials No. 1). Wulumuqi: Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe (Xinjiang People’s Publishing Press).Google Scholar
Bellér-Hann, Ildikó (2001) ‘“Making the Oil Fragrant”: Dealings with the Supernatural among the Uyghurs in Xinjiang’, Asian Ethnicity, 2(1): 923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bellér-Hann, Ildikó (2002) ‘Temperamental Neighbours: Uighur-Han Relations in Xinjiang, Northwest China’ in Schlee, G. (ed) Imagined Differences: Hatred and the Construction of Identity. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
Bellér-Hann, Ildikó (2008) Community Matters in Xinjiang 1880–1949: Towards a Historical Anthropology of the Uyghur. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bellér-Hann, Ildikó, Cesàro, M Christina, Harris, Rachel, Finley, Smith, and Joanne, (2007) ‘Introduction’ in Bellér-Hann, I. et al. (eds) Situating the Uyghurs between China and Central Asia. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp.114.Google Scholar
Shouyiren, Bense (2008) ‘Xianhua Han Minzu yu Zhonghua Minzu’ (‘A Complaint on the Han Ethnic Group and the Chinese Nation’) (Available at: www.uighurbiz.cn/socity/2008/1008/article_7277.html), UighurBiz, 8 October [Access no longer available].Google Scholar
Benson, Linda and Svanberg, Ingvar (1998) China’s Last Nomads: The History and Culture of China’s Kazakhs. New York: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
Berger, Mark T. (2006) ‘From Nation-Building to State-Building: The Geopolitics of Development, the Nation-State System, and the Changing Global Order’, Third World Quarterly, 27(1): 525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, Stefan (ed) (2007) Writing the Nation: A Global Perspective. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhabha, Homi (1990) ‘DissemiNation: Time, Narrative, and the Margins of the Modern Nation’, in Bhabha, Homi (ed) Nation and Narration. London: Routledge, pp.291322.Google Scholar
Bhabha, Homi K. (2009) The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bhambra, Gurminder (2011) ‘Talking among Themselves? Weberian and Marxist Sociologies as Dialogues without “Others”’, Millennium, 39(3): 667681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blank, Stephen (2003) ‘Xinjiang and China’s Security’, Global Economic Review, 32(4): 121148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bleiker, Roland (2001) ‘The Aesthetic Turn in International Political Theory’, Millennium, 30(3): 509533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Billig, Michael (1995) Banal Nationalism. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Booth, Ken (ed) (2005) Critical Security Studies and World Politics. London: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
Bovingdon, Gardner (2002) ‘The Not-So-Silent Majority: Uyghur Resistance to Han Rule in Xinjiang’, Modern China, 28(1): 3978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bovingdon, Gardner (2004a) ‘Autonomy in Xinjiang: Han Nationalist Imperatives and Uyghur Discontent’, East-West Center Policy Studies, 11.Google Scholar
Bovingdon, Gardner (2004b) ‘Contested Histories’ in Starr, S. F. (ed) Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Borderland. New York: M. E. Sharpe, pp.353374.Google Scholar
Bovingdon, Gardner (2010) The Uyghurs: Strangers in their Own Land. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Brophy, David (2011) ‘Tending to Unite: The Origins of Uyghur Nationalism’. Unpublished PhD diss., Harvard University.Google Scholar
Brophy, David (2016) Uyghur Nation: Reform and Revolution on the Russia-China Frontier. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, Chris (2013) ‘The Poverty of Grand Theory’, European Journal of International Relations, 19(3): 483497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brubaker, Rogers (1998) ‘Myths and Misconceptions in the Study of Nationalism’, in Hall, John (ed) The State of the Nation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.272306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brubaker, Rogers (1999) ‘The Manichean Myth: Rethinking the Distinction between “Civic” and “Ethnic” Nationalism’, in Kriesi, Hanspeter et al. (eds) Nation and National Identity: The European Experience in Perspective. Zurich: Ruegger, pp.5571.Google Scholar
Brubaker, Rogers (2002) “Ethnicity without Groups’, Archives Européenes de Sociologie, XLIII(2): 163189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bubandt, Nils (2005) ‘Vernacular Security: The Politics of Feeling Safe in Global, National, and Local Worlds’, Security Dialogue, 36(3): 275296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bulag, Uradyn E. (2002) The Mongols at China’s Edge: History and the Politics of National Unity. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Burgess, Robert G. (2015) ‘The Unstructured Interview as Conversation’ in Burgess, Robert G. (ed) Field Research: A Sourcebook and Field Manual. London: Routledge, pp.107110.Google Scholar
Butler, Judith. 2007. Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Butler, Judith and Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (2007) Who Sings the Nation-State? Language, Politics, Belonging. New York: Seagull Books.Google Scholar
Buzan, Barry (1991) People, States, and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
Buzan, Barry et al. (1998) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. London: Lynne Reinner.Google Scholar
Buzan, Barry and Lawson, George (2014) ‘Capitalism and the Emergent World Order’, International Affairs, 90(1): 7191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byler, Darren and Grose, Timothy (2018) ‘China’s Surveillance Laboratory’, Dissent (Available at: https://www.dissentmagazine.org/online_articles/chinas-surveillance-laboratory), 31 October [Last accessed: 04/04/2020].Google Scholar
Callahan, William A. (2004) Contingent States: Greater China and Transnational Relations. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Callahan, William A. (2005) ‘How to Understand China: The Dangers and Opportunities of Being a Rising Power’, Review of International Studies, 31(4): 701714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Callahan, William A. (2006) ‘History, Identity, and Security: Producing and Consuming Nationalism in China’, Critical Asian Studies, 38(2): 179208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Callahan, William A. (2007) ‘Trauma and Community: The Visual Politics of Chinese Nationalism and Sino-Japanese Relations’, Theory and Event, 10(4).Google Scholar
Callahan, William A. (2009) ‘The Cartography of National Humiliation and the Emergence of China’s Geobody’, Public Culture, 21(1): 141173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Callahan, William A. (2010) China: The Pessoptimist Nation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Callahan, William A. (2012) ‘Harmony, Unity, and Diversity in China’s World’, The Newsletter, 60: 2223.Google Scholar
Callahan, William A. (2012b) ‘Who Is Xi Jinping and Where Will He Lead China’ (Available at: www.opendemocracy.net/william-callahan/who-is-xi-jinping-and-where-will-he-lead-china), Open Democracy, 27 November [Last accessed: 23/01/19].Google Scholar
Callahan, William A. (2013) China Dreams: Twenty Visions of the Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Campbell, David (1998) Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Campbell, David (2003) ‘Cultural Governance and Pictorial Resistance: Reflections on the Imaging of War’, Review of International Studies, 29: 5773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carrico, Kevin (2017) The Great Han: Race, Nationalism, and Tradition in China Today. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CCP Central Committee (CCPCC) (1950) ‘Zhonggong Zhongyang Guanyu Tongyi Xinjiang Jiandang jige Wenti de Guiding de Pifa’ (‘Reply from the CCPCC on Several Issues Regarding Establishment of the Party in Xinjiang’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.??Google Scholar
CCP Central Committee (CCPCC) (1953) ‘Zhonggong Zhongyang Guanyu Xinjiang Minzu Quyu Zizhi Shishi Banfa Cao’an de Piyu’ (‘Remarks from the CCPCC regarding the drafts on implementing minzu regional autonomy in Xinjiang’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.106113.Google Scholar
Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) (2007) Demography of HIV/AIDS in China. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.Google Scholar
CCTV (2009) ‘Xinjiang Artists Preserve Traditional Performances’, 01/06/09.Google Scholar
CCTV (2009b) ‘Xinjiang Is a Good Place’, 02/10/09 (Available at: http://english.cctv.com/program/worldwidewatch/20091002/101214.shtml) [Last accessed: 23/03/19].Google Scholar
Cesàro, M Christina (2007) ‘Polo, Laghman, So Say: Situating Uyghur Food between Central Asia and China’ in Bellér-Hann, I. et al. (eds) Situating the Uyghurs between China and Central Asia. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Chakrabarty, Dipesh (2000) Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Chatterjee, Partha (2001) Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009a) ‘Dixia Tongdao dou zhuang “Dianzi Yan”’ (‘Electric Eyes Installed in All Underpasses’), 22 September, p.A5.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009b) ‘825 ming Xianfan bei Xingju’ (‘825 Criminal Suspects Detained’), 3 September, p.A3.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009c) ‘Zizhiqu Tongbao Wushi Zhenci Shanghai Anjian Qingkuang’ (‘Regional Government Announces the Situation Regarding the Cases of Syringe Assault Incidents’), 3 September, p.A3.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009d) ‘Quanjiang Zhuahuo 75 ming ‘Zhenci’ Zuifan’ (‘Seizing 75 Syringe Criminals across Xinjiang’), 16 September, p.A1.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009e) ‘Dianli Xidezuo, Minjian Hu Guoqi’ (‘Ceremony Held, the People’s Police Protect the National Flag’), 5 September.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009f) ‘Zui Ming Xiangtong Weihe Zhongxing bu Tong’ (‘How Accusations Are Not Equivalent to Charges’), 18 September, p.A5.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009g) ‘Xi’an Fasheng Yisi Zhenci Shanghaian’ (‘Outbreak of Syringe Assaults in Xi’an’), 17 September.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009h) ‘Xi’an Po Liang qi Zhenza’an’ (‘2 Cases of Syring Assaults in Xi’an’), 22 September, p.A10.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009i) ‘Meng Jianzhu lai Wu Jiancha Zhidao Weiwen Gongzuo’ (‘Meng Jianzhu Inspects Urumqi to Lead Stability Work’), 5 September, p.A1.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009j) ‘Haizemen Youge Weiwuerzu Ma’ (‘Children Have a Uyghur Mother’), 15 December, p.A4.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009k) ‘Tongxu weile Wo Hunli Gai Riqi’ (‘My Classmate Changed His Wedding Date for Me’), 15 December, p.A4.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009l) ‘Rouzi jie Fangjia Tonghi’ (‘Roza Holiday Notification’), 15 September, p.A2.Google Scholar
Chenbao (‘Morning News’) (2009m) ‘Huandu Rouzi Jie (‘Warmly Celebrate Roza’), 22 September, Cover.Google Scholar
Chan, Koonchung [Chen Guanzhong] (2009) Shengshi: Zhongguo 2013 (The Fat Years: China 2013). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Chen, Yangbin (2008) Muslim Uyghur Students in a Chinese Boarding School: Social Recapitalisation as a Response to Ethnic Integration. Plymouth: Lexington.Google Scholar
Child, Ben (2009) ‘Old Suspicions Magnified Mistrust into Ethnic Riots in Urumqi’ (Available at: www.guardian.co.uk/film/2009/sep/22/chinese-protesters-hack-website), The Guardian, 22 September [Last accessed: 14/09/18].Google Scholar
