Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-z9m8x Total loading time: 2.747 Render date: 2022-09-28T04:31:23.988Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Part I - Theoretical Progress

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 January 2021

Ratree Wayland
Affiliation:
University of Florida
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Second Language Speech Learning
Theoretical and Empirical Progress
, pp. 1 - 192
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Allen, J. S., Joanne, L., Miller, J. L., & DeSteno, D. (2003). Individual talker differences in voice-onset-time. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 113, 544552.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Allen, J. S., & Miller, J. L. (2004). Listener sensitivity to individual differences in voice-onset-time: Individual talker differences in voice-onset-time. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 115(6), 31713183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anderson, J., Morgan, J., & White, K. (2003). A statistical basis for speech sound discrimination. Language and Speech, 46, 155182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Antetomaso, S., Miyazawa, K., Feldman, N., Elsner, M., Hitczenko, K., & Mazuka, R. (2017). Modeling phonetic category learning from natural acoustic data. In Lamendola, M & Scott, J (Eds.), Proceedings of the 41st annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 3245). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.Google Scholar
Aslin, R. (2014). Phonetic category learning and its influence on speech production. Ecological Psychology, 26(4), 415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baker, W., & Trofimovich, P. (2006). Perceptual paths to accurate production of L2 vowels: The role of individual differences. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 44, 231259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, W., Trofimovich, P., Flege, J. E., Mack, M., & Halter, R. (2008). Child-adult differences in second-language phonological learning: The role of cross-language similarity. Language and Speech, 51(4), 317342.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benders, T., Escudero, P., & Sjerps, M. J. (2012). The interrelation between acoustic context effects and available response categories in speech sound categorization. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 131(4), 30793097.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bent, T. (2014). Children’s perception of foreign-accented words. Journal of Child Language, 41(6), 13341355.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bent, T. (2018). Development of unfamiliar accent comprehension continues through adolescence. Journal of Child Language, 45, 14001411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bent, T., & Holt, R. F. (2018). Shhh … I need quiet! Children’s understanding of American, British, and Japanese-accented English speakers. Language and Speech, 61(4), 657673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Best, C. T. (1995). A direct realist view of cross-language speech perception. In Strange, W (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 107126). Baltimore, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. (2007). Nonnative and second-language speech perception. In Bohn, O. S. & Munro, M. J. (Eds.), Language experience in second language learning: In honor of James Emil Flege (pp. 1344). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Bloomfield, L. (1933). Language. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
Bohn, O.-S., & Flege, J E. (1993). Perceptual switching in Spanish/English bilinguals. Journal of Phonetics, 21, 267290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bohn, O.-S.(2002). On phonetic similarity. In Burmeister, P, Piske, T, & Rohde, A (Eds.), An integrated view of language development: Papers in honor of Henning Wode (pp. 191216). Trier, Germany: Wissenschaftlicher.Google Scholar
Bohn, O.-S. (2020). Cross-language phonetic relationships account for most, but not all L2 speech learning problems: The role of universal phonetic biases and generalized sensitivities. In Wrembel, M, Kiełkiewicz-Janowiak, A, & Gąsiorowski, P (Eds.), Approaches to the study of sound structure and speech: Interdisciplinary work in honour of Katarzyna Dziubalska-Kołaczyk (pp. 171184). Abingdon, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bohn, O.-S., & Bundgaard-Nielsen, R. L. (2009). Second language speech learning with diverse inputs. In: Piske, T & Young-Scholten, M (Eds.), Input matters in SLA (pp. 207218). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Bohn, O.-S., & Ellegaard, A. A. (2019). Perceptual assimilation and graded discrimination as predictors of identification accuracy for learners differing in L2 experience: The case of Danish learners’ perception of English initial fricatives. In Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 20702074).Google Scholar
Bohn, O. S., & Steinlen, A. K. (2003). Consonantal context affects cross-language perception of vowels. In Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 22892292).Google Scholar
Bosch, L., & Ramon-Casas, M. (2011). Variability in vowel production by bilingual speakers: Can input properties hinder the early stabilization of contrastive categories? Journal of Phonetics, 39, 514526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradlow, A., Akahane-Yamada, R., Pisoni, D., & Tohkura, Y. (1999). Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/and /l/: Long-term retention of learning in perception and production. Perception and Psychophysics, 61(5), 977985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradlow, A. R., & Bent, T. (2008). Perceptual adaptation to non-native speech. Cognition, 106(2), 707729.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brière, E. J. (1966). An investigation of phonological interferences. Language, 42(4), 768796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broersma, M. (2005). Perception of familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 117(6), 38903901.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buckler, H., Oczak-Arsic, S., Siddiqui, N., & Johnson, E. K. (2017). Input matters: Speed of word recognition in 2-year-olds exposed to multiple accents. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 164, 87100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bundgaard-Nielsen, R. L., Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. (2011). Vocabulary size is associated with second-language vowel perception performance in adult learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 433461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Callan, D. E., Jones, J. A., Callan, A. M., & Akahane-Yamada, R. (2004). Learning-induced neural plasticity associated with improved identification performance after training of a difficult second-language phonetic contrast. NeuroImage, 19, 113124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Callan, D. E., Tajima, K., Callan, A. M., Kubo, R., Masaki, S., & Akahane-Yamada, R. (2003). Phonetic perceptual identification by native- and second-language speakers differentially activates brain regions involved with acoustic phonetic processing and those involved with articulatory-auditory/orosensory internal models. NeuroImage, 22, 11821194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casillas, J. V., & Simonet, M. (2018). Perceptual categorization and bilingual language modes: Assessing the double phonemic boundary in early and late bilinguals. Journal of Phonetics, 71, 5164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cebrian, J. (2006). Experience and the use of non-native duration in L2 vowel categorization. Journal of Phonetics, 34, 372387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chandrasekaran, B., Sampath, P., & Wong, P. C. M. (2010). Individual variability in cue-weighting and lexical tone learning. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 128(1), 456465.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chládkova, K., & Podlipský, V. J. (2011). Native dialect matters: Perceptual assimilation of Dutch vowels by Czech listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130(4), EL186–EL192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chao, S-C., Ochoa, D., & Daliri, A. (2019). Production variability and categorical perception of vowels are strongly linked. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2019.00096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheung, B., Chudek, M., & Heine, S. (2011). Evidence for a sensitive period for acculturation: Younger immigrants report acculturating at a faster rate. Psychological Science, 22(2), 147152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chodroff, E., & Wilson, C. (2017). Structure in talker-specific phonetic realization: Covariation of stop consonant VOT in American English. Journal of Phonetics, 61, 3047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, C., & Luce, P. (2005). Perceptual adaptation to speaker characteristics: VOT boundaries in stop voicing categorization. In Proceedings of the ISCA Workshop on Plasticity in Speech Perception (pp. 1517).Google Scholar
Clayards, M. (2018). Differences in cue weights for speech perception are correlated for individuals within and across contrasts. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 144(3), EL172–EL177.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Darcy, I., & Krüger, F. (2012). Vowel perception and production in Turkish children acquiring L2 German. Journal of Phonetics, 40, 568581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeKeyser, R., & Larson-Hall, J. (2005). What does the critical period really mean? In Kroll, J. F. & de Groot, A. M. B. (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 88108). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
de Leeuw, E., & Celata, C. (2019). Plasticity of native phonetic and phonological domains in the context of bilingualism. Journal of Phonetics, 75, 8893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Díaz, B., Mitterer, H., Broersma, M., Escera, C., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2015). Variability in L2 phonemic learning originates from speech-specific capabilities: An MMN study on late bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(5), 955970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Díaz, B., Mitterer, H., Broersma, M., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2012). Individual differences in late bilinguals’ L2 phonological processes: From acoustic-phonetic to lexical access. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 680689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DiCanio, C., Nam, H., Amith, J. D., García, R. C., & Whalen, D. H. (2015). Vowel variability in elicited versus spontaneous speech: Evidence from Mixtec. Journal of Phonetics, 48, 4559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Docherty, G. J., Watt, D., Llamas, C., Hall, D., & Nycz, J. (2011). Variation in voice onset time along the Scottish border. In Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 591594).Google Scholar
Dmitrieva, O. (2019). Transferring perceptual cue-weighting from second language into first language: Cues to voicing in Russian speakers of English. Journal of Phonetics, 83, 128143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dmitrieva, O., Llanos, F., Shultz, A. A., & Francis, A. L. (2015). Phonological status, not voice onset time, determines the acoustic realization of onset f0 as a secondary voicing cue in Spanish and English. Journal of Phonetics, 49, 7795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dmitrieva, O., Jongman, A., & Sereno, J. A. (2010). Phonological neutralization by native and non-native speakers: The case of Russian final devoicing. Journal of Phonetics, 38(3), 483492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Earle, F. S., & Myers, E. B. (2015). Overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in the identification of nonnative speech sounds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 137(1), EL91–EL97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eilers, R. E., & Oller, D. K. (1976). The role of speech discrimination in developmental sound substitutions. Journal of Child Language, 3(3), 319329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elman, J. L., Diehl, R. L., & Buchwald, S. E. (1977). Perceptual switching in bilinguals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 62(4), 971974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Escudero, P., Benders, T., & Lipski, S. (2009). Native, non-native and L2 perceptual cue weighting for Dutch vowels: The case of Dutch, German, and Spanish listeners. Journal of Phonetics, 17(4), 452465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Escudero, P., & Boersma, P. (2004). Bridging the gap between L2 speech perception research and phonological theory. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(4), 551585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Escudero, P., Sisinni, B., & Grimaldi, M. (2014). The effect of vowel inventory and acoustic properties in Salento Italian learners of Southern British English vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 135(3), 15771584.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Escudero, P., & Williams, D. (2012). Native dialect influences second-language vowel perception: Peruvian versus Iberian Spanish learners of Dutch. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 131(5), EL406–EL412.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evans, B. G., & Iverson, P. (2004). Vowel normalization for accent: An investigation of best exemplar locations in norther and southern British English sentences. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 115(1), 352361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, S., & Davis, M. H. (2015). Hierarchical organization of auditory and motor representations in speech perception: Evidence from searchlight similarity analysis. Cerebral Cortex, 25(12), 47724788. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhv136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feldman, N. H., Griffiths, T. L., Goldwater, S., & Morgan, J. L. (2013). A role for the developing lexicon in phonetic category acquisition. Psychological Review, 120(4), 751778.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feldman, N. H., Griffiths, T. L., & Morgan, J. L. (2009). The influence of categories on perception: Explaining the perceptual magnet effect as optimal statistical inference. Psychological Review, 116(4), 752782.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flege, J. E. (1984). The detection of French accent by American listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 76(3), 692707.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flege, J. E. (1987). The production of “new” and “similar” phones in a foreign language: Evidence for the effect of equivalence classification. Journal of Phonetics, 15, 4765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1988). Factors affecting degree of perceived foreign accent in English sentences. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 84(1), 7079.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flege, J. E. (1991). Age of learning affects the authenticity of voice-onset time (VOT) in stop consonants produced in a second language. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 89, 395411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1992). The intelligibility of English vowels spoken by British and Dutch talkers. In Kent, R. D. (Ed.), Intelligibility in speech disorders: Theory, measurement, and management (pp. 157232). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1995). Second-language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems. In Strange, W (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issue in cross-language research (pp. 229273). Timonium, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1998). Factors affecting degree of foreign accent in English sentences. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 84, 7079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1999). Relation between L2 production and perception. In Ohala, J et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetics Sciences (pp. 1273–1276). Berkeley, CA: Department of Linguistics, University of California.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E. (2005a). Origins and development of the Speech Learning Model. Paper presented at the Acoustical Society of America Workshop in L2 speech learning, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.10181.19681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (2005b). Evidence for plasticity in studies examining second language speech acquisition. Paper presented at the ISCA Workshop on Plasticity in Speech Perception, University College London. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.34539.80167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (2007). Language contact in bilingualism: Phonetic system interactions. In Cole, J & Hualde, J (Eds.), Laboratory phonology (Vol. 9, pp. 353380). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E. (2019). A non-critical period for second-language speech learning. In Nyvad, A. M., Hejná, M et al. (Eds.), A sound approach to language matters: In honor of Ocke-Schwen Bohn (pp. 501541). Aarhus: Department of English, School of Communication & Culture, Aarhus University.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E., Bohn, O.-S., & Yang, S. (1997). Effects of experience on non-native speakers’ production and perception of English vowels. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 437470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., & Davidian, R. (1984). Transfer and developmental processes in adult foreign language speech production. Applied Psycholinguistics, 5, 323347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., & Eefting, W. (1986). Linguistic and developmental effects on the production and perception of stop consonants. Phonetica, 43, 155171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flege, J. E., & Eefting, W. (1987). Production and perception of English stop consonants by native Spanish speakers. Journal of Phonetics, 15(1), 6783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., & Eefting, W. (1988). Imitation of a VOT continuum by native speakers of Spanish and English: Evidence for phonetic category formation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 83, 729740.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flege, J. E., Frieda, E. M., Walley, A. C., & Randazza, L. A. (1998). Lexical factors and segmental accuracy in second language speech production. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20(2), 155187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., & Hammond, R. (1982). Mimicry of non-distinctive phonetic differences between language varieties. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 5(1), 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., & Liu, S. (2001). The effect of experience on adults’ acquisition of a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 527552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., & Munro, M. (1994). The word unit in second language speech production and perception. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 381411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., Munro, M. J., & Fox, R. A. (1994). Auditory and categorical effects on cross-language vowel perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 95(6), 36233641.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flege, J. E., Munro, M., & MacKay, I. R. A. (1995a). Factors affecting strength of perceived foreign accent in a second language. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97(5), 31263134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., Munro, M. J., & MacKay, I. R. A. (1995b). Effects of age of second-language learning on the production of English consonants. Speech Communication, 16, 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., Munro, M. J., & Skelton, L. (1992). Production of the word-final English /t/-/d/ contrast by native speakers of English, Mandarin, and Spanish. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 92(1), 128143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., & Port, R. (1981). Cross-language phonetic interference: Arabic to English. Language and Speech, 24(2), 125146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., Schirru, C., & MacKay, I. R. A. (2003). Interaction between the native and second language phonetic systems. Speech Communication, 40, 467491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., Takagi, N., & Mann, V. (1995). Japanese adults can learn to produce English /I/ and /l/ accurately. Language and Speech, 38, 2555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., & Wang, C. (1989). Native-language phonotactic constrains affect how well Chinese subjects perceive the word-final English /t/-/d/ contrast. Journal of Phonetics, 17, 299315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., & Wayland, R. (2019). The role of input in native Spanish late learners’ production and perception of English phonetic segments. Journal of Second Language Studies, 2(1), 145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Francis, A. L., & Nusbaum, H. C. (2002). Selective attention and the acquisition of new phonetic categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28(2), 349366.Google ScholarPubMed
Francis, A. L., Kaganovich, N., & Driscoll-Huber, C. (2008). Cue-specific effects of categorization training on the relative weighting of acoustic cues to consonant voicing in English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124(2), 12341251.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Franken, M. K., Acheson, D. J., McQueen, J. M., Eisner, F., & Hagoort, P. (2017). Individual variability as a window on production-perception interactions in speech motor control. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 142(4), 20072018.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frieda, E. M., Walley, A. C., Flege, J. E., & Sloane, M. E. (2000). Adults’ perception and production of the English vowel /i/. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 43, 129143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garcia Lecumberri, M. L., Cooke, M., & Cutler, A. (2011). Non-native speech perception in adverse conditions: A review. Speech Communication, 52, 864886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galbraith, G. C., Buranahirun, C. E., Kang, J., Ramos, O. V., & Lunde, S. E. (2000). Individual differences in autonomic activity affects brainstem auditory frequency-following response amplitude in humans. Neuroscience Letters, 283(3), 201204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garibaldi, C. L., & Bohn, O.-S. (2015). Phonetic similarity predicts ultimate attainment quite well: The case of Danish /i, y, u/ and /d, t/ for native speakers of English and of Spanish. Paper presented at the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow.Google Scholar