Chin, Josh (2019) ‘Twelve Days in Xinjiang: How China’s Surveillance State Overwhelms Daily Life’ (Available at: https://www.wsj.com/articles/twelve-days-in-xinjiang-how-chinas-surveillance-state-overwhelms-daily-life-1513700355) Wall Street Journal, 19 December [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
China Daily (2009) ‘Xinjiang Emerging from Riot Shadow’, 2 September.Google Scholar
China Daily (2017) ‘Cherish Ethnic Unity, President Tells Xinjiang’ (Available at: www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2017twosession/2017-03/11/content_28515253.htm) 11 March [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
China Digital Times (2009) ‘Death Toll in Xinjiang Rises to 184 (Updated)’ (Available at: http://chinadigitaltimes.net/2009/07/death-toll-in-xinjiang-violence-rises-to-184/), 10 July [Last accessed: 11/06/19].Google Scholar
China Islamic Association (2006) Musilin Aiguozhuyi Jiaocheng (‘Patriotic Muslim Coursebook’). Beijing: Zongjiao Wenhua Chubanshe.Google Scholar
China Labor Watch (2009) ‘Labor Violations Exacerbate Ethnic Tensions in South China’ (Available at: www.chinalaborwatch.org/20090706uyghur.htm#), 7 July [Last accessed: 11/06/19].Google Scholar
Chinese Human Rights Defenders (CHRD) (2018) ‘China: Massive Numbers of Uighurs and Other Ethnic Minorities Forced into Re-Education Programs’, 3 August (Available at: https://www.nchrd.org/2018/08/china-massive-numbers-of-uyghurs-other-ethnic-minorities-forced-into-re-education-programs/) [Last accessed: 23/07/18].Google Scholar
Chow, Kai-Wing (2001) ‘Narrating the Nation, Race, and National Culture: Imagining the Hanzu Identity in Modern China’ in Chow, Kai-Wing et al. (eds) Constructing Nationhood in Modern East Asia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp.4785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chowdry, Geeta (2007) ‘Edward Said and Contrapuntal Reading: Implications for Critical Interventions in International Relations’, Millennium, 36(1): 101116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chowdhry, Geeta and Nair, Sheila (2004) ‘Introduction: Power in a Postcolonial World: Race, Gender, and Class in International Relations’ in Chowdhry, Geeta and Nair, Sheila (eds) Power, Postcolonialism, and International Relations: Reading Race, Gender, and Class. Routledge: London, pp.132.Google Scholar
Clarke, Michael E. (2007a) ‘The Problematic Progress of “Integration” in the Chinese State’s Approach to Xinjiang, 1759–2005’, Asian Ethnicity, 8(3): 261289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, Michael E. (2007b) ‘China’s Internal Security Dilemma and the “Great Western Development”: The Dynamics of Integration, Ethnic Nationalism, and Terrorism in Xinjiang’, Asian Studies Review, 31: 323342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, Michael E. (2010) Xinjiang and China’s Rise in Central Asia. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Cliff, Tom 2016. Oil and Water: Being Han in Xinjiang. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CNN (2007) ‘Chinese Architect Slams Olympics Pretend Smile’ (Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/08/13/china.olympics.reut/), 13 August [Last accessed: 01/09/18].Google Scholar
Cohen, Anthony P. (1985) The Symbolic Construction of Community. Routledge: London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Anthony (1996) ‘Personal Nationalism: A Scottish View of Some Rites, Rights, and Wrongs’, American Ethnologist, 23(4): 802815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Paul (2010) Discovering History in China: American Historical Writing on the Recent Chinese Past. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Congressional Executive Commission on China (CECC) (2005) ‘Uighur Author Sentenced to Prison for “Inciting Splittism”’ (Available at: www.cecc.gov/pages/virtualAcad/index.phpd?showsingle=6759), 10 February [Last accessed: 01/09/18].Google Scholar
Constitution of the People’s Republic of China (2004). Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.Google Scholar
Cox, Robert (1981) ‘Social Forces, States, and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory’, Millennium, 10(2): 126155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cox, Robert (2000) ‘Thinking about Civilizations’, Review of International Studies, 26: 217234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Da, Wei (2010) Shei shi Zhongguo Ren? (‘Who Is Chinese?’). Changsha: Hunan Renmin Chubanshe (‘Hunan People’s Publishing Press’).Google Scholar
Darby, Phillip (1998) The Fiction of Imperialism: Reading between International Relations and Postcolonialism. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
Darby, Phillip (2004) ‘Pursuing the Political: A Postcolonial Rethinking of Relations International’, Millennium, 33(1): 132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Darby, Phillip and Paolini, A. J. (1994) ‘Bridging International Relations and Postcolonialism’, Alternatives, 19: 371397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dautcher, Jay (2009) Down a Narrow Road: Identity and Masculinity in a Uyghur Community in Xinjiang China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, Gloria (2009) Worrying about China – The Language of Chinese Critical Enquiry. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Davies, Norman (1997) Europe: A History. London: Pimlico.Google Scholar
Dawut, Rahila (2007) ‘Shrine Pilgrimage and Sustainable Tourism among the Uyghurs: Central Asian Ritual Traditions in the Context of China’s Development Policies’ in Bellér-Hann, I. et al. (eds) Situating the Uyghurs between China and Central Asia. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
De Carvalho, Benjamin, Leira, Halvard, and Hobson, John (2011) ‘The Big Bangs of IR: The Myths That Your Teachers Still Tell You about 1648 and 1919’, Millennium, 39(3): 735758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deng, Xiaoping (1953) ‘Jiejue Minzu Wenti de Jichu shi Jingji’ (‘The Economy Is Foundation of Resolving the Minzu Problem’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.104105.Google Scholar
Deng, Xiaoping et al. (1953) ‘Guanyu Shenpi Xinjiang Minzu Quyu Zizhi Shishi Jihua Cao’an de Liang fen Baogao’ (‘2 Reports Regarding the Implementation of the Plans for Xinjiang Regional Autonomy’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.97101.Google Scholar
Deng, Xiaoping (1979) ‘Cujin ge Minzu Gongtong Fanrong’ (‘Promoting Common Prosperity for All Minzu’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.244245.Google Scholar
Di Cosmo, Nicola (2002) Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dillon, Michael (2002) Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Far North West. London: Routledge Curzon.Google Scholar
Dikötter, Frank (1994) ‘Racial Identities in China: Context and Meaning’, The China Quarterly, 138: 404412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doty, Roxanne (2000) ‘Desire All the Way Down’, Review of International Studies, 26: 137139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doty, Roaxanne Lynn (1996) Imperial Encounters: The Politics of North-South Relations. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Duara, Prasenjit (1988) Culture, Power, and the State. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Duara, Prasenjit (1995) Rescuing History from the Nation: Questioning Narratives of Modern China. London: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duara, Prasenjit (1998) ‘The Regime of Authenticity: Timelessness, Gender, and National History in Modern China’, History and Theory, 37(3): 287308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duara, Prasenjit (2009) The Global and Regional in China’s Nation-Formation. Routledge: London.Google Scholar
Dwyer, Arienne M (2005) ‘The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language, Policy, and Political Discourse’, East-West Center Policy Studies, 15.Google Scholar
East Turkestan Information Center (ETIC) (Available at: www.uygur.org/) [Last accessed: 09/07/19].Google Scholar
Economist, The (2008) ‘The Second Long March’ (www.economist.com/node/12758848), 11 December [Last accessed: 01/12/18].Google Scholar
Elliot, Mark (2001) The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Elliot, Mark (2011) ‘Hushuo: The Northern Other and Han Ethnogenesis’ in Mullaney, Thomas S. et al. (eds) Critical Han Studies: The History, Representation, and Identity of China’s Majority. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Engels, Friedrich (1884/2010) The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Enloe, Cynthia (1990) Bananas, Beaches, and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Enloe, Cynthia (2000) Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women’s Lives. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ethnic Unity Education Board (EUAB) (2009) Minzu Lilun Changshi (‘Common Knowledge of Ethnic Theory’). Beijing: Central Television and Broadcasting Publishing House.Google Scholar
Fairbank, John (ed) (1968) The Chinese World Order. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Fairbank, John and Merle, Goldman (2006) China: A New History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fanon, Frantz (2001) Wretched of the Earth. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Fan, Wenlan (1954) ‘Shilun Zhongguo zi Qin-Han shi Chengwei Tongyi Guojia de Yuanyin’ (‘Analysis of the Reasons China Became a Unified Nation during the Qin-Han Period’) in Peng, Wulin et al. (eds) (2013) Zhongguo Jindai Minzushi Yanjiu Wenxian (Research Documents on Modern China’s Ethnic History). Beijing: Shehui Kexue Wenxian Chubanshe (‘Social Science Academic Press’), pp.314.Google Scholar
Fei, Xiaotong (1980) ‘Guanyu Woguo Minzu Shibie Wenti’ (‘On China’s Ethnic Classification Project’), in Zhongguo Shehui Kexue (Social Sciences in China), 1.Google Scholar
Fei, Xiaotong (1988) ‘Plurality and Unity in the Configuration of the Chinese People’, Tanner Lectures on Human Values, 15 & 17 November (Available at: https://tannerlectures.utah.edu/_documents/a-to-z/f/fei90.pdf) [Last accessed: 19/09/19].Google Scholar
Feng, Jianyong and Aney, Adil (2009) ‘Build a Bridge that Binds Workers of All Hues’, China Daily, 3 September.Google Scholar
Fiskesjö, Magnus. 2017. ‘The Legacy of the Chinese Empires: Beyond “the West and the Rest”’. Education About Asia, 22(1): 610.Google Scholar
Fletcher, Joseph (1978) ‘Ch’ing Inner Asia c.1800’ in Fairbank, John (ed) The Cambridge History of China, vol. 10, Late Ch’ing, 1800–1911, pt. 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Forbes, Andrew (1986) Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Foreign Correspondent’s Club of China (FCCC) (2009a) ‘TV Crew Detained in Urumqi’ (Available at: www.fccchina.org/2009/07/06/tv-crew-detained-in-urumqi/), 6 July [Last accessed: 22/06/19].Google Scholar
Foreign Correspondent’s Club of China (FCCC) (2009b) ‘Reporter in Urumqi Shoved into Van’ (Available at: www.fccchina.org/2009/07/07/reporter-in-urumqi-shoved-into-van/), 7 July [Last accessed: 22/06/19].Google Scholar
Foreign Correspondent’s Club of China (FCCC) (2009c) ‘China Must Stop Harassing Reporters in Xinjiang’ (Available at: www.fccchina.org/2009/07/07/china-must-stop-harassing-reporters-in-xinjiang/), 7 July [Last accessed: 22/06/19].Google Scholar
Foreign Correspondent’s Club of China (FCCC) (2009d) ‘China Should Allow Reporters Free Movement in Xinjiang’ (Available at: www.fccchina.org/2009/07/11/china-should-allow-reporters-free-movement-in-xinjiang/), 11 July [Last accessed: 22/06/19].Google Scholar
Foreign Correspondent’s Club of China (FCCC) (2009e) ‘Open Letter on Reporting Conditions in Xinjiang’ 20 July (Available at: www.fccchina.org/2009/07/20/open-letter-on-reporting-conditions-in-xinjiang/) [Last accessed: 22/06/19].Google Scholar
Foreign Correspondent’s Club of China (FCCC) (2009f) ‘Urumqi Police Seize Cameras during Protest’ (Available at: www.fccchina.org/2009/09/04/urumqi-police-seize-cameras-during-protest/), 4 September [Last accessed: 22/06/19].Google Scholar
Foreign Correspondent’s Club of China (FCCC) (2009g) ‘Urumqi Armed Police Beat Journalists, Confiscate Tapes’ (Available at: www.fccchina.org/2009/09/04/urumqi-armed-police-beat-journalists-confiscate-tapes/), 4 September [Last accessed: 22/06/19].Google Scholar
Foreign Correspondent’s Club of China (FCCC) (2009h) ‘Urumqi Paramilitary Beat Journalists, Damage Gear’ (Available at: www.fccchina.org/2009/09/05/urumqi-paramilitary-beat-journalists-damage-gear/), 5 September [Last accessed: 22/06/19].Google Scholar
Foreign Correspondent’s Club of China (FCCC) (2009i) ‘FCCC Condemns Beating of Journalists in Urumqi’ (Available at: www.fccchina.org/2009/09/05/fccc-condemns-beating-of-journalists-in-urumqi/), 5 September [Last accessed: 22/06/19].Google Scholar
Foucault, Michel (1991/1976) The Will to Knowledge. Volume 1 of The History of Sexuality. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Franks, Mary Anne (2003) ‘Obscene Undersides: Women and Evil between the Taliban and the United States’, Hypatia, 18(1): 135156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fravel, Taylor (2005) ‘Regime Insecurity and International Cooperation: Explaining China’s Compromises in Territorial Disputes’, International Security, 30(2): 4683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fravel, Taylor (2007) ‘Power Shifts and Escalation: Explaining China’s Use of Force in Territorial Disputes’, International Security, 32(3): 4483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeman, Charles W. and Yuan, Wen Jin (2012) ‘The Influence and Illusion of China’s New Left’, The Washington Quarterly, 35(1): 6582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freemuse (2019) ‘China: Sanubar Tursun, Voice of the Uyghurs, Missing Presumed Detained in Xinjiang’s Internment Camps’ (Available at: https://freemuse.org/news/china-sanubar-tursun-voice-of-the-uyghurs-missing-presumed-detained-in-xinjiangs-internment-camps/), 8 February [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Friederich, Michael (2007) ‘Uyghur Literary Representations of Xinjiang Realities’ in Bellér-Hann, I. et al. (eds) Situating the Uyghurs between China and Central Asia. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp.89108Google Scholar
Fukuyama, Francis (1989) ‘The End of History’, National Interest, 16: 318.Google Scholar
Fuller, Graham and Lipman, Jonathan (2004) ‘Islam in Xinjiang’, in Starr, S. F. (ed) Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Borderland. New York: M. E. Sharpe, pp.320352.Google Scholar
Gaubatz, Piper Rae (1996) Beyond the Great Wall: Urban Form and Transformation on the Chinese Frontier. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Geertz, Clifford (1973) The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays by Clifford Geertz. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Geertz, Clifford (1980) Negara: The Theatre-State in Nineteenth-Century Bali. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Gellner, Ernest (1996) ‘The Nation: Real or Imagined?’, Nations and Nationalism, 2(3): 357370.Google Scholar
Gellner, Ernest (2006) Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Gladney, Dru (1990) ‘The Ethnogenesis of the Uighur’, Central Asian Survey, 9(1): 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gladney, Dru (1996) Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People’s Republic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Gladney, Dru (2004) Dislocating China: Muslims, Minorities, and Other Subaltern Subjects, London: Hirst & Co.Google Scholar
Global Times (2009) ‘Xinjiang Migrant Labour-Plan Combats Poverty’ (Available at: http://china.globaltimes.cn/chinanews/2009-07/448670.html), 20 July [Last accessed: 11/06/19].Google Scholar
Gold, Thomas B (1989) ‘Guerilla Interviewing among the Getihu’ in Link, Perry et al. (eds) Unofficial China: Popular Culture and Thought in the People’s Republic. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp.175192.Google Scholar
Goldstein, Avery (2001) ‘The Diplomatic Face of China’s Grand Strategy: A Rising Power’s Emerging Choice’, The China Quarterly, 168: 835864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gong, Yufeng (2009) ‘Xinjiang: A Fairyland Ever and Forever’ (Available at: http://eg.china-embassy.org/eng/rdwt/gert2444/t575748.htm), 28 July [Last accessed: 14/01/19].Google Scholar
Goodman, David (2002) ‘The Politics of the West: Equality, Nation-Building and Colonisation’, Provincial China, 7(2): 127150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodman, David (2004) ‘The Campaign to “Open Up the West”: National, Provincial-Level, and Local Perspectives’, The China Quarterly, 178: 317334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gramsci, Antonio (1935) Selections from Cultural Writings in Forgacs, David (ed) (1999) The Antonio Gramsci Reader: Selected Writings 1916–1935. London: Lawrence and Wishart.Google Scholar
Gries, Peter Hays (2004) ‘Popular Nationalism and State Legitimation in China’ in Gries, Peter Hays and Rosen, Stanley (eds) State and Society in Twenty-first Century China: Crisis, Contention, and Legitimation. London: Routledge, pp.180194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grovogui, Siba N (2001) ‘Come to Africa: A Hermeneutics of Race in International Theory’, Alternatives, 26(4): 425448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guardian, The (2012) ‘China Steps Up Campaign against Ramadan in Xinjiang’ (Available at: www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/aug/03/china-restriction-ramadan-xinjiang-uighurs), 3 August [Last accessed: 23/10/18].Google Scholar
Guardian, The (2014) ‘Chinese Authorities Offer Cash for Inter-ethnic Marriages’ (Available at: (www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/02/chinese-authorties-cash-inter-ethnic-marriages-uighur-minority), 2 September [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Guardian, The (2018) ‘My Soul, Where Are You? Families of Muslims Missing in China Meet Wall of Silence’ (Available at: www.theguardian.com/world/2018/sep/13/uighur-xinjiang-family-missing-china-kazakhstan), 13 September [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Guardian, The (2019) ‘Fears for Uighur Comedian Missing Amid Crackdown on Cultural Figures’ (Available at: www.theguardian.com/world/2019/feb/22/xinjiang-fears-for-uihgur-comedian-missing-amid-crackdown-on-cultural-figures), 22 February [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Hao, Shiyuan (2012) ‘Zhongguo Minzu Zhengce de Hexin Yuanze bu rong Gaibian’ (‘China’s Ethnic Minority Policies are not Easy to Improve’). Zhongguo Gongchandang Xinwen Wang (Chinese Communist Party News Online) (Available at: http://theory.people.com.cn/GB/17106132.html). 14 February [Last accessed: 24/08/17].Google Scholar
Harrell, Stevan (1990) ‘Ethnicity, Local Interests, and the State’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 32(3): 515548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrell, Stevan (1995) ‘Introduction: Civilizing Projects and the Reaction to Them’, in Harrell, Stevan (ed) Cultural Encounters on China’s Frontiers. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Harris, Rachel (2001) ‘Cassettes, Bazaars and Saving the Nation: The Uyghur Music Industry in Xinjiang, China’ in Craig, Tim and King, Richard (eds) Global Goes Local: Popular Culture in Asia. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, pp.265283.Google Scholar
Harris, Rachel (2005) ‘Wang Luobin: Folk Song King of the Northwest or Song Thief? Copyright, Representation, and Folk Songs’, Modern China, 31: 381408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, Rachel (2008) The Making of a Musical Canon on Chinese Central Asia: The Uygur Twelve Muqam. Ashgate: Aldershot.Google Scholar
Harris, Rachel (2011) ‘Invitation to a Mourning Ceremony: Perspectives on the Uyghur Internet’, Inner Asia, 13(1): 2749.Google Scholar
Harrison, Henrietta (2000) The Making of the Republican Citizen: Political Ceremonies and Symbols in China, 1911–1929, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hechter, Michael (1975) Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British National Development. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Hershatter, Gail (1993) ‘The Subaltern Talks Back: Reflections on Subaltern Theory and Chinese History’, Positions, 1(1): 103130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hess, Steve (2009) ‘Dividing and Conquering the Shop Floor: Uyghur Labour Export and Labour Segmentation in China’s Industrial East’, Central Asian Survey, 2 8(4): 403416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hobsbawm, Eric J. (1990) Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hobson, John (2007) ‘Is Critical Theory Always for the White West and Western Imperialism? Beyond Westphillian towards a Post-racist IR’, Review of International Studies, 33: 91116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hu, Angang (2012) Zhongguo 2020: Yige Xinxing Chaoji Daguo (‘China in 2020: A New Type of Superpower’). Zhejiang: Zhejiang Renmin Chubanshe (‘Zhejiang People’s Press’).Google Scholar
Hu, Angang and Hu, Lianhe (2012) ‘Di Er Dai Minzu Zhengce: Cujin Minzu Jiaorong Yiti he Fanhua Yiti’ (‘The Second Generation of Minzu Policies: Promoting Minzu Fusion and Prosperity in an Organic Whole’) (Available at: www.mzb.com.cn/html/Home/report/293093-1.htm), 10 April [Last accessed: 24/08/18].Google Scholar
Hu, Jintao (2006) ‘Zuohao Xinshiqi Minzu Gongzuo he Zongjiao Gongzuo’ (‘Doing good Minzu work and religious work in the new period’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.632637.Google Scholar
Hu, Jintao (2007) ‘Hold High the Great Banner of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Strive for New Victories in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in All Respects: Report to the Seventeenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China on October 15, 2007’ in Documents of the Seventeenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, pp.173.Google Scholar
Hu, Jintao (2009) ‘Hu Jintao Zhute Zhongyang Zhengzhiju Changwu Weiyuan Huiyi Yanjiu Buzhi Weihu Xinjiang Shehui Wending Gongzuo’ in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Party Commission Ministry of Information (eds) Jiaqiang Minzu Tuanjie, Weihu Xinjiang Wending: Xuanchuan Jiaoyu Cailiao Yi (Strengthening Ethnic Unity, Protecting Xinjiang Stability: Information Education Materials No. 1). Wulumuqi: Xinjiang People’s Publishing Press.Google Scholar
Hughes, Christopher (2006) Chinese Nationalism in the Global Era. Routledge: London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2009a) ‘“We Are Afraid to Even Look for Them”: Enforced Disappearances in the Wake of Xinjiang’s Protests’ (Available at: www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/xinjiang1009webwcover.pdf), 1 October [Last accessed: 16/06/18].Google Scholar
Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2009b) ‘China: Forcibly Returned Uighur Asylum Seekers at Risk’ (Available at: www.hrw.org/news/2009/12/22/china-forcibly-returned-uighur-asylum-seekers-risk), 22 December [Last accessed: 20/06/18].Google Scholar
Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2011) ‘China: Account for Forcibly Returned Uighurs’ (Available at: www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/02/china-account-forcibly-returned-uighurs), 2 September [Last accessed: 20/06/18].Google Scholar
Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2018) ‘Eradicating Ideological Viruses’ (Available at: www.hrw.org/report/2018/09/09/eradicating-ideological-viruses/chinas-campaign-repression-against-xinjiangs), 9 September [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2019) ‘How Mass Surveillance Works in Xinjiang, China’ (Available at: www.hrw.org/video-photos/interactive/2019/05/02/china-how-mass-surveillance-works-xinjiang) 2 May [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Hunan Dianshitai (HunanTelevision) (2009) Baqian Xiang Nu Shang Tianshan (‘8,000 Flowers Go Up the Mountain’), DVD. Hunan: Hunan Dianshita(‘Hunan Television’).Google Scholar
Huntington, Samuel P (1996) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Touchstone: New York.Google Scholar
Jacobs, Justin (2008) ‘How Turkestan Became Chinese: Visualising Zhang Zhizong’s Tian Shan Pictorial and Xinjiang Youth Song and Dance Troupe’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 47(2): 545591.Google Scholar
Jacobs, Justin (2016) Xinjiang and the Modern Chinese State. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Jianfei, Jia (2011) ‘Whose Xinjiang? The Transition in Chinese Intellectuals’ Imagination of the “New Dominion” During the Qing Dynasty’, Harvard-Yenching Institute Working Paper Series.Google Scholar
Jian, Bozan (1960) Guanyu Chuli Zhongguoshi shang de Minzu Guanxi Wenti (‘On the Question of How to Deal with Minzu Relations throughout Chinese History’) in Peng, Wulin et al. (eds) (2013) Zhongguo Jindai Minzushi Yanjiu Wenxian (Research Documents on Modern China’s Ethnic History). Beijing: Shehui Kexue Wenxian Chubanshe (‘Social Science Academic Press’), pp.1431.Google Scholar
Ikenberry, John (2014) ‘The Rise of China and the Future of Liberal World Order’ (Available at: https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/field/field_document/20140507RiseofChina.pdf), Chatham House Lecture [Last accessed: 12/03/20].Google Scholar
Independent, The (2012) ‘12 Children Hurt as China Police Raid Religious School’ (Available at: www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/12-children-hurt-as-china-police-raid-religious-school-7820183.html), 6 June [Last accessed: 23/10/18].Google Scholar
Jarvis, Lee and Lister, Michael (2013) ‘Vernacular Securities and Their Study: A Qualitative Analysis and Research Agenda’, International Relations, 27(2): 158179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jiang, Zemin (1990a) ‘Guanyu Jinyibu Wending Bianjiang Minzu Diqu de Jidian Qingkuang he Yijian’ (‘A Few Situations and Suggestions Regarding the Progress of Stabilising Frontier Minority Regions’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.303308.Google Scholar
Jiang, Zemin (1990b) ‘Ba Xinjiang Shehui zhuyi Jianshe he Gaige Shiye Buduan Tuixiang Qianjin’ (‘The Unceasing Progress of the Mission of Socialist Building and Reform in Xinjiang’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.315338.Google Scholar
Johnston, Alastair Iain (1995) Cultural Realism: Strategic Culture and Grand Strategy in Chinese History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, Alastair Iain (2003) ‘Is China a Status Quo Power?’, International Security, 27(4): 556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaldor, Mary (2006) New and Old Wars. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Kamalov, A. (2007) ‘The Uyghurs as Part of Central Asian Commonality: Soviet Historiography on the Uyghurs’ in Bellér-Hann, I. et al. (eds) Situating the Uyghurs between China and Central Asia. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Kardos, Amy (2010) ‘A Rock and a Hard Place: Chinese Soldiers in Xinjiang Caught between Centre and Periphery After 1949’, in Cochran, S. and Pickowicz, P. G. (eds) China on the Margins. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, pp.135157.Google Scholar
Kerr, David (2011) ‘Paradoxes of Tradition and Modernity at the New Frontier: China, Islam, and the Problem of “Different Heavens”’ in Callahan, William A. and Barabantseva, Elena (eds) China Orders the World: Normative Soft Power and Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, pp.143179.Google Scholar
Krishna, Sankaran (1999) Postcolonial Insecurities: India, Sri Lanka, and the Question of Nationhood. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Lam, Willy (2009) ‘The Xinjiang Crisis: A Test for Beijing’s Carrot-and-Stick Strategy’, China Brief, 9(15). (Available at: www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=35307&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=459&no_cache=1) [Last accessed: 06/12/18].Google Scholar
Laogai Research Foundation (2008) Laogai Handbook. Washington DC: Laogai Research Foundation.Google Scholar
Leibold, James (2007) Reconfiguring Chinese Nationalism: How the Qing Frontier and Its Indigenes Became Chinese. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leibold, James (2010) ‘The Beijing Olympics and China’s Conflicted National Form’, The China Journal, 63: 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leibold, James (2012a) ‘Can China Have a Melting Pot?’ (Available at: http://thediplomat.com/china-power/can-china-have-a-melting-pot/), The Diplomat, 23 May [Last accessed: 11/07/18].Google Scholar
Leibold, James (2013) ‘Ethnic Policy in China: Is Reform Inevitable?’ (Available at: www.eastwestcenter.org/sites/default/files/private/ps068.pdf), East-West Center Policy Studies, 68 [Last accessed: 20/09/19].Google Scholar
Lewis, Bernard (1990) ‘The Roots of Muslim Rage’ (Available at: www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1990/09/the-roots-of-muslim-rage/304643/), The Atlantic, September [Last accessed: 15/01/18].Google Scholar
Li, Dezhu (2007) ‘Guojia Minwei Zhuren Li Dezhu Zai Quanguo Minwei Zhuren Huiyishang de Jianghua’ (‘National Commission for Ethnic Affairs Chairman Li Dezhu’s Speech at the 2007 National Commission for Ethnic Affairs Conference’) (Available at: http://news.sohu.com/20071229/n254377534.shtml) [Last accessed: 03/06/19].Google Scholar
Li, Sheng (2006) ‘Dong Tujuesitan’ Fenliezhuyi de Youlai yu Fazhan (The Origins and Development of ‘East Turkestan’ Separatism). Wulumuqi: Xinjiang People’s Press.Google Scholar
Liu, Shaoqi (1954) ‘Guanyu Minzu Quyu Zizhi Wenti’ (‘Regarding the Problem of Ethnic Regional Autonomy’), in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Party Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.118122.Google Scholar
Ma, Dazheng (2004) ‘Xinjiang Lishi Yanjiu zhong de jige Wenti’ (‘Several Problems in Researching Xinjiang History’), Xiyu Yanjiu (Western Regions Research), 2: 114.Google Scholar
Ma, Dazheng (2006) Xinjijang Shijian (Reflections on Xinjiang History). Wulumuqi: Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe (‘Xinjiang People’s Press’).Google Scholar
Ma, Rong (2007) ‘A New Perspective in Guiding Ethnic Relations in the 21st Century: “Depoliticization” of Ethnicity in China’, Asian Ethnicity, 8(3): 199217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ma, Rong (2009) ‘The Development of Minority Education and the Practice of Bilingual Education in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region’, Frontier Education China, 4(2): 188251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ma, Rong (2010) ‘Hanhua hai shi Xiandaihua’ (‘Hanification Is Still Modernisation’) (Available at: www.21ccom.net/articles/zgyj/ggzhc/article_2010121726544.html), Gongshi Wang (‘Consensus Net’), 17 December [Last accessed: 13/07/18].Google Scholar
Ma, Rong (2018) ‘Xi Jinping TongzhiJinqi Jianghua Zhudao Woguo Minzu Gongzuo de Fangxiang’ (‘Comrade Xi Jinping Guides the Direction of Our Country’s Minzu Policy’), Journal of the Central Institute of Socialism, 3(213): 121126.Google Scholar
Mahmut, Rahima (2020) Surveillance and Repression of Muslim Minorities: Xinjiang and Beyond, Conference presentation, SOAS (Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rRgUg2P-l3I), 7 March [Last accessed: 28/03/20].Google Scholar
Mao, Zedong (1923) ‘The Cigarette Tax’ (Available at: www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-6/mswv6_08.htm) [Last accessed: 29/05/18].Google Scholar
Mao, Zedong (1926) ‘Analysis of the Classes in Chinese Society’ (Available at: www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-1/mswv1_1.htm) [Last accessed: 29/05/18].Google Scholar
Mao, Zedong (1937) ‘On Contradiction’ (Available at: www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-1/mswv1_17.htm) [Last accessed: 29/05/18].Google Scholar
Mao, Zedong (1949) ‘Zhonggong Zhongyang Guanyu Xinjiang Wenti gei Peng Dehui de Dianbao’ (‘A Telegram from the CCP Central Committee to Peng Dehui Regarding the Xinjiang Problem’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.2122.Google Scholar
Mao, Zedong (1956) ‘Hanzu he Shaoshu Minzu de Guanxi’ (‘Relations between Han and Shaoshu Minzu’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.142143.Google Scholar
Marx, Karl (1869/1963) The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
Mattern, Janice Bially (2005) ‘Why “Soft Power” Isn’t So Soft: Representational Force and the Sociolinguistic Construction of Attraction in World Politics’, Millennium, 33(3): 583612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mauk, Ben (2019) ‘Weather Reports: Voices from Xinjiang’ (Available at: https://believermag.com/weather-reports-voices-from-xinjiang/) [Last accessed: 09/04/2020].Google Scholar
McMillen, Donald H. (1979) Chinese Communist Power and Policy in Xinjiang, 1949–1977. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Mearsheimer, John J. (2010) The Gathering Storm: China’s Challenge to US Power in Asia, Chinese Journal of International Politics, 3(4): 381396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Millward, James A. (1994) ‘A Uyghur Muslim in Qianlong’s Court: The Meaning of the Fragrant Concubine’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 53(2): 427458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Millward, James A. (1996) ‘New Perspectives on the Qing Frontier’ in Hershatter, Gail et al. (eds) Remapping China: Fissures in Historical Terrain. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp.113129.Google Scholar
Millward, James A. (2004) ‘Violent Separatism in Xinjiang: A Critical Assessment’, Policy Studies 6. Washington, DC: East-West Center.Google Scholar
Millward, James A. (2005) ‘Uyghur Art Music and the Ambiguities of Chinese Silk Roadism in Xinjiang’, Silk Road, 3(1) (Available at: www.silk-road.com/newsletter/vol3num1/3_uyghur.php) [Last accessed: 13/04/19].Google Scholar
Millward, James A. (2007) Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. London: Hurst and Company.Google Scholar
Millward, James A. (2009a) ‘Positioning Xinjiang in Eurasian and Chinese History: Differing Visions of the “Silk Road’’’ in Mackerras, Colin and Clarke, Michael (eds) China, Xinjiang, and Central Asia: History, Transition, and Crossborder Interaction into the Twenty-first Century. London: Routledge, pp.5574.Google Scholar
Millward, James A. (2009b) ‘Does the Urumchi Violence Mark a Turning Point?’, Central Asian Survey, 28(4): 347360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Millward, James A. and Perdue, Peter (2004) ‘Political and Cultural History of the Xinjiang Region through the Late 19th Century’ in Starr, S. F. (ed) Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Borderland. New York: M. E. Sharpe, pp.2762.Google Scholar
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) (2014) ‘The Central Conference on Work Relating to Foreign Affairs Was Held in Beijing’ (Available at: https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1215680.shtml), 29 November [Last accessed: 12/03/20].Google Scholar
Ministry of Information (MOI) (2008) Kexue Fazhanguan Xuexi Duben (Scientific Development Outlook Study Guide). Beijing: Xuexi Chubanshe (‘Study Press’).Google Scholar
Ministry of Information, Theoretical Department (MOI TD) (2009a) Liuge Weishenme: Dui Jige Zhongda Wenti de Huida (The Six Whys: Answers to Some Huge Questions). Beijing: Xuexi Chubanshe (‘Study Press’).Google Scholar