Giannakopoulou, A., Uther, M., & Ylinen, S. (2013). Enhanced plasticity in spoken language acquisition for child learners: Evidence from phonetic training studies in child and adult learners of English. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 29(2), 201218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golestani, N. (2016). Neuroimaging of phonetic perception in bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(4), 674682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golestani, N., Molko, N., Dehaene, S., LiBihan, D., & Pallier, C. (2007). Brain structure predicts the learning of foreign speech sounds. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 575582.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gottfried, T. L. (1984). Effects of consonant context on the perception of French vowels. Journal of Phonetics, 12, 91114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grosjean, F. (1998). Studying bilinguals: Methodological and conceptual issues. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 131149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grosjean, F. (2001). The bilingual’s language modes. In J. Nicol (Ed.), One mind, two languages: Bilingual language processing (pp. 1–22). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Guenther, F., Hampson, M., & Johnson, D. (1998). A theoretical investigation of reference frames for the planning of speech movements. Psychological Review, 105(4), 611633.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gupta, P., & Dell, G. S. (1999). The emergence of language from serial order and procedural memory. In MacWhinney, B (Ed.), The emergence of language (pp. 447481). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Han, Z., & Odlin, T. (Eds.). (2006). Studies of fossilization in second language acquisition. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Harrington, J., Palethorpe, S., & Watson, C. (2000). Monophthongal vowel changes in received pronunciation: An acoustic analysis of the Queen’s Christmas broadcasts. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 30(1–2), 6378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hazan, V., & Barrett, S. (2000). The development of phonemic categorization in children aged 6–12. Journal of Phonetics, 28, 377396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hazan, V., & Kim, Y. H. (2010). Can we predict who will benefit from computer-based phonetic training? Paper presented at the Interspeech 2010, Satellite Workshop on “Second Language Studies: Acquisition, Learning, Education and Technology,” Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
Hazan, V., & Rosen, S. (1991). Individual variability in the perception of cues to place variability in initial stops. Perception and Psychophysics, 49(2), 187200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heald, S. L. M., & Nusbaum, H. (2015). Variability in vowel production within and between days. PLoS ONE, 10(9), e0136791. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136791.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hillenbrand, J., Getty, L. A., Clark, M. J., & Wheeler, K. (1995). Acoustic characteristics of American English vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97, 30993111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hintzman, D. L. (1986). “Schema abstraction” in a multiple trace memory model. Psychological Review, 93(4), 411428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hockett, C. F. (1958). A course in modern linguistics. New York: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Højen, A., & Flege, J. E. (2006). Early learners’ discrimination of second-language vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 119(5), 30723084.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holt, L., & Lotto, A. J. (2006). Cue weighting in auditory categorization: Implications for first and second language acquisition. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 119(5), 30593071.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holt, L. L., & Lotto, A. J. (2010). Speech perception as categorization. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 72(5), 12181227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hopp, H., & Schmid, M. S. (2013). Perceived foreign accent in first language attrition and second language acquisition: The impact of age of acquisition and bilingualism. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 361394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoormann, J., Falkenstein, M., Hohnsbein, J., & Blanke, L. (1992). The human frequency-following response (FFR): Normal variability and relation to the click-evoked brainstem response. Hearing Research, 59(2), 179188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Houde, J. F., & Jordan, M. I. (1998). Sensorimotor adaptation in speech production. Science, 279(5354), 12131216.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Houde, J. F., & Jordan, M. I. (2002). Sensorimotor adaptation of speech I: Compensation and adaptation. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 295310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hu, W., Mi, L., Yang, Z., Tao, S., Li, M., Wang, W., Dong, Q., & Liu, C. (2016). Shifting perceptual weights in L2 vowel identification after training. Plos ONE, 11(9), e0162876. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0162876.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Idemaru, K., & Holt, L. L. (2011). Word recognition reflects dimension-based statistical learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37(6), 1939.Google ScholarPubMed
Idemaru, K., & Holt, L. (2013). The developmental trajectory of children’s perception and production of English /r/-/l/. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133(6), 42324246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Idemaru, K., Holt, L. L., & Seltman, H. (2012). Individual differences in cue weights are stable across time: The case of Japanese stop lengths. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132(6), 39503964.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Imai, S., Walley, A. C., & Flege, J. E. (2005). Lexical frequency and neighborhood density effects on the recognition of native and Spanish-accented words by native and Spanish listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 117(2), 896907.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iverson, P., & Evans, B. G. (2007). Learning English vowels with different first-language vowel systems: Perception of formant targets, formant movement, and duration. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122(5), 28422854.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iverson, P., & Evans, B. (2009). Learning English vowels with different first-language vowel systems II: Auditory training for native Spanish and German speakers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 126(2), 866877.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iverson, P., Hazan, V., & Bannister, K. (2005). Phonetic training with acoustic cue manipulations: A comparison of methods for teaching English/r/-/l/to Japanese adults. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118(5), 32673278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iverson, P., Wagner, A., & Rosen, S. (2016). Effects of language experience on pre-categorical perception: Distinguishing general from specialized processes in speech perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 139(4), 17991809.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jia, G., & Aaronson, D. (2003). A longitudinal study of Chinese children and adolescents learning English in the United States. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 131161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jia, G., Strange, W., Wu, Y., Collado, J., & Guan, Q. (2006). Perception and production of English vowels by Mandarin speakers: Age related differences vary with amount of exposure. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 119(2), 11181130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, K. (2000). Adaptive dispersion in vowel perception. Phonetica, 57, 181188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, K., Flemming, E., & Wright, R. (1993). The hyperspace effect: Phonetic targets are hyperarticulated. Language, 69, 505528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jongman, A., & Wade, T. (2007). Acoustic variability and perceptual learning: The case of non-native accented speech. In Bohn, O.-S. & Munro, M. J. (Eds.), Language experience in second language learning: In honor of James Emil Flege (pp. 135150). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Kachlika, M., Saito, K., & Tierney, A. (2019). Successful second language learning is tied to robust domain-general auditory processing and stable neural representation of sound. Brain and Language, 192, 1524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kartushina, N., & Frauenfelder, U. H. (2013). On the role of L1 speech production in L2 perception: Evidence from Spanish learners of French. Paper presented at Interspeech 2013, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
Kartushina, N., Hervais-Adelman, A., Frauenfelder, U. H., & Golestani, N. (2016). Mutual influences between native and non-native vowels in production: Evidence from short-term visual articulatory feedback training. Journal of Phonetics, 57, 2139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kharlamov, V. (2014). Incomplete neutralization of the voicing contrast in word-final obstruents in Russian: Phonological, lexical, and methodological in influences. Journal of Phonetics, 43(1), 4756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kent, R. D., & Forner, L. L. (1980). Speech segment durations in sentence recitations by children and adults. Journal of Phonetics, 8, 157168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kewley-Port, D. (2001). Vowel formant discrimination, II: Effects of stimulus uncertainty, consonantal context, and training. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110(4), 21412155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kidd, G. R., Watson, C. S., & Gygi, B. (2007). Individual differences in auditory abilities. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122(1), 418435.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, D., & Clayards, M. (2019). Individual differences in the link between perception and production and the mechanism of phonetic imitation. Language, Cognition, and Neuroscience, 34(6), 769786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, D., Clayards, M., & Goad, H. (2018). A longitudinal study of individual differences in the acquisition of new vowel contrasts. Journal of Phonetics, 67, 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, M. R. (2012). L1–L2 transfer in VOT and f0 production by Korean English learners: L1 sound change and L2 stop production. Phonetic and Speech Sciences, 4(3), 3141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kleinschmidt, D. F., & Jaeger, T. F. (2015). Robust speech perception: Recognize the familiar, generalize to the similar, and adapt to the novel. Psychological Review, 122(2), 148203.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kluender, K. R., Lotto, A. J., Holt, L. L., & Bloedel, S. L. (1998). Role of experience for language-specific functional mappings of vowel sounds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 104(6), 35683582.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kohler, K. (1981). Contrastive phonology and the acquisition of phonetic skills. Phonetica, 38, 213226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kong, E. J., & Edwards, J. (2015). Individual differences in L2 learner’s perceptual cue weighting patterns. Paper presented at the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow.Google Scholar