Ministry of Information, Theoretical Department (MOI TD) (2009b) Lilun Redian Mianduimian (Face-to-Face Hot Theory Topics). Beijing: Renmin Chubanshe (‘People’s Publishing Press’).Google Scholar
Ministry of Information, Education Department (MOI ED) (2009) Minzu Tuanjie Jiaoyu: Tongsu Duben (Ethnic Unity Education: Basic Study Guide). Beijing: Xuexi Chubanshe (‘Study Press’).Google Scholar
Mitter, Rana (2004) A Bitter Revolution: China’s Struggle with the Modern World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Moore, Malcolm (2009) ‘Xinjiang Protests: Han Chinese Demand Better Security after Syringe Attacks in Urumqi’ (Available at: www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/6131874/Xinjiang-protests-Han-Chinese-demand-better-security-after-syringe-attacks-in-Urumqi.html), The Daily Telegraph, 3 September [Last accessed: 22/06/18].Google Scholar
Morgan, Lewis (1944/2005) Ancient Society. New York: Adamant Media Corporation.Google Scholar
Morgenthau, Hans J. (1948) Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Mullaney, Thomas S. (2011) Coming to Terms with the Nation: Ethnic Classification in Modern China. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) (2015) Vision and Actions on Jointly Developing Silk Road Economic Belt and Twenty-first-Century Maritime Silk Road (Available at: http://english.www.gov.cn/archive/publications/2017/06/20/content_281475691873460.htm), 20 June [Last accessed: 12/03/20].Google Scholar
National People’s Congress Changwu Weiyuanhui (NPC) (2001) Zhonghua Renmin Gonghheguo GuojiaTongyong Yuyan Wenzifa (The People’s Republic of China National Language and Script Law) (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2003-01/21/content_699566.htm) [Last accessed: 06/04/19].Google Scholar
New York Times (NYT) (2007) ‘Chinese Leave Guantanamo for Albanian Limbo’ (Available at: www.nytimes.com/2007/06/10/world/europe/10resettle.html?pagewanted=all), 10 June [Last accessed: 01/09/18].Google Scholar
Newby, Laura J. (1999) ‘The Chinese Literary Conquest of Xinjiang’, Modern China, 25: 451474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newby, Laura J. (2005) The Empire and the Khanate. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Newby, Laura J. (2007) ‘“Us and Them” in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Xinjiang’ in Bellér-Hann, I. et al. (eds) Situating the Uyghurs between China and Central Asia. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Nordin, Astrid (2012) ‘Space for the Future: Exhibiting China in the World at the Shanghai Expo’, China Information, 26(2): 235249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nyíri, Pál (2005) ‘The Yellow Man’s Burden: Chinese Migrants on a Civilizing Mission’, The China Journal, 56: 83106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pakulski, Jan (2016) ‘State Violence and the Eliticide in Poland, 1935–49’, in Killingsworth, Matt et al. (eds) Violence and the State. Manchester: University of Manchester Press, pp.4062.Google Scholar
Pan, Jiao (ed) (2008a) Zhongguo Shehui Wenhua Renleixue / Minzuxue Bainian Wenxuan (Selected Works of 100 Years of Chinese Social and Cultural Anthropology / Minzu Studies). Beijing: Zhishi Chanquan Chubanshe (‘Intellectual Property Publishing House’).Google Scholar
Pan, Jiao (2008b) ‘Zuqun Jiqi Xiangguan Gainian zai Xifang de Liubian’ (‘Ethnicity and Related Concepts in the Later Developments of the West’) in Pan, Jiao (ed) Zhongguo Shehui Wenhua Renleixue / Minzuxue Bainian Wenxuan (Selected Works of 100 Years of Chinese Social and Cultural Anthropology / Minzu Studies). Beijing: Zhishi Chanquan Chubanshe (‘Intellectual Property Publishing House’), pp.8392.Google Scholar
Pan, Zhiping (1996a) ‘Wulumuqi Dutong’ (‘Urumqi Military Governor’) in Yu, Taishan et al. (eds) Xinjiang Gezu Lishi Wenhua Cidian (Dictionary of History and Culture of Every Xinjiang Minzu). Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju Chubanshe (‘Zhonghua Book Publishers’), p.51.Google Scholar
Pan, Zhiping (1996b) ‘Hancheng’ (‘Han City’) in Yu, Taishan et al. (eds) Xinjiang Gezu Lishi Wenhua Cidian (Dictionary of History and Culture of Every Xinjiang Minzu). Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju Chuban Chubanshe (‘Zhonghua Book Publishers’), p.86.Google Scholar
Pan, Zhiping (2008) ‘Dongtu’ de Lishi yu Xianzhuang (The History and Present Situation of ‘East Turkestan’). Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe (‘Publishing House of Minority Nationalities’).Google Scholar
PBS (2009) ‘Tensions Remain High in China Following Deadly Riots’ (Available at: www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/asia/july-dec09/china2_07-07.html), 7 July [Last accessed: 24/01/19].Google Scholar
PEN (2013) ‘Nurmuhemmet Yasin’ (Available at: https://pen.org/advocacy-case/nurmuhemmet-yasin/) [Last accessed: 26/07/19].Google Scholar
People’s Daily (2011) ‘Xinjiang AIDS Attack Rumour Denied’ (Available at: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90882/7648910.html), 18 November [Last accessed: 21/06/18].Google Scholar
Perdue, Peter (2005) China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Perdue, Peter (2015) ‘The Tenacious Tributary System’, Journal of Contemporary China 24(96): 10011014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prakash, Gyan (1992) ‘Postcolonial Criticism and Indian Historiography’, Social Text, 31/32: 819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prakash, Gyan (1995) ‘Orientalism Now’, History and Theory, 34(3): 199212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pye, Lucian (1990) ‘Erratic State, Frustrated Society’, Foreign Affairs, 69(4): 5674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radio Free Asia (RFA) (2009) ‘Witnesses Describe Two-Way Violence’ (Available at: www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/witnesses-07172009121028.html), 17 July [Last accessed: 15/06/18].Google Scholar
Radio Free Asia (RFA) (2010) ‘Police Raid Quran Group’ (Available at: www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/raid-06082010112725.html), 8 June [Last accessed: 24/05/18].Google Scholar
Radio Free Asia (RFA) (2011a) ‘Laid-Off Profs Reject Deal’ (Available at: www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/deal-09272011172719.html), 27/09/2011 [Last accessed: 02/04/18].Google Scholar
Radio Free Asia (RFA) (2011b) ‘Deported Uyghurs Face Terrorism Charges’ (Available at: www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/charges-06142011163646.html), 14 June [Last accessed: 07/08/18].Google Scholar
Radio Free Asia (RFA) (2012a) ‘Search for a Missing Son’ (Available at: www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/search-05112012123934.html), 11 May [Last accessed: 16/06/18].Google Scholar
Radio Free Asia (RFA) (2012b) ‘Party Member among Missing’ (Available at: www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/member-06142012174311.html), 14 June [Last accessed: 16/06/18].Google Scholar
Radio Free Asia (RFA) (2012c) ‘Student Battles Travel Ban’ (Available at: www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/travel-12202012143138.html), 20 December [Last accessed: 13/03/18].Google Scholar
Radio Free Asia (RFA) (2013) ‘Two Uyghurs Believed Killed in Hotan Violence’ (Available at: www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/raid-06082010112725.html), 28 June [Last accessed: 24/05/18].Google Scholar
Radio Free Asia (RFA) (2014) ‘China Offers Cash for Marriages to Promote Assimilation in Xinjiang’ (Available at: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/scheme-08292014122418.html), 29 August [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Radio Free Asia (RFA) (2016) ‘China Recalls Passports across Xinjiang amid Ongoing Security Crackdown’ (Available at: www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/xinjiang-passports-10202016144107.html), 20 October [Last accessed: 02/06/17].Google Scholar
Radio Free Asia (RFA) (2017) ‘Uyghur Village Cadre Dismissed for Holding Islamic Wedding Vows at Home’ (Available at: www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/weddings-04182017171857.html), 18 April [Last accessed: 24/05/17].Google Scholar
Rapport, Nigel (2002) ‘The Truth of Movement, the Truth as Movement: ‘Post-cultural Anthropology’ and Narrational Identity’ in Amit, Vered and Rapport, Nigel (eds) The Trouble with Community: Anthropological Reflections on Movement, Identity, and Collectivity. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
Rayila, M. (2011) ‘The Pain of a Nation: The Invisibility of Uyghurs in China Proper’, The Equal Rights Review, 6.Google Scholar
Roberts, Sean R. (2004) ‘A “Land of Borderlands”: Implications of Xinjiang’s Trans-border Interaction’, in Starr, S. F. (ed) Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Borderland. New York: M. E. Sharpe, pp.216240.Google Scholar
Roberts, Sean R. (2007) ‘The Dawn of the East: A Portrait of a Uyghur Community Between China and Kazakhstan’, in Bellér-Hann, I. et al. (eds) Situating the Uyghurs between China and Central Asia. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Roberts, Sean R. (2009) ‘Imagining Uyghurstan: Re-Evaluating the Birth of the Modern Uyghur Nation’, Central Asian Survey, 28(4): 361381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, Sean R. (2009b) ‘Ethnic Clashes in Xinjiang: Uighurs vs. Han Chinese’, The Washington Post (Available at: www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2009/07/07/DI2009070701491.html), 8 July [Last accessed: 11/06/18].Google Scholar
Roberts, Sean R. (2012) ‘Imaginary Terrorism? The Global War on Terror and the Narrative of the Uyghur Terrorist Threat’, Ponars Eurasia Working Paper.Google Scholar
Roberts, Sean R. (2018) ‘The Biopolitics of China’s “War on Terror” and the Exclusion of the Uyghurs’, Critical Asian Studies, 50(2): 232258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, Cedric (2000) Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Roe, Paul (1999) ‘The Intrastate Security Dilemma: Ethnic Conflict as a “Tragedy”?’, Journal of Peace Research, 36(2): 183202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruan, Xihu (2004) ‘Minzu Haishi “Zuqun” – Yi “Ethnic Group” Yici de Hanyi’ (‘Minzu or “Zuqun” – The Implications of Translating “Ethnic Group”’), Guangxi Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao (Journal of Guangxi University for Minority Nationalities), 5.Google Scholar
Rudelson, Justin (1997) Oasis Identities. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Said, Edward W. (1993) Culture and Imperialism. New York: Alfred Knopf.Google Scholar
Said, Edward W. (1997) Covering Islam. London: Vintage.Google Scholar
Said, Edward W. (2003) Orientalism. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Sankara, Krishna (2001) ‘Race, Amnesia, and the Education of International Relations’, Alternatives, 26: 401424.Google Scholar
Sautman, Barry (1997) ‘Myths of Descent, Racial Nationalism, and Ethnic Minorities in the People’s Republic of China’ in Dikotter, F. (ed) The Construction of Racial Identities in China and Japan. London: Hurst & Co, pp.7595.Google Scholar