Kong, E. J., & Edwards, J. (2016). Individual differences in categorical perception of speech: Cue weighting and executive function. Journal of Phonetics, 59, 4057.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kong, E. J., & Yoon, I. H. (2013). L2 proficiency effect on the acoustic cue-weighting pattern by Korean L2 learners of English. Journal of the Korean Society of Speech Sciences, 5(4), 8190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kraljic, T., & Samuel, A. G. (2006). Generalization in perceptual learning for speech. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 13(2), 262268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuhl, P. (1983). Perception of auditory equivalence classes for speech in early infancy. Infant Behavioral Development, 6, 263285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuhl, P. (1991). Human adults and human infants show a “perceptual magnet effect” for the prototypes of speech categories, monkeys do not. Perception and Psychophysics, 50, 93107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuhl, P. (2000). A new view of language acquisition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(2), 1185011857.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuhl, P., Conboy, B. T., Coffey-Corina, S., Padden, D., Rivera-Gaxiola, M., & Nelson, T., (2008). Phonetic learning as a pathway to language: new data native language magnet theory expanded (NLM-e). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363, 9791000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuhl, P., Conboy, B. T., Padden, D., Nelson, T., & Pruitt, J. (2005). Early speech perception and later language development: Implications for the “critical period.Language Learning and Development, 1, 237264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Labov, W. (1994). Principles of linguistic change: Vol. 1. Internal factors. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics across cultures: Applied linguistics for language teachers. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Lee, H., & Jongman, A. (2018). Effects of sound change on the weighting of acoustic cues to the three-way laryngeal stop contrast in Korean: Diachronic and dialectal comparisons. Language and Speech, 63(3), 509530.Google Scholar
Lee, S., Potamianos, A., & Narayanan, S. (1999). Acoustics of children’s speech: Developmental changes of temporal and spectral parameters. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 105(3), 14551468.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lehet, M., & Holt, L. (2017). Dimension-based statistical learning affects both speech perception and production. Cognitive Science, 41, 885912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lengeris, A. (2009). Individual differences in second-language vowel learning. Unpublished PhD thesis, University College London.Google Scholar
Lengeris, A., & Hazan, V. (2010). The effect of native vowel processing ability and frequency discrimination acuity on the phonetic training of English vowels for native speakers of Greek. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 128(6), 37573768.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lenneberg, E. H. (1967). Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lev-Ari, S., & Peperkamp, S. (2013). Low inhibitory skill leads to non-native perception and production in bilinguals’ native language. Journal of Phonetics, 41, 320331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levy, E. S. (2009a). Language experience and consonantal context effects on perceptual assimilation of French vowels by American-English learners of French. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125(2), 11381152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levy, E. S. (2009b). On the assimilation-discrimination relationship in American English adults’ French vowel learning. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 126(5), 26702682.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levy, E. S., & Law, F. F., II. (2009). Production of French vowels by American-English learners of French: Language experience, consonantal context, and the perception-production relationship. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 128(3), 12901305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levy, E. S., & Strange, W. (2008). Perception of French vowels by American English adults with and without French language experience. Journal of Phonetics, 36, 141157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindblom, B. (1990). Explaining phonetic variation: A sketch of the H&H theory. In Hardcastle, W. J. & Marchal, A (Eds.), Speech production and speech modeling (pp. 403439). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacKay, I. R. A., Flege, J. E., & Imai, S. (2006). Evaluating the effects of chronological age and sentence duration on degree of perceived foreign accent. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 157183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacKay, I. R. A., Flege, J. E., Piske, T., & Schirru, C. (2001). Category restructuring during second-language acquisition. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110, 516528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacKay, I. R. A., Meador, D., & Flege, J. E. (2001). The identification of English consonants by native speakers of Italian. Phonetica, 58, 103125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Magezi, D. (2015). Linear mixed-effects models for within-participant psychology experiments: an introductory tutorial and free graphical user interface (LMMgui). Frontiers in Psychology, 6(2). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Markham, D. (1999). Phonetic imitation, accent, and the learner. Lund, Sweden: Lund University Press.Google Scholar
Markham, D., & Hazan, V. (2004). Acoustic-phonetic correlates of talker intelligibility for adults and children. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 116(5), 31083118.Google Scholar
Maye, J., Werker, J., & Gerken, L. (2002). Infant sensitivity to distributional information can affect phonetic discrimination. Cognition, 82, B101B111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mayr, R., & Escudero, P. (2010). Explaining individual variation in L2 perception: Rounded vowels in English learners of German. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13(3), 279297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAllister, R., Flege, J. E., & Piske, T. (2003). The influence of the L1 on Swedish quantity by native speakers of Spanish, English and Estonian. Journal of Phonetics, 30, 229258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McQueen, J. M., Tyler, M. D., & Cutler, A. (2012). Lexical retuning of children’s speech perception: Evidence for knowledge about words’ component sounds. Language Learning and Development, 8, 317339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, J. L. (1994). On the internal structure of phonetic categories. Cognition, 50, 271285.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mielke, J., Baker, A., & Archangeli, D. (2016). Individual-level contact limits phonological complexity: Evidence from bunched and retroflex /ɹ/. Language, 92(1), 101140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitterer, H., Reinisch, E., & McQueen, J. M. (2018). Allophones, not phonemes in spoken-word recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 98, 7792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miyawaki, K., Jenkins, J. J., Strange, W., Liberman, A. M., Verbrugge, R., & Fujimura, O. (1975). An effect of linguistic experience: The discrimination of [r] and [l] by native speakers of Japanese and English. Perception and Psychophysics, 18(5), 331340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mochizuki, M. (1981). The identification of/r/and/l/in natural and synthesized speech. Journal of Phonetics, 9(3), 283303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mora, J. C., & Mora-Plaza, I. (2019). Contributions of cognitive attention control to L2 speech learning. In Nyvad, A. M., Hejná, M et al. (Eds.), A sound approach to language matters – In honor of Ocke-Schwen Bohn (pp. 477499). Aarhus: Dept. of English, School of Communication & Culture, Aarhus University.Google Scholar
Mora, J. C., Keidel, J. L., & Flege, J. E. (2010). Why are the Catalan contrasts between /e/-/ε/ and /o/-/ɔ/ so difficult for even early Spanish-Catalan bilinguals to perceive? In Dziubalska-Kolaczyk, K, Wrembel, M, & Jul, M (Eds.), New sounds 2010: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on the Acquisition of Second Language Speech (pp. 325330).Google Scholar
Mora, J. C., Keidel, J. L., & Flege, J. E. (2015). Effects of Spanish use on the production of Catalan vowels by early Spanish-Catalan bilinguals. In Romero, J & Riera, M (Eds.), The phonetics–phonology interface: Representations and methodologies (pp. 3353). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrongiello, B., Robson, R. C., Best, C. T., & Clifton, R. K. (1984). Trading relations in the perception of speech by 5-year-old children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37, 231250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moyer, A. (2009). Input as a critical means to an end: Quantity and quality of experience in L2 phonological attainment. In Piske, T & Young-Scholten, M (Eds.), Input matters in SLA (pp. 159174). Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Nam, Y., & Polka, L. (2016). The phonetic landscape in infant consonant perception is an uneven terrain. Cognition, 155, 5766.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nasir, S. M., & Ostry, D. J. (2009). Auditory plasticity and speech motor learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(48), 2047020475.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nathan, L., Wells, B., & Donlan, C. (1998). Children’s comprehension of unfamiliar regional accents: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Child Language, 25, 343365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neuman, A., & Hochberg, L. (1983). Children’s perception of speech in reverberation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 73, 21452149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newman, R. S. (2003). Using links between speech perception and speech production to evaluate different acoustic metrics: A preliminary report. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 113(5), 28502860.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newman, R. S., Clouse, S. A., & Burnham, J. L. (2001). The perceptual consequences of within-talker variability in fricative production. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109, 11811196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newton, C., & Ridgway, S. (2015). Novel accent perception in typically-developing school-aged children. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 32(1) 111123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielsen, K. (2011). Specificity and abstractness of VOT imitation. Journal of Phonetics, 39, 132142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nittrouer, S. (2004). The role of temporal and dynamic signal components in the perception of syllable-final stop voicing by children and adults. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 115(4), 17771790.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nosofsky, R. M. (1986). Attention, similarity, and the identification-categorization relationship. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115, 3957.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nygaard, L. C., Sommers, M. S., & Pisoni, D. B. (1994). Speech perception as a talker-contingent process. Psychological Science, 5, 4246.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peperkamp, S., & Bouchon, C. (2011). The relation between perception and production in L2 phonological processing. Paper presented at Interspeech 2011, 12th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, Florence, Italy.Google Scholar