Sautman, Barry (1998) ‘Preferential Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China: The Case of Xinjiang’, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 4(1): 86118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schein, Louisa (1997) ‘Gender and Internal Orientalism in China’, Modern China, 23(1): 6998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schein, Louisa (2000) Minority Rules. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schluessel, Eric (2007) ‘“Bilingual” Education and Discontent in Xinjiang, Central Asian Survey, 26(2): 251277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schluessel, Eric (2009) ‘History, Identity, and Mother-Tongue Education in Xinjiang’, Central Asian Survey, 29(4): 383402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scholars at Risk Network (2019) ‘Rahile Dawut, China’ (Available at: https://www.scholarsatrisk.org/actions/rahile-dawut-china/) [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Scott, James C. (1985) Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Seth, Sanjay (2011) ‘Postcolonial Theory and the Critique of International Relations’, Millennium, 40(1): 167183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shambaugh, David (1996) ‘Containment or Engagement of China? Calculating Beijing’s Responses’, International Security, 21(2): 180209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shambaugh, David (2013) China Goes Global: The Partial Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Shapiro, Michael J. (1988) The Politics of Representation: Writing Practices in Biography, Photography, and Policy Analysis. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
Shapiro, Michael J. (1989) ‘Textualizing Global Politics’ in Shapiro, Michael J. and Der Derian, James (eds) International/Intertextual Relations: Postmodern Readings of World Politics. New York: Lexington Books, pp.1122.Google Scholar
Shapiro, Michael J. (2004) Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheehan, Jackie (2009) ‘China’s Dangerous Dilemma in Xinjiang’ (Available at: www.nottingham.ac.uk/cpi/publications/commentaries-reports/2009/sheehan-xinjiang-07-09-2009.aspx), China Policy Institute, 9 July [Last accessed: 11/07/18].Google Scholar
Shen, Jianhua (2009) ‘Gaoxiao Wending Xingshi Fenxi Ji Duice Sikao’ (‘Analysis of Measures for an Effective and Stable Situation’), Xinjiang Shifan Daxue Xuebao (Xinjiang Normal University Journal), 30(4): 1214.Google Scholar
Bu, Shijian Bianji (1965) ‘Bixu Bawo Minzu Wenti de Jieji Shizhi’ (‘We Must Grasp the Class Essence of the Minzu Problem’) in Pan, Jiao (ed) (2008) Zhongguo Shehui Wenhua Renleixue / Minzuxue Bainian Wenxuan (Selected Works of 100 Years of Chinese Social and Cultural Anthropology / Minzu Studies). Beijing: Zhishi Chanquan Chubanshe (‘Intellectual Property Publishing House’), pp.213221.Google Scholar
Shue, Vivienne (1988) The Reach of the State: Sketches of the Chinese Body Politic. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Shue, Vivienne (2004) ‘Legitimacy Crisis in China?’ in Gries, Peter Hays and Rosen, Stanley (eds) State and Society in Twenty-first-Century China. New York: Routledge Curzon, pp.2449.Google Scholar
Shule County Government (2009) ‘Zhulao Fangxian Xiandi Shentou, Changzhi jiuan gujiben Shulexian Wucuo bing Jucuo Quebao Yishi Xingtai Lingyu Fanfenlie Douzheng Qude Shixiao’ (‘A Firm Line of Defence to Resist Infiltration, Ensure Long-Term Peace and Order, and Secure a Foundation. Five Measures of Shule County to Be Carried Out in Order to Ensure Success in the Ideological Fight against Anti-separatism’) (Available at: www.360doc.com/content/11/0512/16/6133644_116221536.shtml) [Last Accessed: 29/08/18].Google Scholar
Smith, Anthony D. (1991) The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Smith, Anthony D. (1995) ‘Gastronomy or Geology? The Role of Nationalism in the Reconstruction of Nations’, Nations and Nationalism, 1: 323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Joanne, N. (1999) ‘Changing Uyghur Identities in Xinjiang in the 1990s’. Unpublished PhD diss., University of Leeds.Google Scholar
Smith, Joanne N. (2000) ‘Four Generations of Uyghurs: The Shift towards Ethno-Political Ideologies among Xinjiang’s Youth’, Inner Asia, 2: 195224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Joanne N. (2002) ‘Making Culture Matter: Symbolic, Spatial, and Social Boundaries between Uyghurs and Han Chinese’, Asian Ethnicity, 3(2): 153174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Joanne N. (2006) ‘Maintaining Margins: The Politics of Ethnographic Fieldwork in Chinese Central Asia’, The China Journal, 56: 131147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith Finley, Joanne N. (2007) ‘Ethnic Anomaly or Modern Uyghur Survivor? A Case Study of the Minkaohan Hybrid Identity in Xinjiang’ in Bellér-Hann, I. et al. (eds) Situating the Uyghurs between China and Central Asia. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Smith Finley, Joanne N. (2011) ‘No Rights without Duties: Minzu Pingdeng in Xinjiang since the 1997 Ghulja Disturbances’, Inner Asia, 13(1): 7396.Google Scholar
Smith Finley, Joanne N. (2013) The Art of Symbolic Resistance: Uyghur Identities and Uyghur-Han Relations in Contemporary Xinjiang. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Kristie N. (2006) ‘Dance for Development’, East-West Center Working Papers, No. 25.Google Scholar
Smith, Neil (1996) The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
South China Morning Post (SCMP) (2014) ‘President Xi Jinping Vows Peace, as PLA Top Brass Talks Tough and with Vietnam Ablaze’ (Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1514570/president-xi-jinping-vows-peace-pla-top-brass-talks-tough-and-vietnam) 18 May [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
South China Morning Post (SCMP) (2019) ‘China Releases Video of “Dead” Uyghur Poet Abdurehim Heyit but Fails to Silence Critics’ (Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/china/politics/article/2185695/china-releases-video-dead-uygur-poet-abdurehim-heyit-fails) 11 February [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Spegele, Brian (2011) ‘No Foreign Tie Seen in China Attacks’ (Available at: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111904491704576574412601080364.html) [Last accessed: 30/05/18].Google Scholar
Spence, Jonathan D. (1990) The Search for Modern China. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (1988) ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’ in Nelson, C. and Grossberg, L. (eds) Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Basingstoke: Macmillan Education, pp.271313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stalin, Josef (1913/1945) Marxism and the National Question. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.Google Scholar
Starr, Frederick (2004) ‘Introduction’ in Starr, F. (ed) Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Borderland. New York: M. E. Sharpe, pp.324.Google Scholar
State Council (1950) ‘Xinjiangsheng Renmin Zhengfu Weiyuanhui Muqian Shishi Fangzhen’ (‘Measures for Immediate Implementation by the Party Committee of the Xinjiang Provincial Government’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.4548.Google Scholar
State Council (2002) ‘East Turkestan Forces Cannot Get Away with Impunity’ (Available at: http://english.people.com.cn/200201/21/eng20020121_89078.shtml), 21/1/2002 [Last accessed: 29/05/19].Google Scholar
State Council (2003) Xinjiang de Lishi yu Fazhan (The History and Development of Xinjiang) (Available at: http://english.gov.cn/official/2005-07/28/content_17948.htm). Beijing: Renmin Chubanshe (‘People’s Publishing Press’).Google Scholar
State Council (2006) Xibu Da Kaifa ‘Shiyiwu’ Guihua (Western Development Project: 11th 5 Year Plan) (www.chinawesthr.org/html/xiangmuyanjiuyurencaikaifa/zhengcefagui/20081017/40.html) [Last accessed: 10/04/19].Google Scholar
State Council (2009a) Zhongguo de Minzu Zhengce yu ge Minzu Gongtong Fanrong Fazhan (China’s Ethnic Minority Policy and the Common Prosperity of all Ethnic Groups). Beijing: Renmin Chubanshe (‘People’s Publishing Press’).Google Scholar
State Council (2009b) Xinjiang de Fazhan yu Jinbu (The Progress and Development of Xinjiang). Beijing: Renmin Chubanshe (‘People’s Publishing Press’).Google Scholar
State Council (2019) ‘The Fight Against Terrorism and Extremism and Human Rights Protection in Xinjiang’ (Available at: www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-03/18/c_137904166.htm), March [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
State Ethnic Affairs Commission, Minzu Problem Research Centre (SEAC) (2009) Xinjiang Wenhua Zhishi Duben (Xinjiang Cultural Knowledge Study Guide). Beijing: Renmin Chubanshe (‘People’s Publishing Press’).Google Scholar
Steele, Brent J. (2007) Ontological Security in International Relations: Self-Identity and the IR State. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Stevens, Daniel and Vaughan-Williams, Nick (2014) ‘Citizens and Security Threats: Issues, Perceptions, and Consequences beyond the National Frame’, British Journal of Political Science, 46: 149175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stevens, Daniel and Vaughan-Williams, Nick (2016) ‘Vernacular Theories of Everyday (In)Security: The Disruptive Potential of Non-Elite Knowledge’, Security Dialogue, 47(1): 119.Google Scholar
Stewart, Phil (2019) ‘China Putting Muslims in “Concentration Camps”, US says’ (Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-china-concentrationcamps/china-putting-minority-muslims-in-concentration-camps-us-says-idUSKCN1S925K), Reuters, 3 May [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Szadziewski, Henry (2011) ‘Commanding the Economy: The Recurring Patterns of Chinese Central Government Development Planning among Uyghurs in Xinjiang’, Inner Asia, 13(1): 97116.Google Scholar
Sylvester, Christine (2013) ‘Experiencing the End and Afterlives of International Relations/Theory’, European Journal of International Relations, 19(3): 609626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taynen, Jennifer (2006) ‘Interpreters, Arbiters, or Outsiders: The Role of the Minkaohan in Xinjiang Society’, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 26(1): 4562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Telegraph, The (2019) ‘One Minute Felt Like a Year: A Day in the Life of Inmates in the Xinjiang Internment Camps’ (Available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/03/26/dispatch-day-life-inmate-xinjiang-internment-camps/), 26 March [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Thornton, Patricia (2007) Disciplining the State: Virtue, Violence, and State-Making in Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tickner, J. Ann (2011a) ‘Retelling IR’s Foundational Stories: Some Feminist and Postcolonial Perspectives’, Global Change, Peace, and Security, 23(1): 513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tickner, J. Ann (2011b) ‘Dealing with Difference: Problems and Possibilities for Dialogue in International Relations’, Millennium, 39(3): 607618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tilly, Charles (1992) Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990–1992. Cambridge, MA: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
Tobin, David (2014) ‘Worrying about Ethnicity: A New Generation of China Dreams?’ in Kerr, David (ed) China’s Many Dreams: Comparative Perspectives on China’s Search for National Rejuvenation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Tohti, Ilham (2006) ‘Xinjiang Jingji Fazhan Yu Minzu Guanxi’ (‘Xinjiang’s Economic Development and Minzu Relations’) (Available at: www.uighurbiz.net/archives/3639), Uighurbiz, 1 January 2006 [Last accessed: 10/03/18].Google Scholar
Tohti, Ilham (2009) ‘Zhongguo de Minzu Zhengce Bu xuyao Fansi Ma?’ (‘China’s Minzu Policies Don’t Need to Be Re-Considered?’) (Available at: www.uighurbiz.net/archives/189), Uighurbiz, 12 November [Last accessed: 10/03/18].Google Scholar
Tohti, Ilham (2012a) ‘Duoshu Weiwuer Ren Renwei Zhengfu Shi Hanren Liyi de Biaoda’ (‘A Majority of Uyghurs Believe That the Government Represents Han Interests’) (Available at: www.uighurbiz.net/archives/6493), Uighurbiz, 3 December [Last accessed: 10/03/18].Google Scholar
Tohti, Ilham (2012b) ‘Yilihamu Pinglun Weiwuer Daxuesheng Atike Huzhao Shenling Zaoju Shijian’ (‘Ilham Considers the Incident of Uyghur University Student Atika’s Passport Application’) (Available at: www.uighurbiz.net/archives/6714), 23 December [Last accessed: 13/03/18].Google Scholar