Perkell, J. S., Guenther, F. H., Lane, H., Matthies, M. L., Stockmann, E., Tiede, M., & Zandipour, M. (2004). The distinctness of speakers’ productions of vowel contrasts is related to their discrimination of the contrasts. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 116(4), 23382344.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perkell, J. S., Matthies, M. L., Tiede, M., Lane, H., Zandipour, M., Marrone, N., … Guenther, F. H. (2004). The distinctness of speakers’ /s/-/ʃ/ contrast is related to their auditory discrimination and use of an articulatory saturation effect. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47(6), 12591269.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pisoni, D. B., Aslin, R. N., Perey, A. J., & Hennessy, B. L. (1982). Some effects of laboratory training on identification and discrimination of voicing contrasts in stop consonants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 297314.Google ScholarPubMed
Pisoni, D., Lively, S., & Logan, J. (1994). Perceptual learning of nonnative speech contrasts: Implications for theories of speech perception. In Goodman, J & Nusbaum, H (Eds.), The development of speech perception: The transition from speech sounds to spoken words (pp. 121166). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Polka, L., & Bohn, O. S. (2003). Asymmetries in vowel perception. Speech Communication, 41(1), 221231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polka, L., & Bohn, O. S. (2011). Natural Referent Vowel (NRV) framework: An emerging view of early phonetic development. Journal of Phonetics, 39(4), 467478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reiterer, S. M., Hu, X., Sumathi, T. A., & Singh, N. C. (2013). Are you a good mimic? Neuro-acoustic signatures for speech imitation ability. Frontiers in Psychology, 1(3). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Remez, R. E., Fellowes, J. M, & Rubin, P. E. (1997). Talker identification based on phonetic information. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Human Perception and Performance, 23, 651666.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rochet, B. L. (1995). Perception and production of second-language speech sounds by adults. In Strange, W (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issue in cross-language research (pp. 229273). Timonium, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
Rogers, C. L., Lister, J. L., Febo, D. M., Besing, J. M., & Abrams, H. B. (2006). Effects of bilingualism, noise, and reverberation on speech perception by listeners with normal hearing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27(3), 465485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saito, K., Sun, H., & Tierney, A. (2019). Explicit and implicit aptitude effects on second language speech learning: Scrutinizing segmental and suprasegmental sensitivity and performance via behavioral and neurophysiological measures. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 22(5), 11231140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Samuel, A. (1981). Phonemic restoration: Insights from a new methodology. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110(4), 474494.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sancier, M., & Fowler, C. A. (1997). Gestural drift in a bilingual speaker of Brazilian Portuguese and English. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 421438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schertz, J., Cho, T., Lotto, A., & Warner, N. (2015). Individual differences in phonetic cue use in production and perception of a non-native sound contrast. Journal of Phonetics, 52, 183204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schertz, J., Cho, T., Lotto, A., & Warner, N. (2016). Individual differences in perceptual adaptability of foreign sound categories. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 78, 355367.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmidtke, J. (2016). The bilingual disadvantage in speech understanding in noise is likely a frequency effect related to reduced language exposure. Frontiers in Psychology, 13(7). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00678.Google Scholar
Schulze, K., Vargha-Khade, F., & Mishkin, M. (2012). Test of a motor theory of long-term auditory memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(18), 71217125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sheldon, A., & Strange, W. (1982). The acquisition of/r/and/l/by Japanese learners of English: Evidence that speech production can precede speech perception. Applied Psycholinguistics, 3(3), 243261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shultz, A. A., Francis, A. L., & Llanos, F. (2012). Differential cue weighting in perception and production of consonant voicing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132(2), EL95–EL101.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slevc, L. R., & Miyake, A. (2006). Individual differences in second-language proficiency. Psychological Science, 17(8), 675681.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smit, A., Hand, L., Freilinger, J., Bernthal, J., & Bird, A. (1990). The Iowa articulation norms project and its Nebraska replication. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 55, 779798.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smits, R., Sereno, J., & Jongman, A. (2006). Categorization of sounds. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32(3), 733754.Google ScholarPubMed
Smith, B. L. (1979). A phonetic analysis of consonantal devoicing in children’s speech. Journal of Child Language, 6(1), 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snow, C., & Hoefnagel-Höhle, M. (1979). Individual differences in second-language ability: A factor-analytic study. Language and Speech, 22, 151162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Song, J., & Iverson, P. (2018). Listening effort during speech perception enhances auditory and lexical process for non-native listeners and accents. Cognition, 179, 163170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Song, J. Y., Shattuck-Hufnagel, S., & Demuth, K. (2015). Development of phonetic variants (allophones) in 2-year-olds learning American English: a study of alveolar stops /t, d/ codas. Journal of Phonetics, 55, 152169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strange, W. (1992). Learning non-native phoneme contrasts: Interactions among subject, stimulus, and task variables. In Tohkura, E, Vatikiotis-Bateson, E, & Sagisaka, Y (Eds.), Speech perception, production, and linguistic structure (pp. 197219). Tokyo: Ohmsha.Google Scholar
Strange, W. (2007). Cross-language phonetic similarity of vowels: Language experience in second language speech learning. In Bohn, O.-S. & Munro, M. J. (Eds.), Language experience in second language speech learning: In honor of James Emil Flege (pp. 3555). Berlin: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strange, W. (2011). Automatic selective perception (ASP) of first and second language speech: A working model. Journal of Phonetics, 39(4), 456466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strange, W., Bohn, O.-S., Nishi, K., & Trent, S. A. (2005). Contextual variation in the acoustic and perceptual similarity of North German and American English vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118, 17511762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stevens, K. N., Liberman, A. M., Studdert-Kennedy, M., & Öhman, S. (1969). Cross-language study of vowel perception. Language and Speech, 12, 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Takagi, N. (1993). Perception of American English /r/ and /l/ by adult Japanese learners of English: A unified view. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of California at Irvine.Google Scholar
Theodore, R. M., Miller, J. L., & DeSteno, D. (2009). Individual talker differences in voice-onset time: Contextual influences. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125(6), 39743982.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Theodore, R. M., Monto, N. R., & Graham, S. (2020). Individual differences in distributional learning for speech: What’s ideal for ideal observers? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 63, 113CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thorin, J., Sadakata, M., Desain, P., & McQueen, J. M. (2018). Perception and production in interaction during non-native speech category learning. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 144(1), 92103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tourville, H. A., & Guenther, F. H. (2011). The DIVA model: A neural theory of speech acquisition and production. Language and Cognitive Processing, 26(7), 952981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trubetzkoy, N. (1939). Principles of phonology. C. A. Baltaxe (Trans.). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Tulving, E. (1981). Similarity relations in recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20(5), 479496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tyler, M. D. (2019). PAM-L2 and phonological category acquisition in the foreign language classroom. In Nyvad, A. M., Hejná, M et al. (Eds.), A sound approach to language matters – In honor of Ocke-Schwen Bohn (pp. 607630). Aarhus: Department of English, School of Communication & Culture, Aarhus University.Google Scholar
Walley, A. C., & Flege, J. E. (1999). Effect of lexical status on children’s and adults’ perception of native and non-native vowels. Journal of Phonetics, 27(3), 307332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weinreich, U. (1953). Languages in contact: Findings and problems. Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
Werker, J. F., & Byers-Heinlein, K. (2008). Bilingualism in infancy: First steps in perception and comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(4),144150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Werker, J. F., & Logan, J. (1985). Cross-language evidence for three factors in speech perception. Perception and Psychophysics, 37, 3544.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Westbury, J. R., Hashi, M., & Lindstrom, M. J. (1998). Differences among speakers in lingual articulation for American English /r/. Speech Communication, 26(3) 203226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whalen, D., Abramson, A. S., Lisker, L., & Mody, M. (1993). F0 gives voicing information even without unambiguous voice onset times. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 93(4), 21522159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, L. (1977). The perception of stop consonant voicing by Spanish-English bilinguals. Perception and Psychophysics, 21(4), 289297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yeni-Komshian, G. H., Flege, J. E., & Liu, S. (2000). Pronunciation proficiency in the first and second languages of Korean-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3(2), 131149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ylinen, S., Uther, M., Latvala, A., Vepsäläinen, S. Iverson, P., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Näätänen, R. (2010). Training the brain to weight speech cues differently: A study of Finish second-language users of English. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(6), 13191332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Y., Kuhl, P. K., Imada, T., Kotani, M., & Tohkura, Y. I. (2005). Effects of language experience: Neural commitment to language-specific auditory patterns. NeuroImage, 26(3), 703720.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhang, Y., & Wang, Y. (2007). Neural plasticity in speech acquisition and learning. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10(2), 147160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

Akamatsu, T. (1971). The problem of the so-called “Japanese R.Linguistische Berichte, 12, 3139.Google Scholar
Aoyama, K., & Flege, J. E. (2011). Effects of L2 experienced on perception of English /r/ and /l/ by native Japanese speakers. Journal of the Phonetic Society of Japan, 15(3), 513.Google Scholar
Aoyama, K., Flege, J. E., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Yamada, T. (2019). An acoustic analysis of American English liquids by adults and children: Native English speakers and naïve Japanese speakers of English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 146(4), 26712681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aoyama, K., Flege, J. E., Guion, S. G., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Yamada, T. (2004). Effects of L2 experience on perception of English /r/ and /l/ by native Japanese speakers. Journal of Phonetics, 32, 233250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arai, T. (2013). On why Japanese /r/ sounds are difficult for children to acquire. In Bimbot, F et al. (Eds.), 14th annual conference of the International Speech Communication Association (pp. 24452449).Google Scholar
Arai, T., & Mugitani, R. (2016). The acoustic environment and spoken language development by children. Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan, 72(3), 129136.Google Scholar
Best, C. T., & Strange, W. (1992). Effects of phonological and phonetic factors on cross-language perception of approximants. Journal of Phonetics, 20(3), 305330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradlow, A. (2008). Training non-native language sound patterns: Lessons from training Japanese adults on the English /r/-/l/ contrast. In Hansen Edwards, J & Zampini, M (Eds.), Phonology and second language acquisition (pp. 287308). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradlow, A., Akahane-Yamada, R., Pisoni, D., & Tohkura, Y. (1997). Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/and /l/: IV. Some effects of perceptual learning on speech production. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101(4), 22992310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradlow, A., Akahane-Yamada, R., Pisoni, D., & Tohkura, Y. (1999). Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/: Long-term retention of learning in perception and production. Perception & Psychophysics, 61(5), 977985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Callan, D. E., Jones, J. A., Callan, A. M., & Akahane-Yamada, R. (2004). Phonetic perceptual identification by native- and second-language speakers differentially activates brain regions involved with acoustic phonetic processing and those involved with articulatory-auditory/orosensory internal models. NeuroImage, 22, 11821194.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Callan, D. E., Tajima, K., Callan, A. M., Kubo, R., Masaki, S., & Akahane-Yamada, R. (2003). Learning-induced neural plasticity associated with improved identification performance after training of a difficult second-language phonetic contrast. NeuroImage, 19, 113124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cochrane, R. M. (1980). The acquisition of /r/ and /l/ by Japanese children and adults learning English as a second language. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1, 331360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cutler, A., Weber, A., & Otake, T. (2006). Asymmetric mapping from phonetic to lexical representations in second-language listening. Journal of Phonetics, 34, 269284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delattre, P., & Freeman, D. C. (1968). A dialect study of American English r’s by x-ray motion picture. Linguistics, 44, 2869.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E., Takagi, N., & Mann, V. (1995). Japanese adults can learn to produce English /r/ and /l/ accurately. Language and Speech, 38, 2556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., Takagi, N., & Mann, V. (1996). Lexical familiarity and English-language experience affect Japanese adults’ perception of /r/ and /l/. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 99, 11611173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ganong, W. F. (1980). Phonetic categorization in auditory word perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 6(1), 110125.Google ScholarPubMed
Gordon, P., Keyes, L., & Yung, Y.-F. (2001). Ability in perceiving nonnative contrasts: Performance on natural and synthetic speech. Perception & Psychophysics, 63(4), 746758.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goto, H. (1971). Auditory perception by normal Japanese adults of the sounds “L” and “R.Neuropsychologia, 9, 317323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guion, S., Flege, J. E., Yamada, R. A., & Pruitt, J. (2000). An investigation of current models of second language speech perception: The case of Japanese adults’ perception of English consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107(5), 27112744.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hattori, K. (2009). Perception and production of English /r/-/l/ by adult Japanese speakers. PhD dissertation, University College London.Google Scholar
Hattori, K., & Iverson, P. (2009). English /r/-/l/ category assimilation by Japanese adults: Individual differences and the link to identification accuracy. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125(1), 469479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Idemaru, K., & Holt, L. (2011). Word recognition reflects dimension-based statistical learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37(6), 19391956.Google ScholarPubMed
Idemaru, K., & Holt, L. (2013). The developmental trajectory of children’s perception and production of English /r7-/l/. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133(6), 42324246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Idemaru, K., & Holt, L. (2014). Specificity of dimension-based statistical learning in word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(3), 10091021.Google ScholarPubMed
Idemaru, K., Holt, L. L., & Seltman, H. (2012). Individual differences in cue weights are stable across time: The case of Japanese stop lengths. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132(6), 39503964.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ingvalson, E., Holt, L., & McClelland, J. (2012). Can native Japanese listeners learn to differentiate /r–l/ on the basis of F3 onset frequency? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(2), 255274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ingvalson, E., McClelland, J., & Holt, L. (2011). Predicting native English-like performance by native Japanese speakers. Journal of Phonetics, 39, 571584.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iverson, P., Hazan, V., & Bannister, K. (2005). Phonetic training with acoustic cue manipulations: A comparison of methods for teaching English /r/-/l/ to Japanese adults. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118(5), 32673278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iverson, P., Kuhl, P., Akahane-Yamada, R., Diesch, E., Tohkura, Y., Kettermann, A., & Siebert, C. (2003). A perceptual interference account of acquisition difficulties for non-native phonemes. Cognition, 87, B47B57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iverson, P., Wagner, A., & Rosen, S. (2016). Effects of language experience on pre-categorical perception: Distinguishing general from specialized processes in speech perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 139(4), 17991809.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kachlika, M., Saito, K., & Tierney, A. (2019). Successful second language learning is tied to robust domain-general auditory processing and stable neural representations of sound. Brain and Language, 192, 1524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuhl, P., Stevens, E., Hayashi, A., Deguchi, T., Kiritani, S., & Iverson, P. (2006). Infants show a facilitation effect for native language phonetic perception between 6 and 12 months. Developmental Science, 9(2), F13F21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ladefoged, P., & Maddieson, I. (1996). The sounds of the world’s languages. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.Google Scholar
Lambacher, S. (1999). A CALL tool for improving second language acquisition of English consonants by Japanese learners. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 12, 137156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lenneberg, E. (1967). The biological foundations of language. New York: John Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Logan, J., Lively, S., & Pisoni, D. (1991). Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/: A first report. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 89(2), 874886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lotto, A., Sato, M., & Diehl, R. (2004). Mapping the task for the second language learner: The case of Japanese acquisition of /r/ and /l/. In Sliftka, J et al. (Eds.), From sound to sense: 50+ years of discoveries in speech communication (pp. C181–C186). Cambridge, MA: Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT.Google Scholar
MacKain, K., Best, C., & Strange, W. (1981). Categorical perception of English /r/ and /l/ by Japanese bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 2, 369390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacKay, I. R. A., Meador, D., & Flege, J. E. (2001). The identification of English consonants by native speakers of Italian. Phonetica, 58, 103125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGowan, R. S., Nittrouer, S., & Manning, C. J. (2004). Development of [ɹ] in young, Midwestern, American children. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 115(2), 871884.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mielke, J., Baker, A., & Archangeli, D. (2016). Individual-level contact limits phonological complexity: Evidence from bunched and retroflex /ɹ/. Language, 92(1), 101140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miyawaki, K., Jenkins, J., Strange, W., Liberman, A., Verbrugge, R., & Fujimura, O. (1975). An effect of linguistic experience: The discrimination of (r) and (l) by native speakers of Japanese and English. Perception & Psychophysics, 18(5), 331340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riney, T., & Flege, J. E. (1998). Changes over time in global foreign accent and liquid identifiability and accuracy. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 213243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riney, T., Takada, M., & Ota, M. (2000). Segmentals and global foreign accent: The Japanese flap in EFL. TESOL Quarterly, 34(4), 711737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saito, K., & Munro, M. (2014). The early phase of /ɹ/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English. Language and Speech, 57(4), 451469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shimizu, K., & Dantsuji, M. (1983). A study of the perception of /r/ and /l/ in natural and synthetic speech sounds. Studia Phonologica, 17, 114.