Toops, Stanley (1999) ‘Tourism and Turpan: The Power of Place in Inner Asia/Outer China’, Central Asian Survey, 18(3): 303318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tu, Wei-ming (ed) (1995) The Living Tree: The Changing Meaning of Being Chinese Today. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Tu, Wei-ming (2005) ‘Cultural China: The Periphery as Center’, Daedalus, 134(4): 145167.Google Scholar
Tu, Wei-ming and Vattiimo, Gianni (2007) ‘Toward a Dialogical Civilization’, in Dunhua, Zhao (ed) Dialogue of Philosophies, Religions, and Civilizations in the Era of Globalization, Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Change Series, 3/25. Washington DC: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy, pp.1121.Google Scholar
Turner, Frederick Jackson (1986) ‘The Significance of the Frontier in American History’ in Ridge, Martin (ed) Frederick Jackson Turner: Wisconsin’s Historian of the Frontier. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, pp.119.Google Scholar
Tursun, Mihrigul (2018) ‘Congressional-Executive Commission on China: Testimony of Tursun Mihrigul’ (Available at: https://www.cecc.gov/events/hearings/the-communist-party%E2%80%99s-crackdown-on-religion-in-china), 28 November [Last accessed: 28/03/20].Google Scholar
Uighur (2008) ‘Wulumuqi Laixin: Zhongqiu shi Shei de Jieri’ (‘A Letter from Ürümchi: Mid-Autumn Festival Is Whose Festival?’) (Available at: www.uighurbiz.cn/socity/2008/1003/article_7240.htm), Uighurbiz, 3 October [Access no longer available].Google Scholar
US Department of State (2012) ‘Country Reports for Human Rights Practices for 2011: China’ (Available at: www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper) [Last accessed: 23/08/18].Google Scholar
Uyghur American Association (UAA) (2012) ‘Reports: Uyghur Asylum Seekers Deported from Cambodia Sentenced to Life, 17 Years in Prison’ (Available at: http://uyghuramerican.org/old/articles/6721/1/Reports-Uyghur-asylum-seekers-deported-from-Cambodia-sentenced-to-life-17-years-in-prison/index.html), 26 January [Last accessed: 25/06/18].Google Scholar
Uyghur Human Rights Project (UHRP) (2011) ‘A City Ruled by Fear and Silence, Urumchi Two Years On’ (Available at: www.uhrp.org/uaa-and-uhrp-reports-press-releases/new-uhrp-report-city-ruled-fear-and-silence-urumchi-two-years) [Last accessed: 16/06/18].Google Scholar
Uyghur Human Rights Project (UHRP) (2012a) ‘New Rules Issued by Hotan Company Discriminate against Uyghur Women’ (Available at: http://uhrp.org/press-release/new-rules-issued-hotan-company-discriminate-against-uyghur-women.html), June 6 [Last accessed: 23/10/18].Google Scholar
Uyghur Human Rights Project (UHRP) (2012b) ‘Notice Informs Locals of Mandatory Residence Searches in Hotan Community’ (Available at: http://uhrp.org/press-release/notice-informs-locals-mandatory-residence-searches-hotan-community-police-reserve), 18 June [Last accessed: 23/10/18].Google Scholar
Uyghur Human Rights Project (UHRP) (2012c) ‘China Launches Campaign to Search Houses of Uighur Muslims’ (Available at: http://uhrp.org/news/china-launches-campaign-search-houses-uighur-muslims), June 21 [Last accessed: 23/10/18].Google Scholar
Wæver, Ole (1995) ‘Securitization and Desecuritization’ in Lipschutz, Ronnie D. (ed) On Security, New York: Columbia University Press, pp.4687.Google Scholar
Walker, R. B. J. (1990) ‘Security, Sovereignty, and the Challenge of World Politics’, Alternatives, 15(1): 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walker, R. B. J. (1997) ‘The Subject of Security’ in Krause, K. and Williams, M. (eds) Critical Security Studies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp.6182Google Scholar
Walsh, Eileen Rose (2005) ‘From Nu Guo to Nu Er Guo: Negotiating Desire in the Land of the Mosuo’, Modern China, 31: 448486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waltz, Kenneth (1979) Theory of International Politics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
Wang, Lequan (2009a) ‘Jianjue Daji ge zhong Didui Shili de Shentou Fenlie Pohuai Huodong’ (‘Resolutely Strike Hard against the Infiltration of All Enemies’ Separatist, Harmful Activities’) (Available at: http://leaders.people.com.cn/GB/9087179.html) [Last accessed: 31/05/18].Google Scholar
Wang, Lequan (2009b) ‘Wang Lequan Guanyu Muqian Shehui Zhian Xingshi de Dianshi Jianghua’ (‘Wang Lequan’s Televised Speech Regarding the Present Public Order Situation’) in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Party Commission Ministry of Information (eds) Jiaqiang Minzu Tuanjie, Weihu Xinjiang Wending: Xuanchuan Jiaoyu Cailiao (Yi) (Strengthening Ethnic Unity, Protecting Xinjiang Stability: Information Education Materials No. 1). Wulumuqi: Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe (‘Xinjiang People’s Publishing Press’).Google Scholar
Wang, Lequan (2009c) ‘Wang Lequan zai Quanqu Wending Gongzuo Dianshi Dianhua Huiyi shang de Jianghua’ (‘Wang Lequan’s Televised Speech at the Regional Stability Work Telephone Conference’) in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Party Commission Ministry of Information (eds) Jiaqiang Minzu Tuanjie, Weihu Xinjiang Wending: Xuanchuan Jiaoyu Cailiao (Yi) (Strengthening Ethnic Unity, Protecting Xinjiang Stability: Information Education Materials No. 1). Wulumuqi: Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe (‘Xinjiang People’s Publishing Press’).Google Scholar
Wang, Yiwei (2014) ‘Great Power Security Concept in the Age of Globalisation’, Frontiers, 6: 613.Google Scholar
Watts, Jonathan (2009) ‘Old Suspicions Magnified Mistrust into Ethnic Riots in Urumqi’ (Available at: www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jul/10/china-riots-uighurs-han-urumqi), The Guardian, 10 July [Last accessed: 14/09/18].Google Scholar
Weber, Cynthia (1998) ‘Performative States’, Millennium, 27(1): 7795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weber, Cynthia and Lacy, Mark (2011) ‘Securing by Design’, Review of International Studies, 37(3): 10211044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiemer, Calla (2004) ‘The Economy of Xinjiang’ in Starr, S. F. (ed) Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Borderland. New York: M. E. Sharpe, pp.163189.Google Scholar
Winichakul, Thongchai (1994) Siam Mapped. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Wong, Edward (2009) ‘New Protests Reported in Restive Chinese Region’ (Available at: www.nytimes.com/2009/09/04/world/asia/04china.html?_r=1), New York Times, 3 September [Last accessed: 22/06/18].Google Scholar
World Bank (2012) China 2030: Building a Modern, Harmonious, and Creative High-Income Society (Available at: www.worldbank.org/en/news/2012/02/27/china-2030-executive-summary) [Last accessed: 24/08/18].Google Scholar
World Uyghur Congress (www.uyghurcongress.org/En/home.asp) [Last accessed: 09/03/19].Google Scholar
Wulumuqi Wanshibao (Ürümchi Evening Times) (2009) ‘Benbao jiang Paisong 50,000 tao Guozhu Jinian tie’ (‘This Paper Will Distribute 50,000 National Day Commemoration Stickers’), 25 September, p.B17.Google Scholar
Xi, Jinping (2012) ‘Jinyibu ba Xinjiang Jingji Shehui Fazhan Gaoshangqu, ba Changzhi jiuan Gongzuo gao Zhashi’ (‘Progressing Xinjiang’s economic and social development, doing solid long-term peace and stability work’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) Xinjiang Shengchan Jianshe Bingtuan Gongzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Bingtuan Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.314319.Google Scholar
Xi, Jinping (2013) ‘Xi Jinping Calls for the Building of New Type of International Relations’. 23 March. Available at: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/topics_665678/xjpcf1_665694/t1024781.shtml [accessed: 28/03/20].Google Scholar
Xi, Jinping (2015) ‘Speech on China–US Relations in Seattle’. 23 September (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-09/24/c_134653326.htm) [Last accessed: 28/03/20].Google Scholar
Xi, Jinping (2017) ‘Juesheng Quanmian Jiancheng Xiaokang Shehui, Duoqu Xinshidai Zhongguo Tese Shehui zhuyi Weida Shengli – Zai Zhongguo Gongchandang Di Shi Jiu ci Quanguo Daibiao Dahuishang de Baogao’ (‘Secure a Decisive Victory in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in All Respects and Strive for the Great Success of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era’) (Available at: www.xinhuanet.com//politics/19cpcnc/2017-10/27/c_1121867529.htm), 27 October [Last accessed: 27/07/19].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2009a) ‘Xinjiang Riot Hits Regional Anti-Terror Nerve’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-07/18/content_11727782.htm), 18 July [Last accessed: 11/06/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2009b) ‘Rumourmonger Held over South China Toy Factory Brawl’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-06/29/content_11616274.htm), 29 June [Last accessed: 14/09/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2009c) ‘Innocent Civilians Make Up 156 in Urumqi Riot Death Toll’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-08/05/content_11831350.htm), 5 August [Last accessed: 11/06/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2009d) ‘Many Countries Say Xinjiang Riot China’s Internal Affair’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-07/17/content_11726662.htm), 17 July [Last accessed: 11/06/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2009e) ‘Fresh Chaos Erupts in Urumqi’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009–07/07/content_11666941.htm), 7 July [Last accessed: 11/06/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2009f) ‘Chinese President Back Home after Italy Visit’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009–07/08/content_11674664.htm), 8 July [Last accessed: 19/06/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2009g) ‘Urumqi Quiets Down after Protest against Syringe Attacks’, (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-09/04/content_11992622.htm), 4 September [Last accessed: 21/06/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2009h) ‘Chinese Medical Experts Examine Urumqi Syringe Attacks Victims’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009–09/05/content_12001983.htm), 5 September [Last accessed: 21/06/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2009i) ‘Four Prosecuted for Endangering Public Security in Urumqi Syringe Attacks’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009–09/05/content_12001771.htm), 5 September [Last accessed: 21/06/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2011) ‘Factbox: Mid-Autumn Festival and Its Traditions’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/culture/2011-09/12/c_131134150.htm), 12 September [Last accessed: 13/07/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2012a) ‘No Mercy for Terrorists: Xinjiang Party Chief’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2012-03/07/c_131452573.htm), 7 March [Last accessed: 28/06/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2012b) ‘Xinhua Insight: China Never to Copy a Western System’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/special/18cpcnc/2012-11/12/c_131968691.htm), 12 November [Last accessed: 14/01/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2012c) ‘Xinhua Insight: Xinjiang to Get Tougher on Terrorists’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2012-04/18/c_131535858.htm), 18 April [Last accessed: 24/05/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2014) ‘Yilihamu Tuheti Fenlie Guojia Anting Shenjishi’ (‘Court Trial Documentary: Ilham Tohti Splitting the Nation’) (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2014-09/24/c_1112614703.htm), 24 September [Last accessed: 13/06/18].Google Scholar
Xinhua (2017) ‘Xi Calls for Building “Great Wall of Iron” for Xinjiang’s Stability’ (Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-03/10/c_136119256.htm), 10 March [Last accessed: 24/05/18].Google Scholar
Xinjiang Dushibao (‘Xinjiang Reader’) (2010) ‘Yi Jia Ren Zhu Xin Chun’ (‘“One Family” Celebrates a New Spring’) (Available at: http://epaper.xjts.cn/ftp/site1/xjdsb/html/2012-07/12/node_2.htm), 3 February [Last accessed: 12/07/18], p.C03.Google Scholar
Xinjiang Education Press (XEP) (2009) 50ge ‘Weishenme’: Weihu Guojia Tongyi, Fandui Minzu Fenlie, Jiaqiang Minzu Tuanjie Duben (The 50 Whys: Protecting National Unification, Opposing Ethnic Separatism, Strengthening Ethnic Unity Study Book). Wulumuqi: Xinjiang Jiaoyu Chubanshe (‘Xinjiang Education Press’).Google Scholar
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Government (XUAR Government) (1996) Xinjiang Weiwuer Zizhiqu Saochu Wenmang Tiaolie (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Government: Regulations Regarding the Eradication of Illiteracy) (Available at: http://gtt.xinjiang.gov.cn/10120/10190/2009/15754.htm) [Last accessed: 15/01/18].Google Scholar
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Government (XUAR) (2007) Xinjiang Weiwuer Zizhiqu Jiben Puji Jiunian Yiwu Pinggu Yanshou Banfa (Compulsory Nine-Year Education Mission: Evaluation and Acceptance Measures) (Available at: http://gtt.xinjiang.gov.cn/10120/10185/2009/15679.htm) [Last accessed: 13/05/19].Google Scholar
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Government (XUAR Government) (2010) Xinjiang Weiwuer Zizhiqu Shehui Zhian Zonghe Zhili Tiaolie (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regional Government Public Order Comprehensive Administration Regulations) (Available at: www.law-star.com/cacnew/201001/315051147.htm) [Last accessed: 08/06/18].Google Scholar
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Government (XUAR Government) (2018) 2018 Nian Xinjiang Weiwuer Zizhiqu Zhengfu Gongzuo Baogao (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Government’s 2018 Work Report), http://cn.chinagate.cn/reports/2018-03/02/content_50636629.htm, March 2 [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Government Department of Information (XUAR Dept of Information) (2009) Xinjiang Fazhan Wending: Liuti (Xinjiang’s Development and Stability: Six Questions). Wulumuqi: Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe (‘Xinjiang People’s Press’).Google Scholar
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) Party Commission Information Department (eds) (2009a) Jiaqiang Minzu Tuanjie, Weihu Xinjiang Wending: Xuanchuan Jiaoyu Cailiao Yi (Strengthening Ethnic Unity, Protecting Xinjiang Stability: Information Education Materials No. 1). Wulumuqi: Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe (‘Xinjiang People’s Publishing Press’).Google Scholar
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regional (XUAR) Party Commission Information Department (2009b), Yi Jiaren (One Family), DVD. Wulumuqi: Xinjiang Dianzi Yinxiang Chubanshe (‘Xinjiang Electronic Audiovisual Press’).Google Scholar
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Party Committee (XUAR Party Committee) (1982) ‘Xinjiang Weiwuer Zizhiqu Dangwei Guanyu zai Quanqu Jinxing Guanche Dang de Minzu Zhengce Zengqiang Minzu Tuanjie Jiaoyu de Tongzhi’ (‘XUAR Party Committee on the Implementation of Minzu Policy to Strengthen Ethnic Unity Education’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents), Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe, (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’) pp.256262).Google Scholar
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regional Government Public Security Department (XUAR Gonganting) (2009) ‘Xinjiang Weiwuer Zizhiqu Gonganting Gonggao’ (‘Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regional Government Public Security Department Announcement’), Chen Bao, 7 September, A1.Google Scholar
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) Statistics Bureau (2007) Xinjiang Tongji Nianjian (Xinjiang Statistical Yearbook). Beijing: China Statistics Bureau.Google Scholar
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) Statistics Bureau (2018) Xinjiang Weiwuer Zizhiqu 2017 Guomin Jingji he Shehui Tongji Gongbao (Statistical Communique of Xinjiang on 2017 National Economic and Social Development) (Available at: www.tjcn.org/tjgb/31xj/35514.html), April 25 [Last accessed: 11/04/19].Google Scholar
Xinjiang Victims Database (XVD) (2018) Available at: https://shahit.biz/eng/ [Last accessed: 23/07/19].Google Scholar
Xin, Kuan (2009) Yi Jia Ren (One Family) (Available at: http://hi.baidu.com/ouzhouzhannz/item/0cc93380621956ebe596e041), Baidu Kongjian, 19 August [Last accessed: 12/07/18].Google Scholar
Xu, Vikki Xiuzhong et al. (2020) Uyghurs for Sale: ‘Re-Education’, Forced Labour, and Surveillance beyond Xinjiang. Australian Strategic Policy Institute, International Cyber Policy Centre, Policy Brief 26.Google Scholar
Ya, Hanzhang (1962) ‘Guanyu Minzu Yici de Yiming Tongyi Wenti’ (‘On the Problem of Unifying Translations of Minzu’) in Pan, Jiao (ed) (2008) Zhongguo Shehui Wenhua Renleixue / Minzuxue Bainian Wenxuan (Selected Works of 100 Years of Chinese Social and Cultural Anthropology / Minzu Studies). Beijing: Zhishi Chanquan Chubanshe (‘Intellectual Property Publishing House’), pp.115126.Google Scholar
Ya, Hanzhang (1965) ‘Minzu Wenti de Shizhi shi Jieji Wenti’ (‘The Essence of the Minzu Problem Is a Class Problem’) in Pan, Jiao (ed) (2008) Zhongguo Shehui Wenhua Renleixue / Minzuxue Bainian Wenxuan (Selected Works of 100 Years of Chinese Social and Cultural Anthropology / Minzu Studies). Beijing: Zhishi Chanquan Chubanshe (‘Intellectual Property Publishing House’), pp.222229.Google Scholar
Yan, Xuetong (2013) Ancient Chinese Thought, Modern Chinese Power. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Yang, Faren (2005) Xibu Da Kaifa yu Minzu Wenti (‘The Western Development Project and the Ethnic Question’). Beijing: Renmin Chubanshe (‘People’s Press’).Google Scholar
Yasin, Nurmehemmet (2005) ‘Wild Pigeon’ (‘Yawa Kepter’) (Available at: www.rfa.org/english/uyghur/wild_pigeon-20050627.html; www.rfa.org/english/uyghur/wild_pigeon2-20050627.html) [Last accessed: 09/03/19).Google Scholar
Yee, Herbert (2003) ‘Ethnic Relations in Xinjiang: A Survey of Han-Uyghur Relations in Urumqi’, Journal of Contemporary China, 12(36): 431452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yeung, Yue Man and Fa, Jian (2004) Developing China’s West. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
Yi, Xiaocuo (2019) ‘A Road to Forgetting: Friendship and Memory in China’s Belt and Road Initiative’ (Available at: https://madeinchinajournal.com/2019/04/18/a-road-to-forgetting-china-belt-and-road-initiative/), Made in China Journal, 18 April [Last accessed: 08/07/19].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young Nam, Cho and Jong Ho, Jeong (2008) ‘China’s Soft Power: Discussion, Resources, and Prospects’, Asian Survey, 48(3): 453472.Google Scholar
YouTube (2009) ‘Race Riot in China’ (Available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=GUPHVf5yDM4), 29 June [Last accessed: 14/09/18].Google Scholar
YouTube (2011) ‘Arbitrary Detentions of Uyghurs in Urumchi after July 5, 2009’ (Available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRcOZOygmZc), 1 July [Last accessed: 16/06/18].Google Scholar
Yuval-Davis, Nira (2008) Gender and Nation. Sage: London.Google Scholar
Zehfuss, Maja (2002) Constructivism in International Relations: The Politics of Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zenn, Jacob (2011) ‘Violence Escalates in China’s Xinjiang Province’ (Available at: www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/violence-escalates-in-china%E2%80%99s-xinjiang-province) [Last accessed: 30/05/18].Google Scholar
Zenz, Adrian (2018) ‘Thoroughly Reforming Them towards a Healthy Heart Attitude,’ Central Asian Survey, 38(1): 102128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zenz, Adrian (2019) ‘Break Their Roots: Evidence for China’s Parent-Child Separation Campaign in Xinjiang’, Journal of Political Risk, 7(7) (Available at: www.jpolrisk.com/break-their-roots-evidence-for-chinas-parent-child-separation-campaign-in-xinjiang/).Google Scholar
Zhang, Haiyang (2006) ‘Jianlun Zhongguohua yu Hexie Shehui’ (‘On Sinicisation and a Harmonious Society’), Sixiang Zhanxian (Ideological Front), 2.Google Scholar
Zhang, Haiyang (2012) “‘Xinren tuanjie hezuo’ haishi ‘bilan bihei bizuo’? Jinian Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo 62nian he Xinhai Geming Gonghe bainian” (‘‘Trust, Unity, Solidarity’ is better than ‘Blue pen, Black pen’? Commemorating the PRC’s 62nd Anniversary of the PRC and the Xinhai Revolution’s Centenary’) (Available at: www.mzb.com.cn/html/node/293068-1.htm) [Last accessed: 09/01/18].Google Scholar
Zhang, Weiwei (2011) ‘An Apt Example of a Civilizational-State’ (Available at: www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2011-04/27/content_12401986.htm), The China Daily, 27 April [Last accessed: 24/01/18].Google Scholar
Zhang, Weiwei (2012) Zhongguo Chudong (China Shock). Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe (‘Shanghai People’s Press’).Google Scholar
Zhang, Yupo et al. (2014) Zongjiao Jiduan Haisiren (Religious Extremes Kill People). Wulumuqi: Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe (‘Xinjiang People’s Press’).Google Scholar
Zhao, Suisheng (2004) A Nation-State by Construction: Dynamics of Modern Chinese Nationalism. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Zhao, Suisheng (1998) ‘A State-Led Nationalism: The Patriotic Education Campaign in Post-Tiananmen China’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 31(3): 287302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zheng, Yongnian (2007) De Facto Federalism in China: Reforms and Dynamics of Central-Local Relations. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhongguo Minzu Zongjiao Wang (2012) ‘Di er Dai Minzu Zhengce Tantao’ (‘Exploring The Second Generation of Minzu Policies’) (Available at: www.mzb.com.cn/html/folder/292573-1.htm?utm_source=China+Policy&utm_campaign=0025fe4449-RSS_EMAIL_CAMPAIGN&utm_medium=email) [Last accessed: 24/08/18].Google Scholar
Zhonghua Renmingongheguo Minzu Diquyu Zizhifa (‘National Law on Regional Autonomy’) (2001) (Available at: http://hyconference.edu.cn/chinese/2001/Mar/22466.htm) [Last accessed: 09/11/18].Google Scholar
Zhou, Enlai (1949) ‘Women Zhuzhang Minzu Quyu Zizhi, ba ge Minzu Tuanjie Cheng Yige Da Jiating’ (‘We Stand for Minzu Regional Autonomy, Every minzu Forms One Big Family’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.35.Google Scholar
Zhou, Enlai (1950a) ‘Dui Xibei Diqu Minzu Gongzuo de Jidian Yijian’ (‘A Few Suggestions Regarding Minzu Work in the Northwest Region’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.5356.Google Scholar
Zhou, Enlai (1950b) ‘Renzhen Shixing Dang de Minzu Zhengce’ (‘Earnestly Implement the Party’s Minzu Policy’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), p.63.Google Scholar
Zhou, Enlai (1951) ‘Zhengwuyuan Guanyu Chuli Daiyou Qishi huo Wuru Shaoshu Minzu Xingzhi de Chengwei, Diming, Beijie, Bianlian de Zhishi’ (‘State Council Directives on Dealing with Names, Place Names, Stone Tablets, and Placards Which Discriminate Against or Humiliate Minorities’) in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (‘CCP Central Committee Document Research Office’) (ed) (2010) Xinjiang Gonzuo Wenxian Xuanbian (Xinjiang Work – Selected Documents). Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe (‘CCP Central Committee Party Literature Publishing House’), pp.6667.Google Scholar
Zhu, Weiqun (2012) ‘Dui Dangqian Minzu Lingyu Wenti de Jidian Sikao’ (‘A Few Thoughts on Current Problems in the Field of Ethnicity’) (Available at: www.studytimes.com.cn/2012/02/13/01/01_51.htm), Xuexi Shibao (‘Study Times’), 13 February [Last accessed: 11/07/18].Google Scholar