Shinohara, Y., & Iverson, P. (2018). High variability identification and discrimination training for Japanese speakers learning English /r/-/l/. Journal of Phonetics, 66, 242251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smit, A., Hand, L., Freilinger, J., Bernthal, J., & Bird, A. (1990). The Iowa articulation norms project and its Nebraska replication. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 55, 779798.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Song, J. Y., Shattuck-Hufnagel, S., & Demuth, K. (2015). Development of phonetic variants (allophones) in 2-year-olds learning American English: A study of alveolar stop /t, d/ codas. Journal of Phonetics, 52, 152169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strange, W. (2011). Automatic selective perception (ASP) of first and second language speech: A working model. Journal of Phonetics, 39(4), 456466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Takagi, N. (1993). Perception of American English /r/ and /l/ by adult Japanese learners of English: A Unified View. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of California at Irvine.Google Scholar
Takagi, N., & Mann, V. (1995). The limits of extended naturalistic exposure on the perceptual mastery of English /r/ and /l/ by adult Japanese learners of English. Applied Psycholinguistics, 16(4), 380406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vance, T. (2008). The sounds of Japanese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Westbury, J., Hashi, M., & Lindstrom, M. J. (1998). Differences among speakers in lingual articulation for American English /ɹ/. Speech Communication, 26(3), 203226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamada, J. (1991). The discrimination learning of the liquids/r/ and /l/ by Japanese speakers. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 20(1), 3146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamada, R. A. (1995). Age and acquisition of second language speech sounds: Perception of American English /r/ and /l/ by native speakers of Japanese. In Strange, W (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issue in cross-language research (pp. 305–320). Timonium, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
Yamada, R. A., & Tohkura, Y. (1990). Perception and production of syllable-initial English /r/ and /l/ by native speakers of Japanese. In ICSLP-1990, First International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (pp. 757760).Google Scholar
Yamada, R., & Tohkura, Y. (1992). The effects of experimental variables on the perception of American English /r/ and /l/ by Japanese listeners. Perception & Psychophysics, 52(4), 376392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamada, R. A., Tohkura, Y., & Kobayashi, N. (1997). Effect of word familiarity on non-native phoneme perception: identification of English /r/, /l/, and /w/ by native speakers of Japanese. In James, A & Leather, J (Eds.), Second-language speech, structure and process (pp. 103118). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yoshida, K., & Hirasaka, F. (1983). The lexicon in speech perception. Sophia Linguistica, 11, 105116.Google Scholar

References

Antoniou, M., Best, C. T., Tyler, M. D., & Kroos, C. (2010). Language context elicits native-like stop voicing in early bilinguals’ productions in both L1 and L2. Journal of Phonetics, 38, 640653.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Birdsong, D. (2003). Authenticité de prononciation en français L2 chez des apprenants tardifs anglophones: Analyses segmentales e globales. Acquisition et Interaction en Langue Étrangère, 18, 1736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bohn, O. S., & Flege, J. E. (1993). Perceptual switching in Spanish/English bilinguals. Journal of Phonetics, 21(3), 267290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bos, M., Schoevers, R. A., & ann het Rot, M. (2015). Experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies in psychopharmacology: A systematic review. European Neuropharmacology. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.08.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dmitrieva, O., Llanos, F., Shultz, A. A., & Francis, A. L. (2015). Phonological status, not voice onset time, determines the acoustic realization of onset f0 as a secondary voicing cue in Spanish and English. Journal of Phonetics, 49, 7795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1982). Laryngeal timing and phonation onset in utterance-initial English stops. Journal of Phonetics, 10, 177192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (2003). A method for assessing the perception of vowels in a second language. In Fava, E & Mioni, A (Eds.), Issues in clinical linguistics (pp. 1944). Padvoa: Unipress.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E. (2005). Origins and development of the Speech Learning Model. Paper presented at the 1st Acoustical Society of America Workshop in L2 speech Learning, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.10181.19681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. (2009). Give input a chance! In Piske, T & Young-Scholten, M (Eds.), Input matters in SLA (pp. 175190). Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E. (2019). A non-critical period for second-language speech learning. In Nyvad, A. M., Hejná, M et al. (Eds.), A sound approach to language matters – In honor of Ocke-Schwen Bohn (pp. 501541). Aarhus: Department of English, School of Communication & Culture, Aarhus University.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E., Aoyama, K., & Bohn, O.-S. (2020). The revised Speech Learning Model (SLM-r) applied. In Wayland, R (Ed.), Second language speech learning: Theoretical and empirical progress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E., & Eefting, W. (1988). Imitation of a VOT continuum by native speakers of Spanish and English: Evidence for phonetic category formation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 83, 729740.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flege, J. E., & MacKay, I. R. (2004). Perceiving vowels in a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., Schmidt, A. M., & Wharton, G. (1996). Age of learning affects rate-dependent processing of stops in a second language. Phonetica, 53, 143161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E., & Wayland, R. (2019). The role of input in native Spanish Late learners’ production and perception of English phonetic segments. Journal of Second Language Studies, 2(1), 145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grosjean, F. (1998). Studying bilinguals: Methodological and conceptual issues. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 131149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grosjean, F. (2001). The bilingual’s language modes. In Nicol, J (Ed.), One mind, two languages: Bilingual language processing (pp. 122). Oxford, England: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Hartshorne, J., Tenenbaum, J., & Pinker, S. (2018). A critical period for second language acquisition: Evidence from 2/3 million English speakers. Cognition, 177, 263277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heron, K. E., Everhart, R. S., McHale, S. M., & Smyth, J. M. (2017). Using mobile-technology-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods with youth: A systematic review and recommendations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 42(10), 10871107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hillenbrand, J., Getty, L. A., Clark, M. J., & Wheeler, K. (1995). Acoustic characteristics of American English vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97(5), 30993111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larson, R., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1983). The experience sampling method. In. Resi, H. T. (Ed.), Naturalistic approaches to studying social interactions: New directions for methodology of social and behavioral sciences (Vol. 15, pp. 4156). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
MacKay, I. A. R., Meador, D., & Flege, J. E. (2001). The identification of English consonants by native speakers of Italian. Phonetica, 58, 103125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meador, D., Flege, J. E., & MacKay, I. R. (2000). Factors affecting the recognition of words in a second language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3(1), 5567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sancier, M. L., & Fowler, C. A. (1997). Gestural drift in a bilingual speaker of Brazilian Portuguese and English. Journal of Phonetics, 25(4), 421436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Theodore, R., Miller, J., & DeSteno, D. (2009). Individual talker differences in voice-onset-time: Contextual influences. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125, 39743982.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

Antoniou, M., Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. (2013). Focusing the lens of language experience: Perception of Ma’di stops by Greek and English bilinguals and monolinguals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133(4), 23972411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aoyama, K., Flege, J. E., Guion, S. G., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Yamada, T. (2004). Perceived phonetic dissimilarity and L2 speech learning: The case of Japanese /r/ and English /l/ and /r. Journal of Phonetics, 32(2), 233250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balas, A. (2018). English vowel perception by Polish advanced learners of English. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique, 63(3), 309338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Best, C. T. (1994a). The emergence of native-language phonological influences in infants: A perceptual assimilation model. In Goodman, J. C. & Nusbaum, H. C. (Eds.), The development of speech perception: The transition from speech sounds to spoken words (pp. 167244). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Best, C. T. (1994b). Learning to perceive the sound pattern of English. In Rovee-Collier, C & Lipsitt, L. P. (Eds.), Advances in infancy research (Vol. 9, pp. 217304). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
Best, C. T. (1995). A direct realist view of cross-language speech perception. In Strange, W (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 171204). Baltimore: York Press.Google Scholar
Best, C. T. (2015). Devil or angel in the details? Perceiving phonetic variation as information about phonological structure. In Romero, J & Riera, M (Eds.), Phonetics-phonology interface: Representations and methodologies (pp. 331). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Best, C. T. (2019). The diversity of tone languages and the roles of pitch variation in non-tone languages: Considerations for tone perception research. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 364.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Best, C. T., Goldstein, L. M., Nam, H., & Tyler, M. D. (2016). Articulating what infants attune to in native speech. Ecological Psychology, 28(4), 216261.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Best, C. T., & McRoberts, G. W. (2003). Infant perception of non-native consonant contrasts that adults assimilate in different ways. Language and Speech, 46(2–3), 183216.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Best, C. T., McRoberts, G. W., & Goodell, E. (2001). Discrimination of non-native consonant contrasts varying in perceptual assimilation to the listener’s native phonological system. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109(2), 775794.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Best, C. T., McRoberts, G. W., & Sithole, N. M. (1988). Examination of perceptual reorganization for nonnative speech contrasts: Zulu click discrimination by English-speaking adults and infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 14(3), 345360.Google ScholarPubMed
Best, C. T., & Strange, W. (1992). Effects of phonological and phonetic factors on cross-language perception of approximants. Journal of Phonetics, 20(3), 305330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Best, C. T., Traill, A., Carter, A., Harrison, K. D., & Faber, A. (2003). !Xóõ click perception by English, Isizulu, and Sesotho listeners. In Solé, M. J., Recasens, D, & Romero, J (Eds.), Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 853856). Barcelona: Causal Productions.Google Scholar
Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. (2007). Nonnative and second-language speech perception: Commonalities and complementarities. In Munro, M. J. & Bohn, O.-S. (Eds.), Language experience in second language speech learning: In honor of James Emil Flege (pp. 1334). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Best, C. T., Tyler, M. D., Gooding, T. N., Orlando, C. B., & Quann, C. A. (2009). Development of phonological constancy: Toddlers’ perception of native-and Jamaican-accented words. Psychological Science, 20(5), 539542.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bohn, O.-S. (2017). Cross-language and second language speech perception. In Fernández, E. M. & Cairns, H. S. (Eds.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 213239). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradlow, A. R., Akahane-Yamada, R., Pisoni, D. B., & Tohkura, Y. (1999). Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/: Long-term retention of learning in perception and production. Perception and Psychophysics, 61, 977985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bundgaard-Nielsen, R. L., Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. (2011). Vocabulary size is associated with second-language vowel perception performance in adult learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 433461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cutler, A. (2012). Native listening. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Escudero, P., Hayes-Harb, R., & Mitterer, H. (2008). Novel second-language words and asymmetric lexical access. Journal of Phonetics, 36, 345360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faris, M. M., Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. (2016). An examination of the different ways that non-native phones may be perceptually assimilated as uncategorized. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 139(1), EL1–EL5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Faris, M. M., Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. (2018). Discrimination of uncategorised non-native vowel contrasts is modulated by perceived overlap with native phonological categories. Journal of Phonetics, 70, 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fenwick, S. E., Best, C. T., Davis, C., & Tyler, M. D. (2017). The influence of auditory-visual speech and clear speech on cross-language perceptual assimilation. Speech Communication, 92, 114124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerrits, E., & Schouten, M. (2004). Categorical perception depends on the discrimination task. Perception & Psychophysics, 66(3), 363376.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goto, H. (1971). Auditory perception by normal Japanese adults of the sounds ‘l’ and ‘r’. Neuropsychologia, 9(3), 317323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guion, S. G., Flege, J. E., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Pruitt, J. C. (2000). An investigation of current models of second language speech perception: The case of Japanese adults’ perception of English consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107, 27112724.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harnsberger, J. D. (2001). On the relationship between identification and discrimination of non-native nasal consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110(1), 489503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hattori, K., & Iverson, P. (2009). English /r/-/l/ category assimilation by Japanese adults: Individual differences and the link to identification accuracy. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125, 469479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iverson, P., Kuhl, P. K., Akahane-Yamada, R., Diesch, E., Tohkura, Y., Kettermann, A., & Siebert, C. (2003). A perceptual interference account of acquisition difficulties for non-native phonemes. Cognition, 87, B47B57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jenkins, J. J., Strange, W., & Polka, L. (1995). Not everyone can tell a ‘rock’ from a ‘lock’: Assessing individual differences in speech perception. In Lubinski, D. J. & Dawis, R. V. (Eds.), Assessing individual differences in human behavior: New concepts, methods, and findings (pp. 297325). Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.Google Scholar
Levy, E. S. (2009). On the assimilation-discrimination relationship in American English adults’ French vowel learning. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 126(5), 26702682.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacKain, K. S., Best, C. T., & Strange, W. (1981). Categorical perception of English /r/ and /l/ by Japanese bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 2, 369390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miyawaki, K., Jenkins, J. J., Strange, W., Liberman, A. M., Verbrugge, R., & Fujimura, O. (1975). An effect of linguistic experience: The discrimination of [r] and [l] by native speakers of Japanese and English. Perception & Psychophysics, 18(5), 331340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polka, L. (1991). Cross-language speech perception in adults: Phonemic, phonetic, and acoustic contributions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 89, 29612977.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reid, A., Burnham, D., Kasisopa, B., Reilly, R., Attina, V., Rattanasone, N. X., & Best, C. T. (2015). Perceptual assimilation of lexical tone: The roles of language experience and visual information. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 77(2), 571591.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
So, C. K., & Best, C. T. (2010). Cross-language perception of non-native tonal contrasts: Effects of native phonological and phonetic influences. Language and Speech, 53(2), 273293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
So, C. K., & Best, C. T. (2014). Phonetic influences on English and French listeners’ assimilation of Mandarin tones to native prosodic categories. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36(2), 195221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strange, W. (2011). Automatic selective perception (ASP) of first and second language speech: A working model. Journal of Phonetics, 39, 456466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strange, W., & Shafer, V. L. (2008). Speech perception in second language learners: The re-education of selective perception. In Hansen Edwards, J. G. & Zampini, M. L. (Eds.), Phonology and second language acquisition (pp. 159198). Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Tyler, M. D. (2019). PAM-L2 and phonological category acquisition in the foreign language classroom. In Nyvad, A. M., Hejná, M, Højen, A, Jespersen, A. B., & Sørensen, M. H. (Eds.), A sound approach to language matters – In honor of Ocke-Schwen Bohn (pp. 607630). Aarhus, Denmark: Department of English, School of Communication and Culture, Aarhus University.Google Scholar
Tyler, M. D., Best, C. T., Faber, A., & Levitt, A. G. (2014). Perceptual assimilation and discrimination of non-native vowel contrasts. Phonetica, 71(1), 421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tyler, M. D., Best, C. T., Goldstein, L. M., & Antoniou, M. (2014). Investigating the role of articulatory organs and perceptual assimilation in infants’ discrimination of native and non-native fricative place contrasts. Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 210227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wayland, R. P., & Guion, S. G. (2004). Training English and Chinese listeners to perceive Thai tones: A preliminary report. Language Learning, 54(4), 681712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weber, A., & Cutler, A. (2004). Lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 50(1), 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Werker, J. F., & Logan, J. S. (1985). Cross-language evidence for three factors in speech perception. Perception & Psychophysics, 37, 3544.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

Archibald, J. (1992). Transfer of L1 parameter settings: Some empirical evidence from Polish metrics. Canadian Journal of Linguistics, 37, 301339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Archibald, J. (1993). Learnability of English metrical parameters by adult Spanish speakers. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 31/32, 129142.Google Scholar
Archibald, J. (1994). A formal model of learning L2 prosodic phonology. Second Language Research, 10, 215240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Archibald, J. (1997). The acquisition of English stress by speakers of nonaccentual languages: Lexical storage versus computation of stress. Linguistics, 35, 167181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chao, Y.-R. (1968). A grammar of spoken Chinese. Oakland: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Chrabaszcz, A., Winn, M., Lin, C. Y., & Idsardi, W. J. (2014). Acoustic cues to perception of word stress by English, Mandarin, and Russian speakers. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57, 14681479. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-L-13-0279.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clopper, C. G. (2002). Frequency of stress patterns in English: A computational analysis. Indiana University Linguistics Club Working Papers Online, 2. Retrieved from www.indiana.edu/iulcwpGoogle Scholar
Comrie, B. (1967). Irregular stress in Polish and Macedonian. International Review of Slavic Linguistics, 1, 227240.Google Scholar
Connell, K., Hüls, S., Martínez-García, M. T., Qin, Z., Shin, S., Yan, H., & Tremblay, A. (2018). English learners’ use of segmental and suprasegmental cues to stress in lexical access: An eye-tracking study. Language Learning, 68, 635668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, N., Cutler, A., & Wales, R. (2002). Constraints of lexical stress on lexical access in English: Evidence from native and non-native listeners. Language and Speech, 45, 207228. doi:10.1177/00238309020450030101CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cutler, A., & Carter, D. M. (1987). The predominance of strong initial syllables in the English vocabulary. Computer Speech and Language, 2, 133142. doi:10.1016/0885-2308(87)90004-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, S. M., & Kelly, M. H. (1997). Knowledge of the English noun-verb stress difference by native and nonnative speakers. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 445460. doi:10.1006/jmla.1996.2503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delattre, P. (1966). A comparison of syllable length conditioning among languages. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 4, 183198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Domahs, U., Knaus, J., Orzechowska, P., & Wiese, R. (2012). Stress “deafness” in a Language with Fixed Word Stress: An ERP Study on Polish. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 439. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dresher, B. E., & Kaye, J. D. (1990). A computational learning model for metrical phonology. Cognition, 34, 137195. doi:0.1016/0010-0277(90)90042-iCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duanmu, S. (2007). The phonology of standard Chinese. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Dupoux, E., Pallier, C., Sebastián, N., & Mehler, J. (1997). A destressing “deafness” in French? Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 406421. doi:10.1006/jmla.1996.2500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dupoux, E., Peperkamp, S., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2001). A robust method to study stress “deafness.Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110, 16061618. doi:10.1121/1.1380437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dupoux, E., Peperkamp, S., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2010). Limits on bilingualism revisited: Stress “deafness” in simultaneous French-Spanish bilinguals. Cognition, 114, 266275. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2009.10.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dupoux, E., Sebastián-Gallés, N., Navarrete, E., & Peperkamp, S. (2008). Persistent stress “deafness”: The case of French learners of Spanish. Cognition, 106, 682706. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2007.04.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gandour, J. T. (1983). Tone perception in far eastern languages. Journal of Phonetics, 11, 149175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guion, S. G. (2005). Knowledge of English word stress patterns in early and late Korean-English bilinguals. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 503533. doi:10.1017/s0272263105050230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guion, S. G., Clark, J. J., Harada, T., & Wayland, R. P. (2003). Factors affecting stress placement for English non-words include syllabic structure, lexical class, and stress patterns of phonologically similar words. Language and Speech, 46, 403427. doi:10.1177/00238309030460040301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guion, S. G., Harada, T., & Clark, J. J. (2004). Early and late Spanish–English bilinguals’ acquisition of English word stress patterns. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7, 207226. doi:10.1017/s1366728904001592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, J. W. (1983). Syllable structure and stress in Spanish: A nonlinear analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Howie, J. M. (1976). Acoustical studies of Mandarin vowels and tones. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hualde, J. I. (2005). The sounds of Spanish. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Jongman, A., & Tremblay, A. (in press). Word prosody in L2. In Chen, A & Gussenhoven, C (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of language prosody. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar